FRPA 101-E1 Riparian Management Standards Region I
FRPA 101-E3 RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT STANDARDS REGION III Agenda Background, history, and intent Types of riparian standards Riparian areas by landowner
Allowed uses in riparian areas Other riparian area BMPs Variations from riparian standards Background History 1990 - Riparian management first addressed in FRPA revision focused on Region I 1993 regulations variations, small streams, slope stability standards
2003 FRPA Region III riparian standards were revised with new waterbody classification system and riparian management standards 2004 Region II regulations updated Intent Protect riparian areas from the significant adverse effects of timber harvest activities on fish habitat and water quality. Take into account the economic feasibility of
timber operations Adequate preservation of fish habitat. AS 41.17.115(a), 11 AAC 95.185(a) Fish Habitat Factors
short and longterm source of large woody debris stream bank stability channel morphology water temperatures stream flows water quality adequate nutrient cycling food sources clean spawning gravels sunlight
AS 41.17.115(a) Definition: Riparian area - Region III On private land: the areas subject to riparian protection standards in AS 41.17.116(c) On state and other public land: the area 100 from the shore or bank of an anadromous or high value resident fish water body (AS 41.17.118(a)(3) AS 41.17.950 (23)(A),(C) Measurement of distances
The distance measured must be horizontal distance rather than slope distance; Riparian areas are measured from the OHWM The distance from a tidal zone is measured from the line of mean higher high water mark. 11 AAC 95.280, .810 66 slope distance 66 horizontal
e stanc i d e lop 66 s 66 horizontal Region III water body classes Type III-A A non-glacial high value resident fish
water body >3 feet wide at the OHWM; A non-glacial anadromous water body; or A backwater slough. AS 41.17.950 (39) Type III-A water: Birch Creek Region III water body classes Type III-B A glacial high value resident fish
water body or a glacial anadromous water body; Type III-B water bodies do not include glacial backwater sloughs AS 41.17.950 (40) Type III-B water: Tanana R. Region III water body classes Type III-C A non-glacial high value resident fish water body
that is <3 wide at the OHWM and that does not contain anadromous fish. AS 41.17.950 (38) Typically these are the lower reaches of small streams in close proximity to III-A streams; many are unnamed Keystone Creek
Riparian standards Types of standards DPO information No-cut buffer Special management zone Maintain important fish and wildlife habitat Other riparian BMPs DPOs
DPOs must include: The location and classification of known surface waters adjacent to or within harvest units Any request for variation from riparian standards 11 AAC 95.220(5)(A),(14),.235 Private lands . Type III-A
No timber harvest of timber within 66 of the water body AS 41.17.116 (c)(1) Type III-B No timber harvest within 33 of the water body; Between 33 and 66 from the water body, up to 50% of standing white spruce trees >9 DBH may be harvested without requiring a variation;
AS 41.17.116 (c)(2) Type III-C: Harvest of timber within 100 of the water body must be located and designed primarily to protect fish habitat and surface water quality as determined by DNR with due deference to ADF&G. AS 41.17.116 (c)(3) State & other public
land . Type III-A No timber harvest within 100 of the water body; However, between 66 and 100 from the water body, harvest of timber may be undertaken where consistent with the maintenance of important fish and wildlife habitat as determined
by DNR with the concurrence of ADF&G AS 41.17.118 (a)(3)(A), .119(3) Type III-B No timber harvest within 50 of the water body; Between 50 and 100 from the water body, up to 50% of standing white spruce trees >9 DBH may be harvested without requiring a variation; AS 41.17.118 (a)(3)(B), .119(3)
Type III-C: Harvest of timber within 100 of the water body must be consistent with the maintenance of important fish and wildlife habitat as determined by DNR with due deference to ADF&G AS 41.17.118 (a)(3)(B), .119(3) Planning on state land DNR area and management plans (adopted under AS 38.04.065) may impose additional riparian protection standards for timber
