EOCT REVIEW - Troup County School District

EOCT REVIEW - Troup County School District

BIOLOGY EOC REVIEW CELLS Georgia Performance Standards (GPS): SB1. Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. a.Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction. b.Explain how enzymes function as catalysts. c. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids). d.Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion). SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. From smallest to largest Atomsmolecules/compoundsmacromolecules (O2, H2O, CO2) (carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids) organellescellstissues organs (ribosomes, nucleus, mitochondria, etc) Organ systems organisms species population community ecosystem biome

biosphere 4 Major Macromolecules Macromolecule What is it made of? What are its building blocks? How do we get it? What is it used for? Proteins Amino acid Meat, dairy, bean products that you eat enzymes- speed up rxns hormones- send messages thru body structural- hair,

nails, skin Amylase, insulin, hair, nails, every part of your cells! Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Simple carbs(glucose & other fruit simple sugars) Complex carbs- Short term energy use/storage PolysaccharideGlycogen Starch Cellulose pasta Examples of how it is used in body

Lipids Fatty acids and glycerol Unsaturated fatsliquid @ room temp (oil) Saturated fats- solid @ room temp (steak fat) Long term energy storage Cholesterol, adipose tissue Nucleic Acids nucleotides Eating any plant or animal that has DNA in it. Storing genetic information &

Protein synthesis DNA, RNA 4 Major Macromolecules Enzymes Proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the amount of energy needed which makes the reaction happen faster- called catalysts If you didnt have enzymes, reactions would happen too slowly and you might die waiting for the rxn to occur. Enzymes are used to break down food in your body and to build new molecules & organelles. Enzymes are used over & over but are very SPECIFIC in the rxn they participate in. Enzymes can be denatured or destroyed by changes in temperature, pH or salt

What is the optimum temperature for this enzyme? (Optimum means the best.) Two Types of Cells Prokaryotic No nucleus or membrane bound organelles (chloroplast, mitochondria) Simple & smaller than eukaryotic Ex: all bacteria Eukaryotic Has a nucleus & membrane bound organelles More complex & larger than eukaryotic All cells except bacteria Difference between Plant and Animal Cells Organelle Structure Organelle Function

Plant, Animal, or Both? Nucleus Stores DNA, controls cell processes Both Nucleolus Makes ribosomes Both Smallest organelle, site of protein synthesis Both Ribosomes Endoplasmic reticulum Long channels where ribosomes pass while they make proteins Both

Golgi body Takes proteins from ribosomes, reorganizes & repackages them to leave cell Both Lysosomes Store digestive enzymes to clean up dead cell parts, bacteria, etc Animal Vacuole Stores water, waste, food, etc Both (Plant has 1 large vacuole) Cell membrane Controls what goes in & out of cell; maintains homeostasis Both

Mitochondria Makes ATP from food we eat & stores ATP (energy storage molecule); site of cellular respiration Both Chloroplast Traps light and makes sugar for plant; site of photosynthesis Plant Cell Wall Outermost boundary of plant cell; gives support & protection; made of cellulose Plant Centriole Used in cell division

Animal How do molecules get in and out of cell? Cells need to be small so stuff can get in and out quick- otherwise cell would starve or enzymes needed by body would be too slow leaving cell. Molecules pass thru the cell membrane Cell membrane is selectively permeablecontrols what substances can go in & out of the cell Structure of the Cell Membrane Phospholipids- phosphate head and 2 lipid tails that make up the majority of the cell membrane. Create a Bilayer with hydrophilic (water loving) heads on the outside and hydrophobic (water hating) tails on the inside. Channel protein- used in passive transport to let molecules thru. Carrier protein- opens and closes to let molecules thru.

Receptor proteins- receive messages from the outside and sends them to the inside to create a response inside the cell. Diffusion Molecules move from high to low concentration with the concentration gradient (natural flow of molecules; like a river) Eventually molecules spread out evenly and reach equilibrium. Two types of Transport thru Cell Passive transport Molecules move from high to low Goes WITH concentration gradient No energy needed EX: Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion (uses protein) Active Transport

From low to high concentration Goes AGAINST concentration gradient Requires energy Ex: Endocytosis- bringing large molecules in Phagocytosis- solid Pinocytosis- liquid Exocytosis- releases large molecules from cell Osmosis- diffusion of water molecules from high to low concentration Osmosis Hypertonic solutionabove strength= too much solute (salt) outside cell. Water moves to salty side. Hypotonic solutionbelow strength = more salt inside cell so water follows and goes into cell Isotonic- equal strength

of salt and water. Cell Energy Photosynthesis- how plants trap light energy and turn it into chemical energy Cellular Respirationhow plants & animals turn the chemical energy from plants into ATP- energy storage molecule. (Sugar) GENETICS Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. a. b. c. d. e. f. Distinguish between DNA and RNA Explain the role of DNA in storing and transmitting cellular information.

