Georgia and the American Experience

Georgia and the American Experience

Words/Terms of Importance For 20th Century in Georgia Use this PowerPoint to help with reviewing the information that has been presented with the decade projects and also discussions in class. The Bourbon Triumvirate Democrats controlled Georgias government after Reconstruction. Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the Bourbon Triumvirate were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. Their goals were: expand Georgias economy and ties with industries in the North;

maintain the tradition of white supremacy. Decline of the Bourbon Triumvirate Independent Democrats criticized the Bourbons for not attending to the needs of the poor or improve education and working conditions in factories. Leaders William and Rebecca Latimer Felton worked to improve conditions for poor Georgians using newspapers to highlight problems in the state. Rebecca Latimer Felton later briefly served as the first female United States Senator (from November 21, 1922 until the next day). The convict lease system rented prisoners to companies to use as workers. It took many years for the poor conditions the prisoners endured to be

brought to light and changed. The New South Era Challengers to the Bourbon Triumvirate wanted Georgia to be more industrialized. Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor. Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming. Grady envisioned improved race relations in a New South which left its antebellum past behind. Business in Georgia First International Cotton Exposition was

held in 1881. Helped to show off the economic recovery of the South after Reconstruction. Other International Cotton Expositions were held in 1887 and 1895. 1895 International Cotton Exposition 800,000 visitors in three months designed to show economic recovery in the South encouraged investments in southern businesses Education in the New South Era Funding to provide elementary education for all children in Georgia grew slowly from 1868-1895. Teachers were paid a little more than farm hands

and had little or no training. Normal schools were started to train more teachers. The school year was only three months long which allowed children to work on farms or in factories. The state constitution of 1877 did not allow for school beyond 8th grade and segregated black and white students. Agriculture in the New South Era Crop prices declined through the 1870s. The Grange and the Farmers Alliance started out as social groups but began to reorganize to put pressure on lawmakers to find ways to help farmers. This was knows as populism.

Georgia created the first state to have a Department of Agriculture. Co-ops allowed farmers to work together to buy goods and equipment at a lower cost. The Progressive Movement Goal: Progress! Society fight poverty Improve child labor laws improve working conditions votes for women prison reform

outlaw alcohol Business break up large corporations regulate businesses decrease corporate power in government Government greater voice of the people more voters did not seek to

increase participation of blacks in elections The Peoples Party Populists: Supporters of a political idea (populism) that supported the rights of the common people in their struggle with the wealthy people Poor farmers and low wage workers were followers of Populists Grange and Farmers Alliance worked to protect farmers rights joined with unions to create Peoples Party Wanted Australian ballot printed by the government, not local political parties, then collected and locked in

ballot boxes Tom Watson, famous Georgia populist, worked for Rural Free Delivery bill to deliver mail to rural areas for free Georgias Progressive Era Governors Hoke Smith: worked to concentrate political power in the rural counties instead of larger counties and cities white supremacist led passage of law requiring land ownership before a person could vote excluded many blacks better funding of public schools child labor laws passed Smith-Lever Act (1914): created Agricultural Extension

Service to teach improved farming methods Smith-Hughes Act: helped establish vocational schools for youth Little Joe Brown: son of Civil War era governor Joseph E. Brown 1906 Atlanta Riot Began as a result of racial tensions between white and black citizens of Atlanta In 1906, Hoke Smith (former publisher of the Atlanta Journal) and Clark Howell (editor of the Atlanta Constitution) were running for election as Georgias governor in 1906. Both men used their influence in the media to try and take away voting

rights for black citizens. Newspapers began to publish stories about African American men attacking white women. Rioting began on September 22nd and lasted until September 26th. Military forces are eventually brought in to help end the riots. 21 people killed; hundreds of others wounded and large amounts of property were destroyed The Trial of Leo Frank 1913: man accused of killing a 14-year-old employee, Mary Phagan in Atlanta Mr. Frank was a Jewish man from New York Little evidence against Mr. Frank, but he was convicted and sentenced to death

Governor Slaton changed death sentence to life imprisonment Armed men, calling themselves the Knights of Mary Phagan, took Frank from the prison, and he was lynched White supremacist Ku Klux Klan reborn from the members of the Knights of Mary Phagan The County Unit System In 1917,the Neil Primary Act created the county unit system. Plan designed to give small counties more power in state government so that the larger counties (which contained large numbers of black voters) would have less power

Smaller counties had more county unit votes even though they had fewer voters People could be elected to office without getting a majority of votes Declared unconstitutional in 1962 Separate But Equal Civil Rights: rights a person has as a citizen Jim Crow laws passed to separate blacks and whites; legal basis for segregation (separation of people based on race) Plessy v. Ferguson: Homer Plessy, in an act of planned civil disobedience, was arrested for sitting in a white only train car. Plessy, who was only 1/8 black, was considered colored in Louisiana.

