Hypertension: JNC VII and Beyond

Hypertension: JNC VII and Beyond

Hypertension: A Focus on JNC VII Wendy L. Wright, MS, RN, ARNP, FNP, FAANP Adult/Family Nurse Practitioner Owner Wright & Associates Family Healthcare, PLLC Partner Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 1 Objectives Upon completion of this lecture, the participant will be able to: Identify the various classifications of prehypertension, Stage I and Stage 2 hypertension Discuss nonpharmacologic treatment options for the patient with hypertension

Discuss pharmacologic treatment options for the patient with hypertension Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 2 CVD Is the Most Common Health Problem in the United States More than 60 million Americans (>20%) have some form of cardiovascular disease Adapted from American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2003 Update. Dallas, Tex; 2002. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 3

Deaths in Thousands CVD disease mortality trends for males and females 550 500 450 400 79 80 85 90 95

00 04 Years Males Females CVD disease mortality trends for males and females (United States: 1979-2004). Wright, 2009 Source: NCHS and NHLBI. 4 Evolution in Understanding Cardiovascular Disease: Total Risk

Perspective Dyslipidemia Age Smoking Hypertension Gender Diabetes Mellitus Cardiovascular Disease Is an Interplay of Risk Factors Kannel WB. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13:3S-10S; Poulter N. Am J Hypertens. 1999;12:92S-95S. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 5

Hypertension and Dyslipidemia Contribute to Atherogenesis Hypertension Dyslipidemia Impaired Bioavailability of Nitric Oxide Smooth Muscle Cell Contraction Impaired Vasodilation Endothelial Dysfunction Atherosclerosis

CVD Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 6 Impact of Elevated SBP and Total Cholesterol on CHD Mortality in MRFIT 33.7 22.6 Age-Adjusted CHD Death Rates Per 10,000 Person-Years 17.1 12.7

17.7 12.3 16.7 7.9 5 41 132-1 5.6 31 125-1 24 118-1 6.3

6 3.4 245 5.9 8.5 7.9 12.2 9.6 8.3 10.9

13.7 142 21 5.5 4.3 3.1 221-244 203-220 182-202 <182 Cholesterol Quintile (mg/dL)

<118 SBP Quintile (mm Hg) MRFIT = Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Adapted from Neaton JD et al. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:56-64. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 7 Hypertension and Dyslipidemia: A Significantly Undertreated Syndrome 27 Million Affected by Both Hypertension and Dyslipidemia 14.7 million undiagnosed 9 million diagnosed with both

3 million treated for both 300,000 at both goals (~ 1%) Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 Adapted from American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics2003 Update; CDC; NHANES III (1988-1994). 8 Impact of Hypertension 50 million individuals in the United States have hypertension1 277,000 deaths annually in US due to hypertension2 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines For Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypertension. Endocrine Practice, Vol 12 No. 2 March/April 2006

2 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2005, with Chartbook on the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, Maryland: 2004. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm 1 9 Hypertension Remains One of the Most Important Multipliers of CV Risk BP >140/90 mm Hg is associated with: 277,000 deaths in 2003 BP, blood pressure; CHF, congestive heart failure; MI, myocardial infarction. Rosamond W et al. Circulation. 2007;115:1-103. It is currently estimated

that 90% of normotensive 55 year olds will develop hypertension at some point in his/her lifetime Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 11 Hypertension: Controlled or Not? 80 Controlled on medication Uncontrolled on medication Diagnosed Prevalence (%) 60

40 20 0 Hypertension Adapted from NHANES III Morning Examination Subset: Hypertension (June 1998); Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 12 Statistics of Interest 53% of patients with hypertension are being treated with medications Of those treated, 29% have their blood pressure < 140/90

Lookinland, S. and Beckstrand, R. Evidence-Based Treatment of Hypertension: JNC 7 Guidelines Provide an Updated Framework; Advance for Nurse Practitioners, Sept 2003. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 13 Hypertension and Management: Old School Hypertension = Systemic disease Hemodynamics altered Treat the blood pressure Therapeutic options Beta Blockers ACE ARB

Diuretics CCB Others Adapted from Vascular Biology Working Group, University of Florida 14 College of Medicine, Carl Pepine, MD, Director Hypertension and Management: New School Hypertension = Disease of the blood vessels Vascular biology altered Treat the vasculature Therapeutic options Beta