harvest operations On legislatively designated State Forests, riparian standards adopted by DNR may not exceed the FRPA standards unless the commissioner makes a finding of compelling state interest. AS 41.17.118(b) Bristol Bay AP E. Tanana AP Kuskokwim AP Northwest AP
Tanana Valley SFMP Upper Yukon AP Yukon-Tanana AP Eastern Tanana AP REGION III Riparian management on PRIVATE LAND 66 III-B 50 III-A 33
Stream Type 100 150 200 250 Buffer *
Buffe r Buffe r *harvest allowed of up to 50% of white spruce >9 dbh III-C *Buffer *harvest must be designed to protect fish habitat and water quality 300 REGION III Riparian management on STATE and OTHER PUBLIC LAND
100 66 50 IIIA 33 Stream Type 150 200
250 300 * buffer *harvest allowed where consistent with maintenance of important fish and wildlife habitat IIIB *
buffe r *harvest allowed of up to 50% of white spruce >9 dbh IIIC * *harvest must be consistent with maintenance of important fish and wildlife habitat New Fish-bearing Streams DPOs must include: An operator shall promptly inform DOF if a
previously unknown fish water body is found within an operating area. Operations in the vicinity of a newly discovered or reclassified water body that has standing timber remaining in the riparian area must comply with the riparian standards with respect to the remaining timber. 11 AAC 95.220(5)(A),(14),.235. 265(e) Allowed uses in riparian areas DPO notice required
Operations allowed within riparian areas must be identified in the DPO Exception: felling and removing hazard trees along roadways as required by state or federal law is allowed and does not need to be in a DPO. 11 AAC 95.275(a),(b),(c) Allowed uses: roads & crossings Road building and associated activities where access is needed to a water body
crossing, or where there is no feasible alternative. A stream crossing or a road in any riparian area must be designed and located to minimize significant adverse effects on fish habitat and on water quality. 11 AAC 95.275(a)(1), .285(b) A water body crossing built in accordance with the bridge standards. 11 AAC 95.275(a)(2),.300 Allowed uses: materials, blocks
Locating material extraction sites in braided, glacial floodplains in accordance with the regulations for material extraction and disposal sites (11 AAC 95.325); sites must be identified in a DPO. Installing blocks, or similar devices on a tree required for retention under this chapter if the device is installed to minimize damage to the tree. 11 AAC 95.275(a)(4),(5) Allowed uses: lifts, rigging, yarding
The use, as lift trees or tail holds, of trees required for retention under this chapter Hanging of rigging through the riparian area if necessary to be consistent with operator safety requirements and to have a clear line of sight and working area for the rigging On state and other public land, yarding corridors and other logging methods that do not cause a significant adverse impact to the riparian habitat 11 AAC 95.275(a)(6)-(8) Other riparian BMPs
Note: There are additional BMPs in the following sections. This presentation includes only those subsections specific to riparian areas. Felling and bucking If feasible, an operator may not fell a tree into a riparian timber retention area. See also the purple book section on 11 AAC 95.355(e)(1) for compliance monitoring procedures
11AAC 95.355(e) Marking riparian areas Where a riparian timber retention area abuts or is within a harvest unit, mark the limits of the riparian retention area before harvest begins. Each marking must be visible from adjacent markings;
Marking with flagging, painting, or another identification system. 11AAC95.270 (a),(b) Marking riparian areas, cont. Mark while the area is free of snow cover that would prevent accuracy, unless a water body is large, incised, or otherwise identifiable when under snow cover.
A tree on a riparian retention area boundary is in the retention area if >50% of the diameter of the bole of the tree is in the riparian retention area as measured at 4-1/2 feet above the ground or at the top of the root collar, whichever is higher. 11AAC95.270 (c),(d) Blasting Any discharge of explosives in riparian areas in Region III requires a variation.