Supreme Court decided that segregation (Jim Crow Laws) was allowed by federal law in public institutions as long as they were separate but equal decision in place until 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education). Booker T. Washington Outstanding civil rights leader of the era President of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama Supported good relations between blacks and whites Worked to improve the lives of African Americans through economic independence Believed social and political equality would come with improved economic conditions and

education (known as accommodationism). Gave the famous Atlanta Compromise speech in 1895; discussed his ideas of shared responsibility and the importance of education over equality. W. E. B. DuBois Professor at Atlanta University Recognized the importance of speeches given by Booker T. Washington but did not agree with accommodationism Believed in action if African Americans and whites were to understand and accept each other Thought Booker T. Washington was too

accepting of social injustice Began urging black activists to organize together in protest against segregation and discrimination. African Americans Organize W.E.B. DuBois founded the Niagara movement; group which met in Niagara Falls to assemble a list of demands, which included the end of segregation and discrimination NAACP (1909): National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Worked for the rights of African Americans W.E.B. DuBois left Atlanta to work for the NAACP in New York

National Urban League formed in 1910 Worked to solve social problems of African Americans in cities Assisted people moving from rural South to urban North John and Lugenia Burns Hope John Hope was a Civil rights leader from Augusta, GA President of Atlanta University Like DuBois, believed that African Americans should actively work for equality Part of group that organized NAACP Hopes wife, Lugenia, worked to improve sanitation, roads, healthcare and education for African American neighborhoods in Atlanta

Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company Alonzo Herndon started barber business 1905: Purchased small insurance company and managed it well Now one of the largest African American businesses in the US Worth over $200 million and operates in 17 states Womens Suffrage Suffrage: the right to vote Seneca Falls, NY famous meeting of suffragettes

1920: 19th Amendment gives women the right to vote Georgia did not ratify (approve) the amendment Causes of World War I On June 28, 1914, an assassin gunned down Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary believed that Serbia's government was behind the assassination. When the fighting began, France, Russia, and Great Britain backed Serbia. They opposed the Central Powers, made up of Austria-Hungary and Germany. Austria-Hungary seized the opportunity to declare war on Serbia and settle an old feud.

World War I 1914-1918 Allied Powers Central Powers Leading Countries Leading Countries France Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Russia (United States joined in 1917) President Woodrow Wilson declared the US would be a

neutral country. The United States Enters the War President Wilson worked to keep the US out of the war 1915: German submarine sank passenger ship Lusitania killing 128 Americans 1917: sub attacks resumed sinking American cargo ships Zimmerman telegram: Germany tried to get Mexico to attack the US Wilson finally joined the Allied powers Georgia and World War I

100,000 Georgians volunteered to join the US armed forces Training in Georgia at Camp Benning, Fort McPherson, Camp Gordon, and Camp Hancock helped Georgia economy Georgians contributed manufactured goods and farm produce 3,000 young Georgians killed in the war On November 11, 1918, Germany surrendered ending what President Wilson called the war to end all wars Life in the Roaring Twenties Life in US after World War I was good More modern conveniences freed women

from household chores Electricity became more available Other inventions included gas stoves, toasters, sliced bread, baby food Radio: WSB started in Atlanta 1927: first talking motion picture Walt Disney creates Mickey Mouse Charles Lindbergh makes first ever nonstop flight from New York to Paris, France. The Destruction of King Cotton Boll weevil: insect which ate Georgias most important cash crop Price of cotton also dropped 1924: major drought (period with little or no

rain) hit Georgia Georgia farmers did not have the good life that many Americans enjoyed Farms closed forcing banks and farm-related business to close Great Migration Many tenant farmers leave Georgia to work in northern factories. The Klan Strengthens Targeted African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and immigrants Number of members increased in every state 1925: Klan march on Washington with 40,000 members

