Grade 9 Science Unit 1: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Grade 9 Science... Unit 1 Chapter 1: Atomic theory explains the composition and behaviour of matter.

Lab Safety... A Review Safety MUST be your top priority. Know them before you do the lab and use them while doing the lab.

Laboratory Complete activity 1-1A Safety pg. 9 Safety Rules for the Science Lab pages 10-11 General Glassware

Chemicals Hot plates and open flames Electrical equipment WHMIS... Page 12 W

H M I S workplace hazardous materials information

system Hazard Symbols... Page 13 Dangerous Container Dangerous Contents

Properties of Matter Matter is anything that has mass and volume. Mass is the amount of matter in a substance or object. Volume is the amount of space a substance or object

occupies. Matter is made up of elements. Elements are substances that contain one type of matter and cannot be broken down or

separated into simpler substances. Describing Matter 1. Physical Properties pg. 18 Characteri

stics of matter that are often observed or measured. Can be either qualitative

(observed) or quantitative (measured). Color Malleability Lustre Conductivit y

Boilingpoint Melting point Texture 2. Chemical Properties pg. 19 Observe Determines

d when a substances substanc usefulness. es react with each other. Reactivity

The degree to which substances combine to form new compounds Combustibility The degree to which substances combine with

oxygen (burn) Toxicity Core Lab Activity 1-2C pg. 20 Physical and Chemical Theory vs. Law

A theory is less well supported than a law. Theories try to explain observations Examples: Theory of Evolution Theory of plate tectonics

Laws Most laws are supported by different and robust experimental evidence. Laws only tell what happens, not why it happens Examples:

Law of Gravity Atomic Theory The descriptions of matter and how it behaves. Has undergone many modifications as new

facts became available. Early ideas... 2000 years ago Empedocles: matter was composed of four elements; earth, air, water, and fire.

Democritus: eventually a substance will be cut into a piece that can no longer be cut. He called this piece atomos.

Development of Atomic Theory John Dalton (1766-1844) Billiard Ball Model He suggested that the particles that make up matter are like small, hard spheres that are different for different elements. He defined an atom as the smallest

particle of an element. Daltons Model... Billiard Ball Model J.J. Thomson (1856-1940) Raisin Bun Model He suggested that all atoms

must contain electrons (negative charge). His model pictured a positively charged ball with the negatively charged electrons embedded in it. Thomsons Model... Raisin Bun Model

Ernst Rutherford (1871- 1937) Planetary Model He discovered that atoms have a nucleus. There are two kinds of particles in the nucleus;

protons (positive charge) and neutrons (neutral). Rutherfords Model... Planetary Model Niels Bohr (1885-1962) Orbital Model

He proposed that electrons surround the nucleus in specific energy levels or shells. Each electron has a particular amount of energy. Bohrs Model... Orbital Model

Rutherford was able to develop Thomsons model due to the development of new technologies. (gold foil experiment) The development of cyclotrons and proton accelerators have further developed the model

accepted today. Summary... Inside the Atom Subatom Char Mas ic ge

s Particle Proton + Larg (p+) e Neutron 0

Larg (n) e Electron very Locatio n Nucleus

Nucleus Energy The Atom

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