Blockers ACE ARB Diuretics CCB Others Adapted from Vascular Biology Working Group, University of Florida 15 College of Medicine, Carl Pepine, MD, Director Physiology of the Renin Angiotensin System Activation of

Baroreceptor Reflexes Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity BLOOD PRESSURE BLOOD VOLUME Beta-adrenergic Stimulation RENIN SECRECTION Renal Artery Pressure Renal

Baroreceptor Plasma Ang I Plasma Ang II Systemic Vasoconstriction Aldosterone Secretion Ang, angiotensin. Reid IA. Adv Physiol Edu. 1998;20:S236-S245. BLOOD PRESSURE BLOOD VOLUME

RAAS and Adipose Tissue All components of the RAAS system are expressed in adipose tissue, especially the visceral adipose tissue1,2,3 Visceral adipose tissue of patients with insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes is dysfunctional and is a source of 4 chronic low-grade inflammation 1 Sowers, James R. Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286: H1597-H1602 2 Ashish, A, El-Atat, R, et al. Hypertension and Obesity Recent Prog Horm Res. 2004;59:169-205. 3 Kershaw EE, Flier JS. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;

17 98:2548-2556.. RAAS and Endothelial Dysfunction Growing body of evidence Promotion of endothelial dysfunction Microalbuminuria1,2 RAAS Inhibition (ACE, ARB and Direct Renin Inhibitor) Decreased incidence of new onset Type 2 diabetes Improvement in CVD outcomes3 Higashi, Y, Sasaki S, Nakagawa K, et al. Endothelial Function and Oxidative Stress In Renovascular Hypertension N Engl J Med 2002;346:1954-1962. 18

Today The Hypertensive Patient Exhibits... More insulin resistance More hyperinsulinemia Dyslipidemia Microalbuminuria Obesity ...as compared to nonhypertensive patients! Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human. Disease Diabetes.19 1988.37;1595-1607. Blocking the RAAS has been shown to be beneficial in

Cardiovascular Disease Hypertension Diabetes 20 JNC VII: Messages to Clinicians JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 21 New Messages JNC VII The risk of CVD, beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, doubles

with each increment of 20/10 mm Hg. JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 22 CV Disease Risk Doubles with Each 20/10 mm Hg BP Increment* 8 7 6 5 CV disease 4 3 risk 2

1 0 115/75 135/85 155/95 SBP/DBP (mm Hg) 175/105 *Individuals aged 40-70 years, starting at BP 115/75 mm Hg. CV, cardiovascular; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure 1. Lewington S, Cardiovascular Issues in Ageing Pilots. et al. Lancet. 2002; 60:1903-1913 23 2. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Pressure. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289.19.2560v1. Assessed 5-1-08

Diagnosis 2 readings; separated apart Patient should not ingest caffeine or smoke for 30 minutes before readings Patient should sit for 5 minutes with arm at heart level before blood pressure is checked Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 24 JNC 7: New Blood Pressure Classification Blood Pressure Classification SBP* DBP* (mm Hg) Normal <120 and <80

Prehypertension 120-139 or 80-89 Stage 1 hypertension 140-159 or 90-99 Stage 2 hypertension 160 or 100 *Treatment determined by highest BP category (SBP or DBP). Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 Adapted from Chobanian AV et al. JAMA. 2003;289:2560-2572; NHBPEPCC. 2003. NIH Publication No. 03-5233. 25 Prehypertension Individuals with a systolic BP of 120139 mm HG or a diastolic BP or 8089 mm HG should be considered as pre-hypertensive and lifestyle

modification initiated. JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 26 Most Cases of Hypertension Primary hypertension Also called essential Responsible for 90-95% of all hypertension diagnoses Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 27 Consider Secondary Causes of HTN

Sleep apnea Drug-induced or drug related Including OTC medications Chronic kidney disease Polycystic kidneys Renal artery stenosis Primary aldosteronism Renovascular disease

Chronic steroid therapy and Cushings disease Pheochromocytoma Coarctation of the Aorta Thyroid or parathyroid disease JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 28 What about White-Coat Hypertension? Patient involvement in the measurement of his/ her blood pressure is recommended, particularly for those individuals whose blood pressure is normal out of the office but consistently elevated in the office The office blood pressure of elders is 5 mm Hg higher than their ambulatory blood pressure Older the individual, the greater the

discrepancy between home and office blood pressures No longer considered a benign condition JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 29 Initial Work-up History and review of systems Medications and risk factors Consider home blood pressure readings with validated blood pressure cuff Laboratory workup: CBC, BUN, Creatinine, Glucose, Lipids, GFR, urine protein EKG and/or Echocardiogram, if indicated Urine for

