Hemichordate - Vigo County School Corporation

Hemichordate - Vigo County School Corporation

Evolution of Vertebrates Chapter 34 Chordates Characteristics 45,000 species Bilaterally symmetrical Four distinct characteristics Notochord

Pharyngeal slits Dorsal tubular nerve cord Postanal tail Urochordata Subphylum Urochordata Tunicates or sea squirts Tunic - gel-like body covering Stolons - connecting structures

Urochordata Two siphons Oral siphon Water inlet Mouth Usually directly opposite the attached end Atrial siphon Water outlet

Urochordata Functions Simple nervous system Chemoreceptors cover the body wall Blood flow is not unidirectional Pharynx is the site of

most other functions Cephalochordata Subphylum Cephalochordata Characteristics Lancelets 45 species Small tadpole appearance Up to 5 cm long

Cephalochordata Poor swimmers Partially or mostly buried Filter feeders Cirri - ciliated projections used for feeding Dioecious External Fertilization

Fishes Phylum Craniata Includes chordates and fishes Name derived

from the presence of a skull Fishes Characteristics Subphylum Hyperotreti - hagfish Subphylum Vertebrata - all other fish Existence dates to over 500 mya

41% of all fish are freshwater fish Fishes Evidence shows early fish were active and predatory Brain was present Pair of eyes Muscle walls along the body wall

Early fish located prey by sight and then pursued them through the sea Fishes Subphylum Hyperotreti

Characteristics Hagfish (Class Myxini) 20 species, 4 genera Lack vertebrae and bone Four pairs of sensory tentacles Slime gland Fishes Cold water marine environments Considered the

most primitive craniates Enter prey (fish) through the mouth Subphylum Vertebrata Subphylum Vertebrata Characteristics Vertebrae cover nerve cord

Most living species are grouped into Superclass Gnathostomata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Cephalaspidomorphi Lampreys Marine and freshwater Adults are predators Sucker-like mouth attaches to prey Feed on the blood of fish

Larvae are filter feeders External fertilization Subphylum Vertebrata Superclass Gnathostomata Jawed mouths Paired appendages Control rolling Lateral steering Regulate pitch and tilt

Pectoral fins Behind the head Pelvic fins Ventrally and more posteriorly Subphylum Vertebrata Class Chondrichthyes Sharks, skates, rays, and ratfish 820 species Carnivores or scavengers Most are marine Cartilaginous endoskeleton

Fishes Sharks Wide variety in size Dogfish (Squalus) less than 1m Basking and whale sharks greater than 10m

Largest are not predators Debate over the fiercest Subphylum Vertebrata Skates and rays live on the ocean floor Pectoral fins are modified Camouflage, venomous spines, and stinging tails for

protection Manta Ray (Nacine and Torpedo) and Electric Ray (Manta) Subphylum Vertebrata Ratfish (Holocephali) 30 species Large head, small mouth, and large lips Rat like tail Over 300 million years old

Contain an operculum No scales Subphylum Vertebrata Class Osteichthyes Bony Fish Bony skeleton or scales Bony operculum Swim bladder or lungs 405 million years old

Subphylum Vertebrata Subclass Sarcopterygii Three genera remain Lungfish Use lungs in gas exchange Have muscular lobes associated with their fins Can live in very

little water for 6 months Subphylum Vertebrata Subclass Actinopterygii Rayfinned fish Swim bladders - gas-filled sacs that regulate buoyancy 25 Living species Chondrosteans, Sturgeons and paddlefish Teleosts - Flat fish, Yellowtail

snapper, sarcastic fringe head Evolutionary Pressures Circulation All vertebrates have closed circulatory system Heart Red blood cells Hemoglobin Blood passes through the

heart once every circuit around the body Evolutionary Pressures Lateral-line System Sensory pits in the epidermis of the skin Stimulated by water moving against them Used to detect water

currents, a fish making water movements, or low frequency sounds Evolutionary Pressures Diadromous fish require specially adapted gills Salmon Lamprey Freshwater eel

Evolutionary Pressures Nesting behavior Most are oviparous Some are ovoviviparous or viviparous

Mostly external fertilization Claspers sperm travels along Amphibian - Phylogeny Class Amphibia - Living a double

life Frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians All are tetrapods Have feet with digits They move back and forth between land and water Stegocephalia all amphibia including extinct members Amphibian - Phylogeny

