Grace Episcopal Church Energy for the Future

Grace Episcopal Church Energy for the Future

Church Energy for the Future Nancy Kinner Donna Miller Bath, ME July 15, 2018 Grace: Energy for the Future Series 3 Meetings to Discuss Graces Future Energy Needs Sunday, May 20 Sunday, June 24 Today, July 15 After 8 and 10:15 AM Services Videotaped and Available on YouTube In case you could not make a session Information and Discussion Grace Episcopal, Bath ME

Energy for the Future 2 Goals of Sessions May 20 Review Current Energy/Infrastructure Systems June 24 Review Energy/Infrastructure Options Available Today Consider Path Forward Specific to Grace TODAY WILL NOT SUPPLY ALL THE ANSWERS Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future

3 NEKs Role Facilitating Parish Discussion Information on Current System Founts of Knowledge are Bob Mansfield, Larry Bartlett, etc. Information on Energy Options Professional Audits: Mid-Coast Energy: June 2008 Heliotropic Technologies: April 2017 Deliberating Body = Vestry NEK Energy Expert Environmental Engineering Professor Summer Sustainable Engineering Course Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future

4 Discussing Graces Goals Consider What Grace Wants/Needs Goals/objectives Time frame Integration into everything we do? Education Consider Goals/objectives that Grace Will Use to Select Path Forward Use Goals/objectives to Guide Decisions Regarding Path Forward Decision Matrix Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 5

Your Assignment What you think are the objectives? I am tired of being cold on Sunday mornings! I want Grace to spend less money on energy. I want to understand Graces current facility. I want Grace to be Good Stewards of Gods Earth. I want to be proactive, so we dont end up scrambling when the furnace breaks. I want Grace to be Sustainable. I want Grace to have a smaller carbon footprint. Top 3 Priorities Rank choice voting

You Submitted Your Lists!!!!!!! THANK YOU SO MUCH!!!!!!!!!!!!! Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 6 Grace Parishioners Top 3 Priorities Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 7 Grace Priorities (# votes for each priority)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 26 Operation &Maintenance $ 23

Reliable 22 Capital $ 21 Environmentally Sound Zonable Based on Use 17 Efficient 17 Good Choice for Future 14

Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 8 Grace Priorities (# votes for each priority) 0 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 9 Cooling Capacity 8 Easy to Operate/Maintain Renewable Energy

6 Oil or Gas 6 Compatibility 1 Flexible/Multifuel 1 Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 9 Path Forward

Important Considerations Factors that Grace will use to select path forward Time frame Use factors to guide decisions regarding path forward Narrowing the options using the factors Detailed decision making with narrowed list of options Other: Integration into everything we do Education Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 10 Considering the Grace Factors Grace Episcopal, Bath ME

Energy for the Future 11 Factor 1: Operation and Maintenance Costs Based on cost of energy Oil Gas (natural, propane) Electricity Based on building use Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 12 Factor 1: Operation and Maintenance Costs

Based on cost of energy Oil Gas (natural, propane) Electricity Based on building use Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 13 Predictions on Fuel Costs U.S. Energy Information Agency February 2018 https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/ EIA prediction total energy production to 2050

Energy production (Reference case) quadrillion British thermal units 45 2017 history projections natural gas 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 crude oil and

lease condensate coal other renewable energy nuclear natural gas plant liquids hydro 15 Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 16 Assumptions about the size of U.S. resources and the improvement in technology affect domestic oil and natural gas prices

North Sea Brent oil price 2017 dollars per barrel 250 Henry Hub natural gas price 2017 dollars per million Btu 2017 history 10 projections 2017 history projections

Low Oil and Gas Resource and Technology 9 8 200 7 High Oil Price Reference Low Oil Price 6 150 5 4

100 High Oil and Gas Resource and Technology 3 2 50 1 0 2010 2030 2050

0 2010 2030 2050 17 Reference case electricity prices remain flat, with falling generation costs offset by increasing transmission and distribution costs Average electricity price 2017 cents per kilowatthour 2017 14 history projections 12 10