Pickering, TG, Hall JE,microalbuminuria et al. AHA Scientific Statement: Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals. Part 1: Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans Hypertension. 2005;45:142-161. 30 Treatment of Hypertension Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 31 How Helpful is control of BP? In stage 1 HTN, combined with additional CVD risk factors,

achieving a sustained 12 mmHg reduction in SBP over 10 years will prevent 1 death for every 11 patients treated. JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 32 Benefits of Lowering Blood Pressure Average Percent Reduction Stoke: 35% - 40% MI: 20% - 25%

CHF: 50% The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, 33 And Treatment of High Blood Pressure. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289.19.2560v1. Assessed 5-1-08 Treatment Goals < 140/90 mm Hg for those with no complications < 130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes or CRF (per ADA) < 130/80 mm Hg all individuals per NKF Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 34

JNC 7: Algorithm for Treatment of Hypertension Prehypertension (SBP 120-139 mm Hg or DBP 80-89 mm Hg) LIFESTYLE MODIFICATIONS Not at Goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease) Prehypertension INITIAL DRUG CHOICES Without Compelling Indications Stage 1 Hypertension (SBP 140-159 or DBP 90-99 mm Hg) Stage 2 Hypertension (SBP 160 or DBP 100 mm Hg) Thiazide-type diuretics for most;

may consider ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB, or combination. 2-drug combinations for most (usually thiazide-type diuretics and ACEI, or ARB, or BB, or CCB). With Compelling Indications Drug(s) for compelling indications Other antihypertensive drugs (diuretic, ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB) as needed. If not at goal BP, optimize dosages or add additional drugs until goal BP is achieved. Consider consultation with hypertension specialist. Adapted from NHBPEPCC. 2003. NIH Publication No. 03-5233. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009

35 Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 36 New Messages JNC VII The most effective therapy prescribed by the most careful clinician will control hypertension.onl y if the patient is motivated. JAMA, May 21, 2003 Vol 289;No 19. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 37

Lifestyle Modifications to Manage Hypertension Modification Recommendation Systolic Diastolic Chgs Weight Reduction BMI 18.5-24.9 5-20mm/10 kg wt loss Adopt DASH eating Diet rich in fruits 8-14 mm Hg vegetables and low fat with reduced saturated and total fat Dietary Sodium

2.4g Na 2-8 mm Hg Physical Inactivity Brisk exercise 30 day 4-9 mm Hg most days of week Moderation of Alcohol intake 2 drinks day max 2-4 mm Hg 24 oz beer; 10 oz wine 2 oz 100 proof whiskey JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 38 Lifestyle Modifications Dietary sodium reduction Most helpful in African Americans and

patients with diabetes Recommend limiting sodium to < 2000 mg/day for these individuals Average individual ingests 4000 mg / day ACE inhibitors and diuretics work best with a relatively low sodium diet Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 39 How Successful Is It? Combination of the DASH diet and a dietary sodium reduction to 1600 mg/day is as effective as 1 medication Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009

40 Alcohol Intake Limit alcohol intake to < 30 mL or 1 ounce of ethanol/day Translation: 2 ounces of whiskey 10 ounces of wine 24 ounces of beer Excessive amounts increases treatment resistance Also increases risk of a CVA ** Women: this amount Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 41 Electrolytes Diets high in potassium, calcium and

magnesium are associated with a lower blood pressure JNC VII recommends an adequate dietary intake of these but does not recommend supplementing from an outside source to lower blood pressure Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 42 Additional Recommendations Omega-3 fatty acids may lower blood pressure Caffeine may increase it but tolerance often develops Most studies do not support a relationship between hypertension and caffeine

Smoking: discontinuation is important Exercise: 30 minutes daily recommended Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 43 Pharmacologic Treatments Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 44 New Messages JNC VII Thiazide diuretics should be used

in drug treatment for patients with uncomplicated hypertension. JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 45 Thiazide Diuretics Dosing: Start @ 12.5 mg of HCTZ Increase to 25 mg at 6 weeks Benefits 55% reduction in CHF 37% reduction in CVA 27% reduction in cardiac events

