hazards - KSU

hazards - KSU

hazards chemical hazards e.g. toxic ,flammables , corrosives and reactive biological hazards e.g. microbes and plants Radiation e.g. ionizing and non ionizing radiation Physical hazard e.g. heating device ,cuts and noise Electrical hazards e.g. fire and shock

Safety Precautions: 1- Wear lab coat. 2- Wear Disposable plastic gloves during work. 3- Dont eat or drink in the lab. 4-Take care if some one has any wounds. 5-Use disposable syringes, needles and lancets. 6-Specimens should be sent to the lab in closed plastic bags, separated from the request forms to prevent their contamination. Lab design safety

Safety cabinet First aid bag Storage room for flammables reagents Fire extinguisher The floor should be rough Un bind the wires Types of specimens in hematology lab: (A) Venous blood

it is common specimen for hematology. collected from anticubital vein and from the dorsum of the hand in obese patients. Needles 19 or 21G for adults and 23 G for children.

(B) Capillary blood: It should be used only with infants under 1 year or when it is not possible to obtain venous blood . 1- heel 2- the ball of the middle finger 3-Ear lobe ` Disadvantages of capillary blood: Capillary blood is freely flowing So, there

is greater risk of transmission of disease and contamination. So, venous blood is more convenient for handling and the results from it are considered to be more accurate. Cellular part: RBC, WBC and Platelets plasma:

clear yellowish fluid portion of blood has fibrinogen (cloting factor) so, it clots very fast. Serum = plasma- fibrinogen Serum & plasma To obtain serum should be delivered into sterile tube or tube that has gel.

To obtain Plasma should be delivered in a tube with anticoagulant. ANTICOAGULANTS: 1-EDTA (lavender top) Contain: sodium or potassium salt that cause the anticoagulant effect. Chemical action : (remove free Ca ++ by chelation ). Transform Ca ++ to un ionized form it becomes not free (bound calcium)

Concentration: 1.5 + 0.25 mg /mL of blood Excess EDTA: PCV, MCHC, shrinkage of RBC ,slight high platelets count. EDTA Uses: for routine Hematology,blood count ,blood films and platelets count because it prevents clumping. Disavantages: not suitable for coagulation study because it destroys factorV and VIII.

2-Trisodium citrate (blue top) contain: 3.2%or 3.8% tri sodium citrate Used for: Coagulation studies and ESR. Conc: 9 volume of blood to 1 volume of trisodium citrate for coagulation study 4 volume of blood to 1 volume of trisodium citrate for ESR. Chemical action: it removes free Ca ++ by loosely binding to form a calcium citrate complex

3-Heparin (green top) It is a natural dry substance It is synthesized by the liver It does not alter the size of RBC It is important because it reduce the chance of lysis that occur after blood has been withdraw Chemical action: With the aid of co factor located in albumin fraction of the plasma,heparin neutralize thrombin which is essential for coagulation . Con: 10 20 IU per ml of blood. heparin

Uses: 1-For red cell enzyme estimation e.g. G6PD 2- For osmotic fragility tests e.g. hereditary elleptocytosis and spherecytosis. 3-for immunophenotyping heparin is Not used for: 1- cell counting because of clumping effect of platelets and WBC. 2- blood smears made from it are difficult to stain clearly with Romanowsky dyes Blood cells: RBC-WBC-Platelets Size

numbers Functions Hb is a protein inside RBC . It contains : Haem=iron Globin chain =protein 3 types of Hb Hb A consist of 22 Hb A2 consist of 2 2 Hb F 2 2

In adults the major Hb is Hb A :96-98% Hb A2:1.5-3.2% Hb F: 0.5-0.8% In fetus the major Hb is Hb F. Hb measurment methods 1- by measurements of its colour

2- by its power of combining with O2 or CO2 3-by iron content estimated by spectrophotometer i.e Cyanmethaemoglobin method Hi CN Method: Principle: Blood is diluted in a solution called Drabkins Solution which contains potassium cyanide and potassium ferricyanide ( pH 7-7.4).

Blood + Drabkins solution Hb Oxidized by Potassium Ferricyanide Methaemoglobin Combines with potassium cyanide Cyanmethaemoglobin

Measure absorption of color at 540 nm by spectrophotometer. Absorption concentration Advantages: 1-Screening test for anemia or polycythemia. 2-Viability of stable and reliable reference preparation. 3-Measurment of all forms of Hb except SHb "sulphaemoglobin. 4- It is a standard method. Disadvantage:

1-Drabkins solution Contain potassium Cyanide Method: 4 mL Drabkin + 20 L of EDTA blood sample Calculation : Hb (g/dL) = A x 64500 X DF 44 X D X 1000 X 10

Hb = A x 29.3 A = reading of Abs of Hb solution 64500 = Mwt of Hb 44 = millimolar extinction co efficient. D = Thickness of cuvette = 1 cm 1000 =conversion factor from mg to gm 10 = conversion factor from mL to dL DF = Dilution factor = 200

Normal Ranges: Men 13 17 g/dL Women 12 15 g/dL At birth 14-22 g/dL Pregnant ladies 11 g/dl PCV (packed cell volume)& HCT(Haematocrit)

determination PCV=manual method HCT(Haematocrit)=automated coulter counter PCV: Percentage of a volume of blood occupied by red cells i.e the ratio of the height of red cell column to that of the whole blood sample in the tube. Used for: 1-screening test for anemia or polycythemia (PCV=3Hb) 2- calculate red cell indices

Methods: Macro method using wintrobe method which is no longer used in routine use b/c it takes big amount of blood & more time to PPT. Micro method by using capillary tubes with a centrifugal forces of 6000 rpm and 3min. Adv: 1-better backing of RBC 2- Short time of centrifugation

PCV units: % or L/L Volume of RBC volume of whole blood x100 Normal range: men 0.45 + 0.05 L/L (40-50%) women 0.41 + 0.05 L/L (36-46%) infant 0.60 + 0.15 L/L (45-75%)

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