AND ELSEWHERE Evidence in early China William Herschel (India) used handprints for legal documents
WHY ARE THEY IMPORTANT? Its basically an impression of the pattern of ridges on the last joint of a persons finger They are so useful for ID because: The ridges are unique and characteristic
They are consistent over a persons lifetime There is a systematic classification Are humans the only ones? Why do we have them? POINT 1 THEY ARE UNIQUE Individuality of a print is not determined
by general shape or pattern, but in a careful study of the minutiae (the ridge characteristics) POINT 2 THEY DONT CHANGE
Remember that skin is layers of cells Nearest the surface epidermis Inner skin dermis Boundary of cells separating the dermis and epidermis shape is made up of dermal papillae that determines the form and pattern of the ridges Each ridge populated by single row of pores that are openings for sweat glands perspiration (along with oils) is transferred onto surfaces when touched YOUR PRINT CLOSE UP
POINT 3 THERES A SYSTEM All fingerprints divided into three classes based on general pattern: loops (60-65%)
whorls (30-35%) arches (~5%) IN DA LOOP ulnar loop ridges open towards pinky
finger radial loop ridges open towards thumb core center of the pattern KEEP IN MIND WHICH HAND Ulnar loop (on left, will flow out of right)
Radial loop (on left hand, will flow out of the left) WHORLY-WHORL must have at least two deltas and a core four types plain
central pocket double accidental LOOK CLOSER plain- two deltas with curving ridges central pocket notice different deltas/different ridges
LOOK CLOSER double whorl accidental follows whorl rules, but may include other pattern types GOLDEN simplest to spot ARCHES? ridges enter one
side and exit the opposite plain arch no upthrust in middle of print, ridges flow smoothly from one side to another tented arch has upthrust greater than 45 degrees in middle of print
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