If not adequately controlled, add additional agents Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 46 Diuretic Precautions Electrolyte imbalances Syncope/presyncope when combined with ACE/ARB Hemoconcentration Decrease in urate excretion Worsening of insulin resistance at higher doses Fatigue Product inserts accessed 04-20-2008 47

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors Increased nitrous oxide at vessel for vasodilatation Improved glucose disposal Reduction in LV geometry changes Reduction in inflammation Stabilization of fibrous cap of lipid lesion Decreased proteinuria Improves endothelial function Reduced mortality in patients with CHF Decreases post-MI mortality Sato Atsuhisa, Pleiotropic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; differentiation 48 st Among ace inhibitors may lead to further organ protection. Abstr 21 Sci Meet Int Soc Hypertens 2006. 423(2006)

ACE Inhibitor Trials 1985 CHF LVD Post-AMI 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

1992 1993 1994 2000 2001 CONSENSUS I ValHeFT II SOLVD treatment SAVE AIRE TRACE Anterior

AMI SMILE CATS CONSENSUS II GISSI-3 ISIS-4 AMI CCS-1 PEACE HOPE CAD Latini, et al. Curr Perspect. 1995;92:3132-7 49

ACE Inhibitors Precautions Hyperkalemia Increase in creatinine May improve insulin sensitivity Decrease in serum Na+ may result in syncope and dizziness when used with diuretics Angioedema Cough Product inserts accessed 04-20-2009 50

Effects on Hypoglycemia Several studies have shown the ability of ACE inhibition to improve glycemic control even decrease the risk of hypoglycemia in patients using sulfonylureas. Thamer M, Ray NF, Taylor T. Association between antihypertensive drug use and hypoglycemia: A case-control study of diabetic users of insulin or sylfonylureas. Clin Therapeutics 1999; 21:1387 51 ACE Inhibitors Are Highly Effective.. But

52 Long Term Effect of Enalapril (20mg) on Plasma ACE and Angiotensin II Plasma ACE (mmol/ml/min) * = p<0.001 versus placebo * * * * * *

* * Vascular Biology Working Group, University of Florida College of Medicine, Carl Pepine, MD, Director Plasma ANG II (pg/ml) * Placebo 4h 24h Hospital 1

2 3 4 Months 5 6 Modified from Journ Cardiovasc Pharm 1982; 966-72 53 If you block the receptor site, you dont have to worry

about the angiotension levels AT1 54 Angiotensin Receptor Blockers 55 Angiotension Receptor Blockers (ARBs) Utilized since April 1995 Blocks uptake at receptor site Angiotension II produced in locations other than in the lungs BP decreased by reducing vascular tone and enhancing

NA+ and water clearance 56 Metabolic Effects of ARBs Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers Metabolically neutral No impact on lipids No impact on insulin No impact on K+ Lowers uric acid levels Minimal side effect profile Product Inserts accessed 04-20-2009

57 ARB Trials 1995 CHF CV 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 ValHeFT ELITE I ELITE II CHARM LIFE ON TARGET

OPTIMAAL MI Renal/CV Renal VALIANT IRMA II MARVAL VALUE IDNT RENAAL IPreserve 58 ACE vs ARB ONTARGET Trial Goal:

1. Assess the effects of ACE VS ARB in terms of efficacy 2. Assess if the combination ACE & ARB was superior Results: Telmisartan was found to be noninferior to ramipril in patients with vascular disease or high risk diabetes Combination of these two agents was associated with more adverse events without an increase in benefit. Yusuf, S, Teo KK, Pogue, J et al for the ONTARGET investigators. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients At high risk for vascular events N Engl J Med 2008;358:1547-1559. 59 Beta Blockers

Reduction in blood pressure Decreased contractility Decreased heart rate Decreased myocardial oxygen demand Reduction in LVH Reduced arrhythmias The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Pressure. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289.19.2560v1. Assessed 5-1-08 60 Beta Adrenergic Receptors 3 receptors are found in human cardiac myocytes that are coupled to a positive inotropic response and cell growth. Beta1

Beta2 Alpha1 Hunt, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 Chronic Heart Failure Guideline Update. JACC.2005; 46:1116-43. 61 Beta Blocker Trials SHEP Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program Step Approach Chlorthalidone/Atenolol Reduced incidence of major CV events and CVA; chlorthalidone decreased CHF