Declining membership by the end of the decade as members were linked to racial terrorism The Bottom Drops Out Stock Market: Place where shares of ownership in corporations (stock) are bought and sold Black Tuesday October 29, 1929: Stock market prices fall greatly; millions of people loose all their wealth Total losses by end of year: $40 billion Example: U.S. Steel was $262 per share dropped to $22 per share Some stocks worth less than 1

Causes of the Great Depression Many people had borrowed too much money Factories produced more goods than they could sell As people and businesses had problems making money, banks did not get paid for loans Speculation in the stock market: paying only a portion of the price of a stock hoping that the value will go up Runs on banks: people were afraid they would lose their money if it was left in the bank laissez-faire: attitude that the economy would fix itself if left alone

Living Through the Depression 1932: 13 million unemployed 9,000 banks closed 31 Georgia banks failed Hoovervilles: named for President Hoover shacks where homeless people gathered Soup kitchens set up by charities and governments to feed hungry Schools were often forced to close or shorten schedules Georgians were already suffering from economic problems before Black Tuesday

The New Deal 1932: Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president New Deal: Roosevelts plan to end the depression Examined banks for soundness Give jobs to unemployed workers Tried to improve Americans lives Paved the way for recovery though all programs did not work Georgia and the New Deal

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Created jobs for young men. Men worked in exchange for housing, food, and money. Built many of GAs parks, sewer systems, bridges, etc. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) Raised the price of farm products by limiting supply. Farmers were paid to produce less to drive the price up so each farmer made for money for their crops. Rural Electrification Authority (REA) Brought electricity to the rural (country) areas of the U.S. Social Security Act Passed in 1935. Helped to provide old-age benefits for retiring workers. Also offered insurance for the unemployed and disabled.

African Americans During the New Deal Did not benefit from many New Deal programs WPA: Works Public Administration did employ many African Americans Roosevelts Black Cabinet: influential African Americans working with President Roosevelt: Mary McLeod Bethune Clark Foreman Robert Weaver William Hastie

Georgias New Deal Governors Richard B. Russell Worked to reorganize state government like a successful business Elected to U.S. Senate and served for 38 years Eugene Talmadge Did not like New Deal programs in Georgia Elected Governor of GA in 1932 and 1934. Outspoken critic of Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal programs in Georgia. Eurith Ed Rivers

Worked with Roosevelt to increase New Deal spending in Georgia Began programs for public housing Term ended with corruption problems Georgias New Deal Governors (Cont.) Talmadge re-elected in 1940 Began to use some New Deal programs Used his power as governor to remove state officials working to integrate Georgias state colleges Ellis Arnall Reformed Board of Regents and state prisons

Removed poll tax New state constitution Increasing Tensions Dictator: individual who ruled a country through military strength Country Leader Quick Facts Japan

Emperor Hirohito Attacked China seeking raw materials Italy Mussolini Attacked Ethiopia and Albania Germany Adolf Hitler Soviet

Union Josef Stalin Nazi leader; began rebuilding military forces, persecuting Jews, and silencing opponents Built up industry and military, forced peasants into collective farms, eliminated opponents World War II Begins 1938: Hitlers Germany attacks France to take back land lost in WWI (Rhineland) Sent troops to take over Austria,

Czechoslovakia, and Poland Great Britain and France declared war Soviet Union invaded nearby countries and agreed to split Poland with Germany By 1940, Hitler controlled Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and a large part of France and began bombing Great Britain A Neutral United States Most Americans did not want to get involved in the war, but Roosevelt wanted to help Britain Hitler turned on Stalin in 1941 and invaded the Soviet Union

