Operations Management Chapter 10 Human Resources and Job Design PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 6e Operations Management, 8e 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. Hall, Inc. 2006 Prentice 10 1 Human Resource Strategy The objective of a human resource strategy is to manage labor and design jobs so people are effectively and efficiently utilized 1. People should be effectively utilized within the constraints of other
operations management decisions 2. People should have a reasonable quality of work life in an atmosphere of mutual commitment and trust 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 2 Schedules Time of day Time of year (seasonal) Stability of schedule When Process strategy Technology Machinery and equipment used Safety Individual differences Who Strength and
fatigue Information processing and response HUMAN RESOURCE STRATEGY ow H Location strategy Climate Temperature Noise Light Air quality W ha t W he
re Product strategy Skills needed Talents needed Materials used Safety Pr oc ed ur e Constraints on Human Resource Strategy Layout strategy Fixed position Process Assembly line Work cell Product Figure 10.1
2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 3 Job Design Specifying the tasks that constitute a job for an individual or a group 1. Job specialization 2. Job expansion 3. Psychological components 4. Self-directed teams 5. Motivation and incentive systems 6. Ergonomics and work methods 7. Visual workplace 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 4 Job Specialization The division of labor into unique tasks First suggested by Adam Smith in 1776 1. Development of dexterity and faster learning 2. Less loss of time 3. Development of specialized tools
2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 5 Job Expansion Adding more variety to jobs Intended to reduce boredom associated with labor specialization Job enlargement Job rotation Job enrichment Employee empowerment 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 6 Psychological Components of Job Design Human resource strategy requires consideration of the psychological components of job design Hawthorne Studies introduced psychology into work place Jobs should include the following:
2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. Skill variety Job identity Job significance Autonomy Feedback 10 7 Self-Directed Teams Group of empowered individuals working together to reach a common goal May be organized for long-term or short-term objectives Effective because Provide employee empowerment Ensure core job characteristics
Meet individual psychological needs 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 8 Motivation and Incentive Systems Bonuses - cash or stock options Profit-sharing - profits for distribution to employees Incentive plans - typically based on production rates Knowledge-based systems - reward for knowledge or skills 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 9 Ergonomics and Work Methods Ergonomics is the study of the interface between man and machine The work environment Illumination
Noise Temperature Humidity 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 10 Job Design and Keyboards Figure 10.4 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 11 Levels of Illumination Task Condition Type of Task or Area Illumination Level Type of Illumination
Small detail, extreme accuracy Sewing, inspecting dark materials 100 Overhead ceiling lights and desk lamp Normal detail, prolonged periods Reading, parts assembly, general office work 20-50
Overhead ceiling lights Good contrast, fairly large objects Recreational facilities 5-10 Overhead ceiling lights Large objects Restaurants, stairways, warehouses 2-5 Overhead ceiling lights
Table 10.2 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 12 Decibel Levels Environment Noises Common Noise Sources Decibels Jet takeoff (200 ft) Electric furnace area Pneumatic hammer Printing press plant Subway train (20 ft) Inside sports car
(50 mph) Near freeway Private business office Light traffic (100 ft) Minimum levels, Chicago residential areas at night Studio (speech) Pneumatic drill (50 ft) Vacuum cleaner (10 ft) Speech (1 ft) Large transformer (200 ft) Soft whisper (5 ft) 120 | 100 | 90 | 80 | 70 | 60
| 50 | 40 | 30 Very annoying Ear protection required if exposed for 8 or more hours Intrusive Quiet Very quiet Table 10.3 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 13 Methods Analysis Focuses on how task is performed
Used to analyze 1. Movement of individuals or material Flow diagrams 2. Activities of human and machine and crew activity Activity charts 3. Body movement Micro-motion charts 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 10 14 Flow Diagram Welding From press mach. Storage bins Mach. 3 Mach. 4
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