Ήχος - Κλίμακες

Ήχος - Κλίμακες

Computer Music An Interactive Approach Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Department of Informatics 2015 2 3 4 Introduction to Computer Music

From Sound Waves and the Hearing Mechanism to Musical Instruments Dionysios Politis Contents Part : Physical Properties of Sound Waves Part B : The Ear, the Listening Apparatus and Psychoacoustics

Part C : Musical Scales, Properties of Music and Musical Instruments 6 Part C: Musical Scales, Properties of Music and Musical Instruments From sound to music: We have seen thus far that the understanding of the music language is virtually a culture that gets into our perception as a highly cerebral activity.

7 If we cannot understand the brainwork that lies behind this activity, then we are unable to indulge how music perpetrates our existence as a language with considerable diachrony and synchrony There are more than 7000 spoken languages currently. However, music seems to be able to overcome the linguistic barriers! 8

Therefore we cannot explain sufficiently why for instance in the modern era different sound families are perceived as masterpieces, despite the abysmal difference in sound metrics! 9 and therefore we cannot explain sufficiently why for instance in the modern era different sound families are perceived as masterpieces, despite the abysmal difference in sound metrics! 10 and therefore we cannot explain sufficiently why for instance in

the modern era different sound families are perceived as masterpieces, despite the abysmal difference in sound metrics! 11 Musical Scales, Properties of Music and Musical Instruments Pitch is the frequency we estimate that a

certain sound corresponds to. The human ear can discriminate on average some 1400 different pitches. Even further, for the well tempered scale only 120 discrete tones seem to play the game within the audible range, from note A0 = 27.5 Hz to C8 = 4186 Hz. However, instruments like the trombone or the violin family can produce in between tonal frequencies. 12 Keys

Notation and semiotics comprise the written paraphernalia of music. A key usually is responsible for the anchoring of notes and, surprisingly, for the Westerner, there are alternative music symbols, some times older than the

common music notation! 13 Alterations The symbol of sharpening a note raises the frequency of a note for a semitone while symbol (from bemolle) lowers the frequency of a note for a semitone and the symbol of a natural sign restores

notes to their normal frequency height. Byproducts for alterations are symbols and with a rather obvious meaning 14 Alterations Alas, the story is not over yet. In fact, it has just began to take off, since for the first time our inspiration has met alternative traditions on microtonal music on devising new scales with multiple alterations, with symbols like this or this and for instruments like this!

15 Note Duration The rendition of a note Whole note relies on its proper time length association. The kind of note seen on the right, indicates

for the Common Music Notation the relative length of time: Half note Quarter Note Eighth note

Sixteenth note Thirty-second note Sixty-fourth note 16 Rhythm The rendition of a note Whole note

relies on its proper time length association. The kind of note seen on the right, indicates for the Common Music Notation the relative length of time: The recurrence of these time accents in equal intervals of time yields the rhythm of a

Half note Quarter Note Eighth note Sixteenth note Thirty-second note Sixty-fourth note

17 Rests Of course, under certain conditions, the performers are asked to silence themselves. This situation is indicated by the rests

Whole rest Half rest Quarter rest Eighth rest Sixteenth rest Thirty-second rest

Sixty-fourth rest 18 Intervals and Scales The interval between two

notes is the frequency distance of their pitches. Since antiquity the arrangement of tones builds up scales. Important for building up scales is defining ratios that represent frequency intervals. Octave is the ratio of 2:1 Perfect fourth is the ratio of 4:3 Perfect fifth is the ratio of

3:2 Tone is the ratio of 9:8 19 Scales in practice Ioannis Kaimakis, 2014 20 are instrument dependant

Ioannis Kaimakis, 2014 21

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