Lend-lease: policy to lend or lease (rent) weapons to Great Britain and the Soviet Union American ships began escorting British ships in convoys A Day that Will Live in Infamy President Roosevelt stopped exports to Japan to protest its expansion into other countries Exports of oil, airplanes, aviation gasoline and metals were stopped The Japanese attacked the U.S. Navy fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec. 7, 1941 Japan hoped to destroy the fleet giving them

control of the Pacific Ocean The USA declared war on Japan Allied Powers: USA, Great Britain, Soviet Union Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan American Military Forces Millions of Americans enlisted after the attack on Pearl Harbor 330,000 women joined could not serve in combat roles Segregation in the military kept African American and white service men in different units Tuskegee Airmen: famous African American flyers of the Army Air Force After the war, women and African Americans did

not want to go back to the kind of life they had before the war The War in Europe 1942-1943: British and American troops won control of Africa 1943: Mussolini overthrown and Italy joined the Allies American general Dwight D. Eisenhower coordinated plan to recapture Europe D-Day: June 6, 1944 Allied forces land in northern France at Normandy Early 1945: Germans pushed out of France April 1945: Soviet and American troops meet and Germany surrenders Hitler commits

suicide The Holocaust The Holocaust: name given to the Nazi plan to kill all Jewish people, and others deemed undesirable Auschwitz, Buckenwald, Dachau, Treblinka, Bergen-Belsen infamous concentration camps where Jews and others were executed 6 million Jewish people killed in the Holocaust; approximately 5 million other undesirables also killed Roosevelts Ties to GA

President Roosevelt visited Georgia often at his Little White House in Warm Springs His polio symptoms were eased in the mineral springs April 24, 1945: President Roosevelt died at Warm Springs Millions of Georgians and Americans mourned Vice President Harry Truman became president The War in the Pacific 1942: Japan expanded its territory throughout the Asian Pacific region

1945: Allied forces began to retake Japanese controlled lands Japan refused to surrender President Truman authorized the use of atomic bombs to force Japans surrender Enola Gay: plane that dropped first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan (between 70,000 and 100,000 people died) Japan surrendered after a second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki (killed approximately 40,000 people and injured 40,000 additional people) August 15, 1945 Japan surrenders ending WWII Over 50 million people died in the war Georgia During World War II

320,000 Georgians joined the armed forces over 7,000 killed Military bases (such as Fort Benning) were built in the state which improved the economy Farmers grew needed crops income tripled for the average farmer Limits were put on the consumption of goods such as gasoline, meat, butter, and sugar (rationing) Students were encouraged to buy war bonds and defense stamps to pay for the war POW (prisoner of war) camps were made in Georgia at some military bases Brunswick and Savannah Shipyards supplied ships for the US Navy and Bell Aircraft helped to create planes.

Richard Russell and Carl Vinson Richard Russell US Senator from GA; worked to bring over a dozen military bases to GA. These military bases helped to bring jobs and resources to the state. Carl Vinson US Representative from GA; helped to build the US Navy in the years leading up to World War II. Vinson wrote many bills that expanded the US Navy and helped to supply our allies during the Lend-Lease Act and to overcome the damages of Pearl Harbor. Many of the ships were built at the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards.

End of the White Primary White Primary Used, after the Civil War, to keep African Americans from voting. 1900 Democratic Primary Democratic leaders decided that only white Democrats could vote in the primary election. GA was essentially a one-party state (Republican and Independent candidates got little support from white citizens). As a result, white, Democratic candidates were often elected with little or no African American support. End of the White Primary King v. Chapman Supreme Court case made the white primary systems in GA unconstitutional (illegal).

The 1946 Governors Race Governor Ellis Arnalls term of office was due to end in 1946. Eugene Talmadge was elected to his 4th Term as Georgias Governor but died before taking the Oath of Office. Began the Three Governors Controversy: Herman Talmadge (Eugenes son) was chosen as governor by the legislature due to the amount of write-in votes he had received and were found after the election. Current Governor Arnall declares that Lieutenant Governor Melvin Thompson was the new Governor as he was the rightful successor. January 15, 1947, Herman Talmadges men broke into the governors office and changed the locks and readied themselves to run the state. Governor Arnall set up a temporary office at the Capitol Information counter; Arnall officially resigned three days later.