8 \\ 0 6 Low Oil and Gas Resource and Technology Clean Power Plan High Economic Growth High Oil Price Low Economic Growth Low Oil Price Reference High Oil and Gas Resource

and Technology Electricity prices by service category (Reference case) 2017 cents per kilowatthour 2017 12 history projections 10 2.98 3.16 3.70 3.80 3.73 8 6 1.32 1.44 1.57 1.65 1.64 Distribution Transmission

Generation 4 6.25 6.32 5.96 5.74 5.62 2 0 2017 2020 2030 2040 2050 18 Source: Maine Governors Energy 19 Future Energy Costs Who knows??? Too many variables to predict Too much uncertainty Horizons at EIA are approximately 30 years

Use predictions with grain of salt Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 20 Factor 1: Operation and Maintenance Costs Based on cost of energy Oil Gas (natural, propane) Electricity Based on building use Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future

Energy for the 21 Source: Jim Paterson Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 22 Building Use Discussions Beyond todays discussion Above my pay grade Important consideration Again future is hard to predict Several parishioners mentioned building use when selecting factors of: Heating systems with zones

Consider the future Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 23 Factor 1: Operation and Maintenance Costs Based on cost of energy Oil Gas (natural, propane) Electricity Based on building use Will be able to do O&M cost estimates when we narrow list of options Not available today Grace Episcopal, Bath ME

Future Energy for the 24 Factor 2: Reliable No being cold on Sunday mornings Proven systems Systems Grace can operate and maintain Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 25 Factor 3: Capital Costs Capital cost = design, equipment,

construction/demolition, contingency (10-20% of cost to cover uncertainty) Have approximations of most of these Mid Coast Energy and Revision Energy Devil is in the details Again, narrow options and can get better estimates of capital cost Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 26 Return on Investment (ROI)/Payback Period Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future

Energy for the 27 Return on Investment (ROI)/Payback Period Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 28 Return on Investment (ROI)/Payback Period Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future

Energy for the 29 ROI/Payback Calculations Again, typically done on narrowed list of options When costs are more developed ROI considers capital and operation and maintenance costs Can develop ROIs when in next phase of decision Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 30 Factor 4: Environmentally Sound

Lower carbon footprint Good stewards Lower impact on environment Again, this can be done with Energy.gov calculators Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 31 Factor 5: Zoning of Systems Recognizing building use and needs are different Mention of offices as most used and needing most attention Limited use of sanctuary, chapel, Tubbs Hall etc. Tailor systems to this reality Again, building use in future is important, but uncertainty

Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 32 Factor 6: Efficient Many meanings for this For example: Boiler efficiencies of heat exchange Fuel combustion efficiency New systems we are considering are all considered most efficient available Proven technologies with fairly stable designs For example: Air source heat pumps have matured considerably in last 10 years Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future

Energy for the 33 Factor 7: Good Choice for the Future Windows of 20-30 years noted This is typical of design life of these systems Also, energy predictions are in this range (EIA 30 year horizon) Some of systems have a design life of 10 years For example: Water heaters Warranties are usually shorter than design life Actual life may be longer (shorter) than design life Grace boiler example Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the

34 Energy/Infrastructure Options Todays Focus Heating Hot Water Electricity Lighting Lower Energy Losses e.g., Better Insulation, Better Windows Lower Electricity Demand e.g., Energy Saving Devices Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the

35 Energy/Infrastructure Options Todays Focus Heating Hot Water Electricity Why not focus on lighting, insulation, energy saving devices? We have made excellent progress on lighting. We have been buying energy efficient appliances etc. as Lower Energy Losses existing ones need replacement. e.g., Better Insulation, Better Windows We have added insulation in attic (R-25), walls have 3 in of Fiberglas, more insulation added to sanctuary walls Lower Electricity Demand

and lower Tubbs Hall. Insulation upgrades are access e.g., Energy Saving Devices issues and involve major renovation. Weatherstripping on doors etc is on going. We replaced doors etc as noted in energy audits. Lighting Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 36 Energy/Infrastructure Options Todays Focus Heating Hot Water