Using Mendels laws, explain the role of meiosis in reproductive variability. Describe the relationships between changes in DNA and potential appearance of new traits including Alterations during replication. Insertions Deletions Substitutions Mutagenic factors that can alter DNA. High energy radiation (x-rays and ultraviolet) Chemical Compare the advantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in different situations. Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture DNA vs. RNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Double helix Original, complete instructions stay in nucleus Made up of Nucleotides Nucleotides made up of Deoxyribose sugar Phosphates Nitrogen bases

Cytosine Guanine Adenine Thymine Ribonucleic acid Single strand Copy of instructions that can leave nucleus Made up of Nucleotides Nucleotides made up of Ribose sugar Phosphates Nitrogen bases Cytosine Guanine Adenine Uracil RNA uses uracil when it copies DNA. This uracil molecule signifies that it is RNA trying to leave the nucleus and not DNA so RNA can leave the nucleus. Otherwise the nucleus

would think the DNA was trying to leave which may be dangerous. Protein synthesis Transcription mRNA makes a copy of segment of DNA mRNA leaves nucleus and attaches to ribosome in endoplasmic reticulum. Translation Ribosome reads mRNA code and calls for matching amino acids Amino acids link together to form polypeptide chain Polypeptide chain goes to golgi body where it rolls into a protein and is secreted by cell or used internally. Protein Synthesis Animation/Tutorial PROTEIN SYNTHESIS How does the cell know which amino acids to bring in? mRNA is written with letters (like a secret code) which are set up in groups of 3s called codons.

Ribosome reads the codons and brings in the matching amino acids Decipher this codon: DNA= AGG CCC TAG RNA= UCC GGG AUC A.A.= Ser Gly Ile DNA Replication DNA needs to copy itself or replicate when the cell gets ready to divide. This is necessary so each new cell gets a copy of the DNA which are the instructions for how the cell functions. DNA helicase enzyme unzips the DNA and DNA polymerase enzyme attaches new nucleotides to create new strands MITOSIS Cell division to make new cells when others are damaged or worn out Somatic cells (all body cells except

gametes) go thru mitosis Cell starts out with full set of chromosomes (diploid-2n) and ends with full set of chromosomes (diploid-2n) Daughter cells are exactly like parent cell- basically clones of parent Human cells start out with 46 chromosomes end up with 46. DNA replication: Meiosis Cell division to make gametes (sex cells) Cell starts out as diploid (full set of chromosomes) and ends up haploid (having half number of chromosomes)

Needs to be haploid so when two gametes join they get the full set of chromosomes. Meiosis splits up chromosomes so there is random chance of mixing of DNA which promotes good genetic variation. Human gametes start out with 46 chromosomes and end up with 23 chromosomes So when a sperm with 23 meets an egg with 23 you get a zygote with 46 chromosomes. Asexual reproduction vs. Sexual reproduction Asexual No sperm or egg are used Clones /identical No genetic variation Susceptible to disease Can reproduce quickly Ex: budding, binary fission Sexual Sperm and egg are joined combining DNA Creates genetic variation/diversity Healthier

Population cant reproduce as quickly b/c they have to search for a mate Ex: human egg (23) + human sperm (23) = zygote (46) TYPES OF SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL Produces diploid (2N) cells New cells are clones of parent cell Types: Mitosis

Binary fission Produces haploid (N) gametes (sperm/egg) New cells are genetically varied from parent cell (due to crossing over) This is why two offspring dont look exactly alike (unless identical twins) Gametes are made by meiosis Types: Piece breaks off and grows into new organism Multicellular animals Sponges, coral polyps, plants New organism grows off of parent

Multicellular animals Sponges, coral polyps Propagation One plant gives rise to another Strawberry plants Conjugation Separate male and females of species Males must get sperm to female- do not always have a penis Spawning Exchange DNA (not sperm/egg)

Bacteria & protists Sexual Budding Splits into two Unicellular Bacteria & protists Fragmentation Splits into two Multicellular Used to make more new cells, repair Humans & higher animals