11 AAC 95.235, .335(a)(2) Bank integrity In a riparian area, where feasible and necessary, leave high stumps to prevent felled and bucked timber from entering surface waters. See also the purple book section on 11 AAC 95.350(c) for objectives and compliance monitoring procedures 11 AAC 95.350(c) Cable yarding
When yarding in or near a riparian area, an operator shall make an effort to minimize soil disturbance and to prevent logs from rolling into surface waters or the riparian area. See also the purple book section on 11 AAC 95.360(c) (4) for objectives and compliance monitoring procedures 11 AAC 95.360(c)(4) Cable yarding Partially or fully suspend logs when yarding. Select landings to minimize side-hill yarding
near the stream or riparian area (e.g., position landings so logs are yarded uphill and away from the stream as much as possible). Do not locate landings near an incised stream, especially when yarding downhill. A high lead system has limited suspension capabilities. See also the purple book section on 11 AAC 95.360(c)(4) for objectives and compliance monitoring procedures Tracked & wheeled systems In
riparian areas: Minimize the number of skidding routes Consistent with good safety practices, log skidding must minimize damage to retained trees, stumps, root systems, understory vegetation, and soils; and Use one-end suspension of logs. 11 AAC 95.365(b) Tracked & wheeled systems Shovel yarding rarely requires a skid trail in the
riparian area. Where feasible, position the shovel outside the riparian area and reach into the area to remove the log. Fell and buck trees within a riparian area so any log segment is reachable from outside the riparian area An operator should be able to lift logs and swing them out of the riparian area with a very little disturbance. On very wet sites, conduct yarding when the ground is frozen.
Purple book section re 11 AAC 95.365(b) Slash burning When slash is disposed of by burning, protect a riparian area from fire, and burn under weather conditions that minimize the chance of air quality degradation and fire escape. 11 AAC 95.370(b) Variations
Variations A forest landowner, timber owner, or operator may propose a variation to allow harvesting of specific trees within a riparian area. DOF shall agree to the proposed variation if it determines that the harm intended to be avoided by the requirement is not likely to occur because of sitespecific circumstances, and is not likely to cause significant harm to fish habitat or water quality AS 41.17.087
Variations: appeals & due deference If DOF does not agree to the proposed variation, the owner or operator may appeal to the DNR commissioner. Appellants must conform to the requirement while the appeal is pending. DNR shall give due deference to ADF&G and DEC for variation determinations
AS 41.17.087 Variations: conditions DOF will consider the impact of the variation harvest on non-merchantable trees within the riparian retention area, and may condition and document a variation authorization to protect non-merchantable trees that are important to maintain fish habitat and water quality. 11 AAC 95.235(d) Region III variations: DPO Include the following information in DPO: A map at 1:12,000 scale or finer that clearly
shows the water body and the approximate location of the requested trees; The length of reach along which the variation trees are requested; The water body classification and average channel width of the reach along which the variation trees are requested; A description of the species and the DBH range of the trees requested for harvesting; 11 AAC 95.220(14)(B) Region III variations: DPO, cont. The minimum distance from OHWM to the proposed variation harvest; and The percentage of trees >9 DBH within
the reach for which any variation is sought that the operator is requesting to harvest, and that were harvested under a prior variation request, if any. 11 AAC 95.220(14)(B) QUESTIONS? Addenda Key to classification system Examples of stream types Key to Region III
waterbody classification s Ye Is it a non-glacial stream <3 wide at OHWM with HVR but not anadrmous fish? Does the waterbody have anadromous or high value
resident fish at least seasonally? Type III-C: Small HVR streams s Ye Type III-B: Glacial waters other than backwater sloughs
Other surface waters Is it a glacial water body other than a backwater slough? No Yes
No No Type III-A: Non-glacial HVR waters >3 wide, non-glacial anadromous waters, & backwater sloughs Type III-A examples Anvik River Birch Cree Birch Lake Chatanika River Chena River
Deadman Lake Delta Clearwater R. Faith Creek Fivemile Clearwater R. George Lake Glacier Creek Goldstream Creek Goodpaster River Harding Lake Healy Lake Hess Creek Jim River Julius Creek
Kateel River Koyukuk River Lignite Creek Long Creek Medicine Lake Otter Creek Piledriver Slough Porcupine River Quartz Lake Richardson Clearwater River Salcha River
Shaw Creek Tolovana River Volkmar Lake Type III-A: Ex. backwater sloughs Totchaket Slough Unnamed sloughs in the Chena system Many unnamed backwaters along the Tanana River Type III-B examples Chisana River Kuskokwim River
Nenana River Phelan Creek Salchaket Slough 17-Mile Slough (Nenana) Soldier Slough Swan Neck Slough Tanana River Teklanika River Tok River Toklat River Wood River Yukon River
Pfiesteria. piscicida (on previous slide) Noctilucales (on current slide) References. Photos: Carr, J. (2006). "Giardialamblia SEM 8698 lores". [Photograph]. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from . The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
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