Electricity Lighting Lower Energy Losses e.g., Better Insulation, Better Windows Lower Electricity Demand e.g., Energy Saving Devices Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 37 Heating System Options Central system with distribution network Current system = Oil-fired boiler with forced hot water distributed to individual rooms with wall heaters

Individual room systems = Space Heating Typically, heat air in specific room with devices e.g., Current propane fireplace heater in Upper Tubbs Hall Key is must heat water or air Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 38 Heating System Options Central system with distribution network Heat water (hydronic) or air and force it out into areas where needed Distribution network Hot water through small diameter metal pipes (e.g., copper

to 2 inch) Hot air through fairly large ducts Retrofit is very difficult X Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 39 Central Heating vs. Space Heating Most use a central system with distribution Central heating plant can be more efficient overall Exceptions if low/sporadic usage, may become less efficient to have large system always working Space heating may be better in these cases Programmable thermostats to optimize times for heating

Ceiling fans to optimize air circulation in large rooms Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 40 Heating Options Fossil fuels Biomass (wood/wood pellets) = O&M difficult for church Electricity = conversion to electric baseboard heating is costly and O&M high Passive Solar = for heating Heat pumps Geothermal = too costly and difficult for forced hot water distribution Ambient air Grace Episcopal, Bath ME

Future Energy for the 41 Heating Options Fossil fuels Passive Solar = for heating Heat pumps Ambient air (Air source heat pumps) Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 42 Heating Options

Fossil fuels Passive Solar = for heating Heat pumps Ambient air (Air source heat pumps) Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 43 Fossil Fuel Heating Boiler replacement, but keep forced hot water Existing boiler = 547,000 BTUs Enough to heat entire facility when -10F outside Oversized most all of the time Typical installation is lead-lag

Two smaller boilers which alternate which is being used When one cant keep up, the other comes on to help Mostly one working Use same zones and mostly same distribution piping and heating units Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 44 Fossil Fuel Heating Systems considered: Oil fired Gas fired (natural gas and propane) Both with 5 new programmable thermostats New circulator pumps and initial feed piping

Keep the plug-in back-up pump New expansion tanks Remove and dispose old boiler Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 45 Fossil Fuel Heating 2 oil fired lead-lag boilers 2 new oil tanks required Estimated capital cost (without contingency) $47,000 Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future

Energy for the 46 Fossil Fuel Heating 2 propane fired lead-lag boilers No cost for oil tank removal, but should be removed Can be switched to natural gas, if available Cost not include piping from propane tank to boiler Will need to pursue access to natural gas with Maine Gas Could be minimal or large cost Maine Gas willing to explore possibility if Grace seriously considering this Estimated capital cost (without contingency) $42,500 Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the

47 Heating Options Fossil fuels Passive Solar = for heating Heat pumps Ambient air (Air source heat pumps) Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 48 Passive Solar 49

50 Passive Solar Possibly on south facing walls Upper Tubbs Hall and to a lesser extent offices Need to meet with construction company/architect Will involve some construction and potentially tree removal to gain more access to solar radiation No cost estimates yet Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 51 Heating Options Fossil fuels

Passive Solar = for heating Heat pumps Ambient air (Air source heat pumps) Ambient air = Air source Take heat from air Most common Can also do cooling Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 52 How Heat Pumps Work Grace Episcopal, Bath ME

Energy for the Future 53 Air Source Heat Pumps Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 54 ASHP in Cold Climates As air temperature decreases, get less BTUs from air with compression Need backup heating system in Maine Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future

Energy for the 55 Air Source Heat Pumps Must have back up heat for times when too cold outside and heat pump cannot meet demand Usually fossil fuel boiler back-up If just a few areas with heat pumps, then may need 2 lead lag boilers If heat pumps in multiple areas, may need just one back up boiler Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the