STOP HTN 2 Swedish Trial in Old Persons with Hypertension Beta Blocker Vs CCB VS ACE on CV Morbidity ACE /BB similar efficacy in preventing CV mortality. CAPPP Captopril Prevention Project

Beta Blocker + Diuretic vs Captopril Captopril not better than conventional HTN Rx in prevention of CV morbidity and mortality; Diabetic patients on captopril did better than BB +Diuretics in decreasing morbidity 62 Calcium Channel Blockers 63

Calcium Channel Blockers Effectively treat systolic hypertension May be superior to other antihypertensives for stroke prevention Effective in patients with: Comorbid conditions (Raynauds, migraine)1 Particularly effective in Elderly and African Americans2 1. Materson BJ, Reda DJ, eta l. Single drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six Antihypertensive agents with placebo. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:914-921. 2. Tuomilehto J, Rastenyte D, et al. Effects of calcium channel blockade in older patients with Diabetes and hypertension. N Engl J med. 1999;340:677-684. 64 The Calcium Blockers Dihydropyridines

Studies of DPHs effects on proteinuria have produced conflicting results NKF recommends that in patients who have diabetes and kidney disease, DPHs should only be used in combination with and ACE or ARB Thornley-Brown D, et al for the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Study Group. Differing effects of antihypertensive drugs on the incidence Of Diabetes mellitus among patients with hypertensive kidney disease. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(7):797-805. Nondihydropyridines

Regression of proteinuria Combination of Verapamil + ACE, reduction in proteinuria can be greater than achievable with verapamil alone. NKF now recommends adding a NDH to treat hypertension with an ACE inhibitor or an ARB to slow the progression of kidney disease. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004; 65 43(suppl 1):S1-S290.

Alpha Blockers 66 Alpha Blockers Block postsynaptic Alpha1 Receptors Results in vasodilatation Relatively inexpensive Fair tolerability; May cause postural effects Additive agent for older men to decrease BPH symptomatology

Add-on agent only Should never be used as monotherapy due to increased risk of stroke and CHF The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Pressure. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289.19.2560v1. Assessed 5-1-08 67 Centrally Acting Blockers 68 Centrally Acting Agents Stimulates central alpha2 receptors which results in: Inhibiting efferent sympathetic activity

Additive agents Should be used 3rd or 4th line Examples: Clonidine (catapress, catapress TTS); methyldopa Caution: sedation, orthostatic hypotension The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Pressure. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289.19.2560v1. Assessed 5-1-08 69 Direct Vasodilators 70 Direct Vasodilators

Direct smooth muscle vasodilatation, primarily arteriolar Two agents Apresoline (Hydralazine) Minoxidilinclude: tachycardia, significant **Precautions peripheral edema and hair growth **Agents to reduce heart rate may be needed The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, 71 And Treatment of High Blood Pressure. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289.19.2560v1. Assessed 5-1-08 Aldosterone Agonists 72 Aldosterone Antagonists

Spironolactone (Aldactone) HCTZ / spironolactone (Aldactazide) Eplerenone (Inspra) 73 Aldosterone as a Therapeutic Target Aldosterone promotes: Retention of sodium Loss of magnesium and potassium Sympathetic activation Parasympathetic inhibition Baroreceptor dysfunction Impaired arterial compliance Mac Fadyen RJ, et al Aldosterone blockade reduces vascular collagen turnover, improves heart rate variability and reduces early morning rise in heart rate in heart failure patients. Cardiovasc Res 1997;35:3034.

74 Aldosterone Antagonists May be recommended in the following individuals: Post MI NYHA Class III or IV Ejection fraction of < 35% Serum creatinine of < 2.5 mg/dl K+ < 5.0 mmol/L Mardi Gomberg-Maitland, Baran DA, Fuster, V. Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure Guidelines for the Primary Care Physician and Heart Failure Specialist. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:324-352et al. ACC/AHA 2005 Chronic Heart Failure Guideline Update. JACC.2005; 46:1116-43. 75 Precautions Must monitor electrolytes