SEXUAL Release sperm & eggs into water where by chance they unite to form zygote Sponges, jellyfish, fish Hermaphrodites Organisms contain both sperm and egg Exchange sperm with another to fertilize eggs DO NOT fertilize their own eggs (cloningwhich leads to easy disease transmission) Worms, lower invertebrates Heredity Vocabulary Gene- a segment of DNA that codes for a certain trait (seed color) Allele- a variation of a gene (green allele, yellow allele) Phenotype- the physical description of a gene (green seed) Genotype- two alleles you inherit for a gene; represented by letters (GG, Gg, gg)

You always get two alleles for a geneone comes from your mom, one comes from your dad You can pass these alleles onto your future children Whether the kids express the allele or not depends on if they inherit dominant or recessive alleles. Dominant Allele- masks a recessive allele (EX: G) Recessive Allele- is overpowered by dominant allele (EX: g) Heterozygous- one dominant one recessive allele (Gg) Also called carrier or hybrid Homozygous dominant- two dominant alleles (GG) Also called purebred Homozygous recessive- two recessive alleles (gg) Also called purebred asdf Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel- father of genetics

came up with 3 laws when researching heredity: 1. Rule of dominance- always a dominant allele that can mask a recessive one 2. Law of Segregation- when gametes are made the allele pairs are separated and divided up amongst your new sperm or egg 3. Law of Independent Assortmentgenes are inherited independently of each other; explains how alleles can skip a generation. Law of Independent Assortment Punnett Squares Be able to complete simple Punnett Squares Be able to determine phenotype percentages and ratios Be able to determine genotype percentages and ratios Non-Mendelian Genetics Codominance- both alleles are dominant so both show

Ex: white chicken (WW) crossed with black chicken (BW) gives black and white checkered chicken (BW) Occurs with blood cells: sickle cell anemia (SS), sickle cell trait (RS), normal cells (RR) Incomplete Dominanceneither is completely dominant so they blend to produce new phenotype EX: red flower (RR) crossed with a white flower (RR) produces a pink flower (RR) Non-Mendelian Genetics Multiple Alleles- more than two alleles for a gene EX: Blood types can be A, B, or O Type A= AA or AO

Type B= BB or BO Type AB = AB Type O= OO Polygenic Traits- controlled by more than one gene on a chromosome EX: skin color, eye color, hair color Sex Chromosomes Autosomes- first 22 pairs of chromosomes Sex Chromosomes- last pair of chromosomes If last pair are XX= girl If last pair are Xy= boy Females can only donate Xs to their kids Males can donate X or y to kids so he determines gender of baby Non-Mendelian Genetics X-Linked Traits (Sex-Linked Traits) Xs carry some traits, ys

cant b/c they are stumpy X-linked traits are passed on the X chromosome that is always donated by mom to her kids Boys have the trait more than girls b/c y chromosome cannot carry a dominant trait to mask a recessive one (remember it is too stumpy) Girls are usually carriers Boys can NEVER be carriers b/c they only get one allele- either the dominant or the recessive. Pedigrees Show inheritance patterns of traits Sex-linked pedigree of royal family afflicted with hemophilia Chromosomal Disorders Nondisjunctionchromosomes didnt separate correctly during meiosis. Gamete gets too many or not enough

chromosomes Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)too many chromosome #21. DNA mutations Frameshift mutations- Insertions, deletions, translocations that shift the entire reading frame & cause major mutations Point mutations- substitutions of one letter that may not have an affect on phenotype Genetic Disorders Most of these can be detected with an amniocentesis followed by a karyotyping of the persons chromosomes. Sex-Linked Disorders- present on sex chromosomes of mom and/or dad.

Colorblindness Hemophilia- blood clotting disorder Dominant Allele Disorders- if the allele for this disease is present, the person will have the disease/disorder Achondroplasia (dwarfism) Huntingtons disease- degenerative nerve/muscle disorder shows up later in life Recessive Allele Disorders- must have two copies of the disease allele to have the disease/disorder. Albinism- lack pigment in skin, eyes, hair, etc. Tay Sachs disease- develops in toddlers, progressive degenerative nerve/muscle disorder Phenylketonuria (PKU)- cant drink milk or other items that contain phenylalanine Cystic fibrosis- develop thick mucus in lungs & stomach Technology DNA Fingerprints Gel electrophoresis- push DNA thru gel using electricity Determine suspect at scene of crime, paternity, missing persons Who left the semen sampleChris or Randall? Genetic Engineering Cut human DNA to remove desired trait, splice into