56 Air Source Heat Pumps Used to heat specific areas Outside and inside equipment Office Area: Ducted system with air handler in attic Supply and return ducts in offices and outer and printing areas Cost estimate = $13,000 (1 unit) Chapel = Ductless system, Cost estimate= $6,200 (1 unit) Upper Tubbs Hall= Ductless, Cost est. = $16,000 (3 units) Sanctuary = Ductless, Cost est. = $21,000 (4 units) Total Estimate for All ASHPs = $56,200 Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the

57 Air Source Heat Pumps Other considerations Average electricity price 2017 cents per kilowatthour Locations of inside and outside units 14 2017 history projections Appearance 12 Electrical capacity of facilities Noise? 10 Snow removal Cooling? 8 Stable cost of electricity predicted by

\\ EIA Low Oil and Gas Resource and Technology Clean Power Plan High Economic Growth High Oil Price Low Economic Growth Low Oil Price Reference High Oil and Gas Resource and Technology

0 6 Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 58 Energy/Infrastructure Options Todays Focus Heating Hot Water Electricity Lighting Lower Energy Losses e.g., Better Insulation, Better

Windows Lower Electricity Demand e.g., Energy Saving Devices Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 59 Hot Water for Grace Washing hands and dishes etc Fossil fuel, air source heat pump, solar heating systems all heat water During heating season if fossil fuel boiler is on Boiler supplies hot water June to mid-September use individual units

Small electric hot water heater in Sextons room for kitchen/rest rooms (already existing) Sacristy Area: Small electric hot water heater year-round Already existing Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 60 Heat Pump Hot Water System Capital cost estimate = $4,000 O&M and ROI key to this decision making Solar hot water was not recommended by Revision Energy or Mid-Coast Energy They both favored boiler/heat pump options Can still get quote on this One issue is storage of sufficient solar generated as

demand is highly variable Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 61 Energy/Infrastructure Options Todays Focus Heating Hot Water Electricity Lighting Lower Energy Losses e.g., Better Insulation, Better Windows

Lower Electricity Demand e.g., Energy Saving Devices Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 62 Pay for Green Energy From Grid CMP Green Energy: $9-16 per month extra Regular CMP Power Sources 63 Solar for Electricity

Generation 64 65 Solar Electrical Generation Options 10 to 13 kW system depending on extent of heat pump use Cost ~ $1,000/kW installed Grace has enough roof space Capital cost est. = $30,000 to $39,000 No batteries Goes into grid Will still have charge to connect to grid (~ $11/month) Little to no electrical charge per kWh, as solar PV array supplies electricity Can sell electricity into the grid Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future

Energy for the 66 Other Electrical Considerations If use heat pumps, will go to Medium General Service Has demand charge $12-14/mo $37.87 service charge/mo $0.001659 /kWh Currently, Grace is Small General Service No monthly demand charge $19.43 service charge/mo $0.058832 /kWh Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 67

Energy/Infrastructure Options Todays Focus Heating Hot Water Electricity Lighting Lower Energy Losses e.g., Better Insulation, Better Windows Lower Electricity Demand e.g., Energy Saving Devices Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 68

Window Options Replacement windows throughout will be expensive Cost estimate = $10,000 considering stained glass windows Less if only casement windows Interior storm windows Recommended in both energy audits Recently built for narthex Cost est. $1,000 $2,500 Possibly less if we build them Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 69 Integration into Everything We Do

Recycle Carpool, walk, etc to church? Apply these measures to our homes/workplaces? Take shorter/fewer showers? You name it!!!! Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 70 Education Ripple Effect = Grace upgrades = Parishioners upgrade = Neighbors upgrade = Community upgrades =? =? =? Adult education Youth education

Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 71 Next Steps More detailed information on narrowed list of options Fill in decision matrix to facilitate process of selection What is this list? Heating: Boiler (oil, natural gas, propane; 1 or 2)? Air source heat pumps? Cooling? Other? Hot Water: Boiler? (with summer electric) Air source heat pump?