Finally in March 1947, the Georgia Supreme Court ruled Thompson was the governor until a special election could be held in 1948. At this election, Herman Talmadge was elected governor. Early Civil Rights in GA Herman Talmadge Served as governor of GA briefly in 1947 and again from 1948-1955. Later served in the U.S. Senate. Segregationist Worked to keep African American and white citizens separate As a politician, Talmadge worked to help GAs farmers and tried to stop Civil Rights. 1956 State Flag In 1956, GAs state flag was changed to prominently display the Confederate Battle Flag; changed in 2001 as citizens found the

flag offensive. The Supreme Court and Education 1948: racial integration ordered in armed forces 1950: Brown v. Board of Education case struck down separate but equal concept; schools were to be integrated Sibley Commission: found that most Georgians would rather close schools than integrate More private schools opened 1961: Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes first African American students at UGA

1971: All Georgia public schools integrated Montgomery Bus Boycott Dec. 1, 1955: Rosa Parks, African American, refused to give up her bus seat to whites in Montgomery, AL Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the NAACP organized civic leaders and prepared marches Supreme court ruled segregation on public transportation unconstitutional A Nonviolent Movement is Born Benjamin Mays President of Morehouse College; educator and mentor to Martin Luther King, Jr. of

Atlanta and as a Civil Rights advocate. Martin Luther King, Jr. developed a nonviolent approach to social change Four-prong approach: direct, nonviolent actions legal remedies ballots economic boycotts SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference

civil rights group led by Dr. King Sit-in: Dr. Kings strategy to people refuse to leave a public building until their demands are met The Albany Movement 1961: Albany, GA becomes center of civil rights activity SNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee challenged segregated bus system in Albany Nearly 500 people jailed Biracial committee formed to study concerns of African Americans Protests Move to Alabama

1963: Martin Luther King, Jr. begins work to integrate all aspects of public life in Birmingham, AL Over 3000 people arrested 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing KKK sets a bomb which killed 4 black children in their church in Birmingham, Alabama African Americans and whites from the north and south began to join together to stop the violence The Civil Rights Act President Kennedy created new civil rights laws Kennedy was assassinated before the new

laws came into effect Lyndon Johnson became president and pushed for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 All public facilities had to be integrated Discrimination was prohibited in business and labor unions The Voting Rights Act 1964: Freedom Summer Martin Luther King, Jr. and SNCC worked to get African Americans registered to vote Selma-to-Montgomery, AL march led by Dr. King Nearly 30,000 marchers

Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 one million African Americans were registered to vote A Shift in Mood Some people moved from the nonviolent strategies to more aggressive ones SNCC and Black Panthers confronted police Malcolm X preached black separatism Race riots in Los Angeles, Detroit, and Newark Lester Maddox became governor of Georgia in 1967. Had forcibly turned black activists who challenged segregation at the restaurant he had owned. Very popular with Georgians who supported segregation.

April 1968: Dr. King assassinated in Memphis, TN while working with striking sanitation workers Atlanta: A Case Study in Change Integration in Atlanta was relatively peaceful Church leaders get much credit for this peaceful change William Hartsfield: Atlanta mayor who expanded Atlantas airport and worked with African American and white leaders; worked to integrate Atlantas schools Ivan Allen: Atlanta mayor ordered removal of white and colored segregation signs in the City

Hall; integrated police and fire services and city government Troubled times followed but were overcome The city became known as the city too busy to hate African Americans Take Office Maynard Jackson: Elected mayor of Atlanta in 1973 (1st African American mayor of a major southern city). Andrew Young: An aide to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Executive director of the SCLC. In 1972, won election to the U.S. House of Representatives (1st African American from GA to be elected to

Congress since the 1860s). New Technology Television use expanded in the 1950s ABC, CBS, NBC were major networks Entertainment was important Entertainment was important; People could now watch news events almost as they happened Transformation of Agriculture: New synthetic (man made) fabrics became popular. Examples: Rayon and Nylon Reduced the need for cotton; as the demand for cotton fell other crops/plants began to be grown in place of cotton; trees, peanuts, soybeans, and corn were some of the

major examples New farming technology (i.e. tractors and harvesters) helped improve the amount of products that farmers could grow. Industries Move into Georgia Businesses continued to move into the state Air conditioning began to be installed making year round work more comfortable Georgias low taxes were attractive to workers and businesses Lockheed became largest employer CDC: Centers for Disease Control Atlanta headquarters established

The Cold War Relations between the US and USSR became tense Cold War: a war of words and diplomacy US and USSR were worlds most powerful countries USSR kept eastern Europe in communism behind the iron curtain Containment of communism led to war in Korea and Vietnam The Korean War Korea was divided after WWII 38th parallel was line between communist North and democratic South

