Evidence in text interpretation - oletogeby.dk

Evidence in text interpretation - oletogeby.dk

The Meaning of Movement Ole Togeby Scandinavian Institute Aarhus University AARHUS UNIVERSITY 1 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17

Ole Togeby: The meaning of syntactic position or movement in modern Danish syntax The terms of syntactic position and syntactic movement are metaphors of something which must be described as mind processes of prediction and recall during the language users interpretation of a text. These processes are triggered by lexical items with meaning, and so word order in it self carry meaning too. In my talks Ill discuss the meaning of the positions in Diderichsens sentence scheme, and of the different movements in modern generative syntax. I suggest that the requirement to these explanations is that they are not incompatible with what we know about how the brain works - which in fact both position and movement are. Example to be discussed are objects in front position in Danish, e.g.: Ham kender jeg, so called light objects before the negation, e.g.: Jeg kender ham ikke, and normal objects in the final position: Jeg kender ikke ham der. AARHUS UNIVERSITY

2 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 Types of meaning AARHUS UNIVERSITY 3 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17

AARHUS UNIVERSITY 4 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS UNIVERSITY 5 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement

Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS UNIVERSITY 6 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS UNIVERSITY 7 Scandinavian Institute

Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS UNIVERSITY 8 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS UNIVERSITY

9 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS UNIVERSITY 10 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS

UNIVERSITY 11 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 A model of interpretation process What is communicated Inference of what is implicated Integration of what is presupposed Inferential Accessible Optional What is said what is said

Extraction the relevant implications Unconscous Enrichment of elliptic expressions Disambiguation of lexical items Recognition of reference Involuntary obligatory What is pronouncedwhat is pronouncedwhat is pronounced AARHUS UNIVERSITY 12 Scandinavian Institute

Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 Inferential text interpretation If we take the oral situation as basic, we can thus distinguish between: 1) what is pronounced (known as what is explicit) in uttering a text, 2) what is said by what is pronounced (called the explicature or the coded meaning), and 3) what is implicitly communicated by what is said (both presupposition and implicature). AARHUS UNIVERSITY

13 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 Inferential text interpretation On another dimension we can distinguish between a) information that the speaker indicates as something that should be taking for granted, b) information that the speaker states as new in order to make the audience take it in It gives six type of information: names, predicates, what is named (the reference), what is predicated, what is presupposed and the implicature. AARHUS

UNIVERSITY 14 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS UNIVERSITY 15 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17

C-F-v-sub- s-l\u a-V-LIO-DR-M-IR-PR--A AARHUS UNIVERSITY 16 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 Harry ifoerte sig sin pyjamas Admiralen fratog kaprajnen hans privilegier AARHUS

UNIVERSITY 17 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 Types of information Information Taken for granted Stated What is pronounced

Names (definite noun phrases) Predicates (verb phrases, adjectives, adverbials) What is said in the proposition What is named (the recognizable reference in the mental model) What is predicated as relevant to the audience What is communicate

d What is presupposed by the The implicature of the utterance of the proposition speakers claim of relevance of the predicated information AARHUS UNIVERSITY 18 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 IV.C. Syntaks og

hukommelsesbelastning Her skal det beskrives hvor mange ord lseren skal genkalde sig for at forst forbindelsen mellem to ord der flger efter hinanden tre forskellige steder i en stning: Hvis [1] vi mener [2]at oplysningerne er ndvendige [3] s er det sandsynligt vi gr rettens vej. AARHUS UNIVERSITY 19 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17

AARHUS UNIVERSITY 20 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 AARHUS UNIVERSITY 21 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement

Object position: Jun 14-17 IV.C. Syntaks og hukommelsesbelastning AARHUS UNIVERSITY 22 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 IV.C. Syntaks og hukommelsesbelastning Mellem Hvis og vi skal lseren opbevare t ord i korttidshukommelsen,

nemlig ordet Hvis; der er jo ikke andre ord at huske p. Mellem mener og at skal lseren ogs kun opbevare t ord i korttidshukommelsen, nemlig mener, for den meningsmssige forbindelse er den at at-stningen er objekt for mener; forbindelsen kan ikke vre tttere. Men mellem ndvendige og s, skal lseren, for at forst den meningsmssige forbindelse mellem de to ord, huske p at ndvendige er prdikativ til er, som er det finitte verbal i at-stningen, som er objekt for mener, som er det finitte verbum i Hvis-stningen, som krver et subjekt (i) og verbal ( ) i helstningen, som kan indledes med konjunktionalet s: AARHUS UNIVERSITY 23 Scandinavian Institute

Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 IV.C. Syntaks og hukommelsesbelastning AARHUS UNIVERSITY 24 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 IV.C. Syntaks og hukommelsesbelastning

Et komma mellem ndvendige og s fungerer som et hovedvejsskilt hvor lseren kan stoppe op og s at sige orientere sig p sit mentale kort over stningen, inden det nste ord p stningens hovedvej lses. Her skal meningen med Hvis-stningen sammenfattes, fr s er det sandsynligt overhovedet kan give mening. Mellem at og det foregende ord er der derimod aldrig behov for at stoppe op og sammenfatte, for den meningsmssige forbindelse er umiddelbar og direkte. Hvis man, fordi der str et traditionelt komma, laver en pause i lsningen (eller i oplsningen) p dette sted, vil det vre en hindring for forstelse af sammenhngen. Et komma foran et at er som et falsk hovedvejsskilt p en motorvej; det fr folk til at holde inde hvor de netop skal have fuld fart p. AARHUS UNIVERSITY 25

Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 IV.C. Syntaks og hukommelsesbelastning Derfor er hovedreglen for det anbefalede komma: komma efter en ledstning, ikke komma fr en ledstning. Kommaet signalerer til lseren: nu kommer du fra bivejen ind p hovedvejen (eller i togkupemetaforen: nu gr du fra kupeen ud i vogngangen), nu br du sammenfatte meningen med det ledstningsformede led, fr du gr over til nste led i helstningen. I vejmetaforen kan komma fr og efter parentetiske ledstninger, beskrives som hhv. et skilt med blind vej, nr man krer fra hovedvejen ind p bivejen, og et hovedvejsskilt nr man efter at vre vendt om p den blinde vej igen krer ud p hovedvejen.

AARHUS UNIVERSITY 26 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17 References

Aristoteles (350 BC): Poetics Borchmann, Simon, 2005: Funktionel tekstteori og fiktivt fortllende tekster med refleksiv funktion, Kbenhavn Bergler, Edmond 1956: Laughter and the Sense of Humor, New York Carston, Robyn 2002: Thoughts and Utterances. The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Christensen, Ken Ramshj 2005: Interfaces. Negation Syntax Brain, University og Aarhus Freud, Sigmund (1906) 1979: Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten, Frankfurt am Main Grice, H.P. (1967) 1975: Logic and conversation in Cole, Peter, and Jerry Morgan, 1975: Syntax and

Semantics, vol 3, Speech Acts, New York: Academic Press Peter Harder & Christian Kock 1976: The Theory of Presupposition Failure, Kbenhavn: Akademisk Forlag Kant, Immanuel (1781) 1996: Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Frankfurt am Main Koestler, Arthur 1964: The Act of Creation, London Togeby, Ole 2003: Fungerer denne stning? Funktionel dansk sproglre, Kbenhavn Zijderveld, A. 1976: Humor und Gesellschaft. Eine Soziologie des Humors und des Lachens, Graz Wittgenstein, Ludwig 1969: On Certainty, London Yule, George 1996: Pragmatics, Oxford AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27 Scandinavian Institute Ole Togeby, The Meaning of Movement Object position: Jun 14-17

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