Solar? Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 72 Next Steps What is this list? Electricity: Solar? CMP Green energy? Other? Continue as is Building: Interior windows? Replacement windows? Other?

Other? Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 73 Conduct Decision Analysis with Matrix Using factors from parishioners Detailed information on options Phased plan Heating options to avoid winter problems Other measures such as electricity options phase in later? Discussions on building use? Vestry consider/define path forward Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future

Energy for the 74 Funding/Financing Options Efficiency Maine Okay to churches No solar options Options for: boilers, heat pumps, programmable thermostats, boiler controls lighting No options for non-residential insulation, weatherization Federal solar incentives through tax incentives Not available to churches, as dont pay taxes Possible for parishioner to pay & own for 7 years (IRS)

Loans/grants through various sources Fundraising, etc. Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 75 Questions/Discussion Contact Info: Nancy Kinner: [email protected] 603-479-3777 Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the

76 Extra Slides Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Energy for the Future 77 What is Sustainability? Lots of Definitions Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Bruntland Report for the World Commission on Environment and Development (1992) http://www.globalfootprints.org/sustainability

Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 78 What is Sustainability? "A sustainable future is one in which a healthy environment, economic prosperity and social justice are pursued simultaneously to ensure the well-being and quality of life of present and future generations. Education is crucial to attaining that future." (Learning for a Sustainable Future - Teacher Centre) Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the

79 What is Sustainability? "We cannot just add sustainable development to our current list of things to do but must learn to integrate the concepts into everything that we do." (The Dorset Education for Sustainability Network) "The first and perhaps most difficult problem, one that seldom gets addressed, is the time frameIs a sustainable society one that endures for a decade, a human lifetime, or a thousand years?" (The shaky ground of Sustainable Development Donald Worster in Global Ecology 1993) Grace Episcopal, Bath ME Future Energy for the 80

The Southwest region leads growth in U.S. tight oil production in the Reference case Lower 48 onshore crude oil production by region (Reference case) million barrels per day 5 2017 history projections 4 Southwest 3 Dakotas/Rocky Mountains 2 Gulf Coast

1 Midcontinent West Coast East 0 81 Natural gas prices across cases are dependent on resource and technology assumptions Dry natural gas production trillion cubic feet 2017 60 history projections Natural gas spot price at Henry Hub 2017 dollars per million British thermal units 2017

12 history projections 50 10 40 High Oil and Gas Resource and Technology 8 Reference 30 20 10 0

6 AEO 2017 Reference Low Oil and Gas Resource and Technology 4 2 Low Oil and Gas Resource and Technology AEO 2017 Reference Reference High Oil and Gas Resource and

Technology 0 82 Plays in the East lead production of U.S. natural gas from shale resources in the Reference case Electricity use growth Shalerate gas production by region percent growth (three-year trillion cubic rolling feetaverage) 2017 45 history projections 2017 5

history 40 projections Reference 35 4 3 2 1 20 15 10 -1 5 0 1 0

2017 45 history projections 40 120 High Oil and Gas Resource and Technology 100 35 30 30 25 billion cubic feet per day East

High Economic Growth Referenc e Low Economic Gulf Coast Growth rest of U.S. 80 25 60 20 15 40 10

20 5 0 1 2020 2030 2040 0 2050 83 Generation from renewable sources grows across all cases, led by growth in wind and solar photovoltaic generation

Total renewables generation, including end-use generation billion kilowatthours 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 2017 history projections Renewable electricity generation, including end-use generation (Reference case) billion kilowatthours Low Oil and Gas Resource and Technology High Economic Growth

Clean Power Plan Reference Low Economic Growth High Oil and Gas Resource and Technology 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 solar PV 800 600

wind 400 geothermal hydroelectric other 200 0 2017 history projections 0 84

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