June 25, 1950: North Korea invaded South Korea United Nations countries sent troops to assist South Korea 25,000 Americans killed; 500 Georgians Peace declared in July 1953; no winner Many businesses benefited from doing business with the military bases and armed forces The Three Governors Episode Newly re-elected governor Eugene Talmadge died before taking his 4th term of office in 1946 The previous governor, Ellis Arnall, the Lieutenant Governor, and Talmadges son,

Herman, fought over who would govern The Georgia Supreme Court ruled that a special election must be held Herman Talmadge was elected governor in 1947 Georgia Governors Melvin Thomas: purchased Jekyll Island to build a state-owned resort; established UGA Veterinary School Herman Talmadge: Strict segregationist. Minimum Foundation Program for Education Act established 9-month school year raised standards for schools Marvin Griffin: began educational television;

oversaw purchase of Stone Mountain for park Georgia Governors (Cont.) Carl Sanders: elected in 1962; worked to diffuse racial violence; increased spending on education; used television ads to campaign Lester Maddox: elected 1967; surprise winner; appointed more African Americans to state office than all other governors combined; integrated the State Patrol; Peoples Days any Georgian could visit and talk with the governor

Atlantas Mayors William Hartsfield: Served as Atlantas mayor longer than any other person (6 terms from 19371961). Presided over many building projects including expressways and parks throughout the city. After his death in 1971 the Atlanta airport was renamed after him. Ivan Allen, Jr.: Served as Atlantas mayor from 1962-1970. Only politician from the South to speak in favor of the Civil Rights Act. Helped to bring the Braves from Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Atlanta. Major League Sports Teams Atlanta Braves: Moved to Atlanta in 1966. Bought by Ted Turner in 1976. Braves

games began being broadcast nationwide on TBS. Won the World Series in 1995 (first professional title in Atlantas history). Atlanta Falcons: Played their first NFL game in 1966. Played in the Super Bowl in 1998. Atlanta Hawks: NBA team, moved from St. Louis, Missouri to Atlanta in 1968. Ellis Arnall Elected Georgias governor in 1942 Helped to fix the accreditation issues with the University of Georgia (during Eugene Talmadges time as governor) by helping the board of regents become a separate body from the governors office.

Removed Georgias prison system from under the control of the governor. Under Governor Arnall, Georgia became the first state in the Union to grant 18-year olds the right to vote. Transportation Systems Interstate Highway System: Makes transportation through the city easier. Interstates, such as I-20, I-75, and I-85, go through the city of Atlanta. I-95 goes from Florida to Maine and I-75 goes from Miami to Michigan. Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport: One of the busiest airports in the world. Named after two Atlanta mayors (William Hartsfield and Maynard Jackson).

Georgias Deepwater Ports: Two major deepwater ports (Savannah and Brunswick). Goods (products) made in Georgia are frequently shipped to other parts of the world through these ports. Railroads: Allowed for efficient transportation of people and products over land. These four transportation systems are important to GAs economy as they allow people and goods to move throughout the state. Political Changes One Person, One Vote: The concept that each citizens vote should equal every other citizens vote County-unit system was declared

unconstitutional in 1962 This change caused more representatives to come from urban areas Reapportionment General Assembly had to reapportion (redraw) voting districts to ensure districts of equal population size Georgia in the 1970s Ted Turner: TBS television network expanded from one station to a national network MARTA: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority began rapid rail service in Atlanta James (Jimmy) Earl Carter: 1970 elected governor of Georgia; 1977-1980 served as President of the United States

As president, negotiated peace between Israel and Egypt Problems as president: high energy costs, high interest rates, high inflation, 52 American hostages held in Iran Georgia cities began to lose population to the suburbs; cities have began to work to attract residents Jimmy Carter Born: October 1, 1924 in Plains, GA. Elected to the GA Senate in 1962 and 1964. Elected as governor of GA in 1970. Worked to streamline Georgias government and improve education in rural areas.