Must obtain baseline renal function Should discontinue the K+ supplement Should limit to use in severe heart failure and post MI patients Clavell, Alfredo L. Common Mistakes made in the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure. Success with Failure: New Strategies for Evaluation and Treatment of CHF. Whistler BC, Canada 8-2000. 76 New Classes/Agents 77 Direct Renin Inhibitor Renin is the enzyme at the beginning of the RAAS, one of the key regulating centers

for blood pressure. Blocking this enzyme can decrease the downstream impact of the RAAS system. Suppression of the RAAS has been shown to treat hypertension and reduce target organ damage. 78 Class Direct Renin Inhibition Inhibits the Entire Renin 1-4 System PRA Ang I Ang II

ACEI ARB Direct Renin Inhibitor (DRI) Increased peptide levels have not been shown to overcome the blood pressurelowering effect of these agents. ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; Ang, angiotensin; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; PRA, plasma renin activity. 1. Johnston CI. Blood Press Suppl. 2000;1:9(suppl 1):9-13. 2. Widdop RE et al. Hypertension. 2002;40:516-520. 3. Fabiani ME et al. Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists. 2001:263-278. 4. Lin C et al. Am Heart J. 1996;131:1024-1034. Aliskiren Dosage: 150 mg or 300 mg once daily Indications: Adults with hypertension

May be administered with any other antihypertensive Product Insert, 2007 New Messages JNC VII Certain high risk conditions are compelling indications for the initial use of other antihypertensive drug classes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors Angiotensin-receptor blockers Beta blockers 2003:289:2560-2577. channel blockers JAMA. Calcium

Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 81 JNC 7: Compelling Indications for Individual Antihypertensive Drug Classes Recommended Drugs Compelling Indication* DIURETIC BB ACEI ARB Heart failure

Post-MI

Diabetes Recurrent stroke prevention

High coronary disease risk Chronic kidney disease CCB Aldo ANT

*Compelling indications for antihypertensive drugs are based on benefits from outcome studies or existing clinical guidelines; the compelling indication is managed parallel with the BP. ACEI = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; Aldo ANT = aldosterone antagonist; BB = beta-blocker; CCB = calcium channel blocker. Adapted from NHBPEPCC. 2003. NIH Publication No. 03-5233. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 82 Combinatio n Therapy 83 When you put your hand in the cabinet 84

JNC 7 (2003) Combination Therapy Most hypertensive patients will require two or more antihypertensive medications to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg or <130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes/renal disease) Initiating therapy with combination therapy should be considered when BP is >20/10 mm Hg above goal. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Pressure. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289.19.2560v1. Assessed 5-1-08 85 JNC 7 (2003) Combination Therapy

When BP is more than 20/10 mm Hg above goal, consideration should be given to initiating therapy with two drugs, either as separate prescriptions or in fixed-dose combinations. Failure to titrate or combine medications, despite knowing the patient is not at goal BP, represents clinical inertia and must be overcome. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Pressure. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/289.19.2560v1. Assessed 5-1-08 86 Multiple Antihypertensive Agents Are Needed to Achieve Target BP Target BP (mm Hg) 1

Trial UKPDS DBP <85 ABCD DBP <75 MDRD MAP <92 HOT DBP <80

AASK MAP <92 IDNT No. of antihypertensive agents 2 3 4 SBP <135/DBP <85 DBP, diastolic blood pressure; MAP, mean arterial pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure. Bakris GL et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36:646-661. Lewis EJ et al. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:851-860. 87

Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 88 Target Organ Damage Heart LVH, Angina, CHF, MI Brain Stroke or TIA Dementia Chronic Kidney Disease Peripheral Vascular Disease Retinopathy JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009

89 Pick the agent wisely Benefits are not the same in antihypertensive therapy at the same commensurate blood pressure control. American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2003; November 9-12, 2003, Orlando, Florida, USA. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 90 Additional Considerations for the Patient with Hypertension

Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 91 New Messages JNC VII In presenting the NEW JNC VII, the committee recognizes that the responsible practitioners judgment remains paramount. JAMA. 2003:289:2560-2577. Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 92 Summary

Hypertension is highly prevalent and is a significant risk factor for CHD Current guidelines recognize the importance of assessing multiple cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hypertension Health-promoting lifestyle modifications are an important part of prevention and treatment of hypertension Antihypertensive therapy reduces CHD risk 2 antihypertensive agents are usually required to achieve BP goals in patients with hypertension Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 93 Thank You! I Would Be Happy To Entertain Any Questions

Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 94 Wendy L. Wright, ARNP Adult/Family Nurse Practitioner www.4healtheducation.com [email protected] Partners in Healthcare Education, LLC 2009 95

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