Unique Characteristics Loss of some cranial bones Loss of opercular bones Reduction of notochord Loss of fin rays Amphibian - Phylogeny Mobile neck Increase in vertebral column rigidity Four muscular limbs

with discrete digits Formation of sacral vertebrae that fuse the vertebrae to the pelvis Amphibian - Phylogeny Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata Class - Amphibian 3900 living species Order Caudata Order Gymnophiona

Order Anura Order Caudata Salamanders and Newts Characteristics Long tail Two pairs of limbs Lack middle ear 350 living species

Order Caudata Facts 115 species live in North America Japanese giant salamander 1.5 meters Hellbender is 65 cm Order Caudata Reproduction

Internal fertilization Monoecious Sperm cap Young resemble parents, just smaller Some have external gills and other features Order Gymnophiona Caecilian 160 species

Tropical zones Burrowers that eat worms and other invertebrates Class Reptilia Reptilia - to creep Turtles, crocodiles, lizards, snakes, worm lizards, and

tuatarans Class Reptilia First vertebrates to have amniotic eggs Extraembryonic membranes Protect the embryo from desiccation Albumen Cushions Moisturizes Food source

Yolk - supplies food Class Reptilia Subclass Anapsida lack openings in the temple Turtles Subclass Diapsida Lower and upper openings in the temporal region of the skull

Snakes, lizards, and tuataras Subclass Synapsida single dorsal opening in the temporal region of the skull Class Reptilia

Characteristics of reptiles Skull with one surface

Respiration by lungs Metanephric kidneys Internal fertilization Amniotic eggs Very dry skin with keratinized scales 17 orders of Reptilia 4 Living orders of Reptilia Class Reptilia

Order Rhynchocephalia Snout head 2 living species of Tuataras Burrow Endangered species Lizard-like reptiles Virtually unchanged from extinct members

Tooth arrangement is the distinguishing factor Class Reptilia Order Squamata Three suborders Suborder Sauria - the lizards Suborder Serpentes - the

snakes Suborder Amphisbaenia worm lizards Reptilia Order Crocodilia Greek - lizard 21 species Crocodiles, alligators, gavials, and caimans Have existed for 170

million years Reptilia Birds Evolutionary perspective Phylogenetic Relationship Class Aves - means bird Flight Wings

Feathers Endothermy Modified vertebral column Light bones High metabolic rate Bill replaces teeth Birds Shared characteristics

Occipital condyle Ear structure Lower jaw structure Nucleated RBCs Kidney and liver function Some behavioral characteristics

Birds Ancient birds and flight Ancient birds Sinosauropteryx, Protarchaeopteryx, and Caudipteryx

Turkey sized birds None fliers Birds Archaeopteryx Oldest bird discovered Evolution between birds and reptiles

Ganus yumenesis Birds Diversity of modern birds 9,100 species 27 Orders

160 mya - 70 mya Mammals Evolution Mammals have existed for ~ 70 mya Mammal characteristics can

be seen in synapsids as far back as ~ 200 mya Mammals Pelycosaurs the early synapsids Herbivores Carnivores Later synapsids show longer,

slimmer legs Mammals Therapsids Group of mammallike reptiles Diastema area that separates the anterior teeth from the posterior teeth Cynodonts Last of the therapsids

Mammals Early mammals Small < 10 cm long Mostly carnivores Probably nocturnal Mammals

Class Mammalia Characteristics Mamma means breast Hair Mammary glands Specialized teeth Three middle ear ossicles Endothermy

Mammals Subclass Protheria Monotremes WERE in this subclass Recent fossil evidence has changed their classification Now part of the

subclass Theria No existent members Mammals Subclass Theria Infraclass Ornithodelphia - Egg laying Infraclass Metatheria - Marsupial Infraclass Eutheria - Placental

Mammals Hair - protects, insulates, and warns Pelage - coat of hair Long Guard Hairs - protect Short Underhairs - soft, insulating Vibrissae - sensitive guard cells Melanin - pigment that controls color of hair

Mammals Nervous system Increased size Cerebellum and cerebral hemisphere Olfaction - acute sense Vision - less color than reptiles and bird Auditory - three ossicles

Touch - most improved sense Mammals Excretion Metanephric kidney Urea is secreted Less toxic Water soluble Urine more concentrated than

blood Australian hopping mice is 22 times more concentrated Water loss from a number of sources Mammals Reproduction Viviparous

Internal fertilization Estrus cycle Monoestrus Polyestrus Delayed fertilization Embryonic diapause Mammals Development

Monotremes are oviparous All other mammals have a placenta Gestation period

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