Won the presidential election in 1976. Worked to develop peaceful relations between numerous countries. Due to the Iranian hostage crisis and economic problems during his presidency, President Carter lost the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan. The Womens Rights Movement Womens Rights Movement: women gained confidence that they could do the same jobs as men and should have the same rights Women often could not get credit at banks NOW: National Organization for Women promoted womens rights issues

ERA: Equal Rights Amendment never became part of the Constitution 1972: Title IX President Nixon signed law which prohibited discrimination in education (academics or athletics) Vietnam Divides America North Vietnam: communist South Vietnam: democratic USA began support South Vietnam against the North 1968: Over 500,000 Americans involved in Vietnam War Protests against the war increased 1973: war ended with no clear victor

Vietnam is now united and communist Watergate 1972: Group of men arrested for breaking into the Watergate building in Washington, DC to bug Democratic National Committee offices Evidence supported that President Nixon knew of the burglary and tried to cover it up Nixon resigned and Vice-President Gerald Ford became president The Energy Crisis 1973: US supports Israel in its war with Egypt

Arab nations stop selling oil to the US Price of gas went up and there were shortages Georgians began to drive less and purchase fuel-efficient cars Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Alaskan Pipeline brought oil to the lower 48 states The End of the Cold War Ronald Reagan: Great Communicator elected president served 1981-1989 Reaganomics: supply-side economics, tax cuts, heavy defense spending, limited government, limited regulation on business Reagan tough with USSR

By end of 1980s, Cold War ending Mikhail Gorbachev: leader of USSR 1989: Berlin Wall came down 1991: Communist USSR government collapsed Rise of the Two-Party System Political shift in Georgia (and other southern states) during the 1980s and 1990s. Increase in the amount of conservatives (mainly Republicans), especially in national elections. As more Republicans were elected to office Georgia began to have a real Two-Party (Democrats and Republicans) System for the first time in over 100 years. Notable Elections in the rise of the Two-Party System:

1980 Mack Mattingly becomes first Republican elected to the U.S. Senate since Reconstruction. 1992 Republicans win most Georgias congressional elections; however, Atlanta Democrat Cynthia McKinney became the first African American woman from GA to be elected to Congress. 1994 Republicans gain a majority in the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years; GAs Newt Gingrich is elected Speaker of the House. 2002 Sonny Perdue elected Governor of GA; first Republican Governor since Reconstruction. 1996 Olympic Summer Games 1996 Olympic Summer Games held in Atlanta,

Georgia. Events were also held in the cities of Savannah, Columbus, Athens, Gainesville, and Cleveland. Major economic impact on Georgia. Hotels added 7,500 new rooms and new sports venues and event sites were created (such as the Georgia Dome and Centennial Olympic Park) More than 72 million visitors came to Atlanta during the Olympics Helped to create large amounts of tax revenue for Atlanta, Georgia. Also, helped to increase the popularity and media exposure of Atlanta as a major southern city. Immigrants Coming to GA

Immigrants People who move to an area from other countries. 1965 Large numbers of immigrants began coming to the United States. By the 1970s almost 4.5 million people legally entered the country. In the 1990s almost 9 million people came to the United States. 80% of these came from Asia, the Caribbean, or Latin America. Many of the immigrants coming to the United States are illegal immigrants. In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act created penalties and punishments for companies that hire illegal immigrants. However, these immigrants often times help fill jobs in farming and manufacturing.

The Day That Changed America September 11, 2001: Islamic terrorists hijack US passenger planes and crash them into the World Trade Center and Pentagon One additional plane (United flight 93) was retaken by passengers but crashed in Pennsylvania WTC towers collapse killing 2,774 The War on Terror began shortly after 9/11 as the United States began to fight against countries that harbored and funded terrorist groups. Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom al-Qaeda linked to the September 11 attacks based in

Afghanistan October 2001: Operation Enduring Freedom US and other nations troops invade Afghanistan to destroy alQaeda camps and destroy Taliban government Osama bin Laden escaped Saddam Hussein in Iraq continued to violate UN resolutions regarding weapons of mass destruction and inspections March 19, 2003: US and coalition forces attack Iraq combat phase over by May Weapons of mass destruction were not found Saddam Hussein captured and later executed on December 30, 2006. Challenges for the Future 8 million people live in Georgia large increase

puts demands on environment; more traffic, pollution and less resources. Three main challenges: 1. water resources 2. differences between urban (city) and rural (country) GA 3. tremendous population growth Alabama, Florida and US government have demanded Georgia reduce water use and pollution Difficult to fund services such as schools in rural areas as those areas do not generate enough tax revenue (mainly through property and sales taxes).

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