bacterial or host DNA (plasmid), reinsert into bacteria or host, which will produce desired trait Also called recombinant DNA, gene splicing Make insulin, GM foods, cure some diseases EVOLUTION Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) SB5 Students will evaluate the role of natural selection in the development of the theory of evolution. a. Trace the history of the theory. b. Explain the history of life in terms of biodiversity, ancestry, and the rates of evolution. c. Explain how fossil and biochemical evidence support the theory. d. Relate natural selection to changes in organisms. e. Recognize the role of evolution to biological resistance (pesticide and antibiotic resistance). Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Lamarck Theory of Use/Disuse- if

you dont use a part you will lose it. Inheritance of Acquired Traits- an organism obtains a trait during life (large muscles) so offspring are born with that trait No longer accepted theory Darwin Descent w/modificationorganisms come from a common ancestor Natural Selection All organisms produce more offspring than can survive. All offspring are genetically varied (may not always be obvious based on phenotype) Variations in genes enable some offspring to outcompete others Those with negative traits die, taking those to the grave. Those with positive traits survive, reproduce, and pass on to offspring. Eventually the entire POPULATION evolves- changes gradually over time.

Types of Natural Selection Directional- population moves from one extreme to the other Disruptive/Diversifying- extreme phenotypes are favored Light and dark are favored, medium stick out Stabilizing- average phenotypes are favored Plants- short plants cant compete for sunlight so they die, tall plants cant withstand winds so they die, this leaves medium height trees In peppered moths there are two major phenotypes- light color and dark color Before the Industrial Revolution: After the Industrial Revolution:

Light moths blend in, dark moths stick out, dark get eaten Dark phenotype gets eaten so not very common so the dark allele is not frequent Dark moths blend in, light moths stick out, light get eaten Light phenotype gets eaten so not very common so the light allele becomes less frequent This change in the moth population over time is EVOLUTION of a population. Change in Moth Phenotype from 1800s-1900s Notice the peak of the blue line is over the light phenotype 120 Notice the peak of the red line is over the dark phenotype 100

80 Moth Population Before Industrial Revolution After Industrial Revolution 60 40 20 0 very light light medium dark very dark Phenotypes of Moths

This shows that the population evolved from light being more common before Industrial revolution to dark after. This type of natural selection is called Directional selection Patterns of Evolution 1. Adaptive Radiation (divergent evolution) Many species evolve from a common ancestor EX: Darwins finches 2. Coevolution 2 species evolve in response to each other EX: fast cheetahs vs. faster

gazelles 3. Convergent Evolution 2 different species evolve to have the same trait b/c they live in similar environments EX: Madagascar aye-aye & New Guinea striped opossum both have elongated middle finger for digging bugs out of trees but live in different parts of the world. Rates of Evolution 1. Gradualism Small, gradual steps Traits remain unchanged for millions of years 2. Punctuated Equilibrium Abrupt transitions Seen in fossil record Rapid spurts of genetic change caused

divergence quickly 1. Disease Resistance Bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics b/c of the misuse of antibiotics. Bacteria are building resistance. Insects are also building resistance to pesticides due to overuse & improper use of the chemicals. Industrial melanism- peppered moths changed due to pollution. Generally, organisms that are more general in their needs survive. A species that requires a specific food source or habitat will be less able to change. What are some current trends in evolution?

2. Artificial Selection Genetically modified foods Selective breeding in dogs & plants (crops) http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educator s/lessons/lesson6/act1.html Evidence for Evolution Fossils- compare fossils to look for evidence of change over time Biogeography- compare locations of organisms to find common ancestors Homology Homologous structurescomparing structural similarities Molecular similarities- comparing DNA btwn organisms Vestigial structures- parts no longer have a fxn (appendix, wisdom teeth) but may have in

an ancestor Embryological evidencecomparing embryo development to see relationships Cladograms/Phylogenetic Trees 1. Show evolutionary relationships 2. Like a family tree Cladograms/Phylogentic Trees Which two animals are more closely related? Chimp & Bonobo Which two animals are least closely related? Gibbon & Human Classification key/Dichotomous key1. Type of tool used to identify unknown organisms. 2. Use a series of steps to identify an organism starting with its most general traits & ending with its most specific traits.

How to read one: 1.Read 1st two statements. Which ever is correct about your organism, follow the instructions. Keep doing this until you reach a scientific name. 2.See example on next slide Bird W Geospiza Bird X Platyspiza Bird Y Certhidea Bird Z Camarhynchus Scientific Naming Rules 1. Written in Latin- old language/never changes

2. Italicized when typed; underlined when written 3. First word is genus name- capitalized 4. Second word is species name- lowercase Species name can represent: Color- ex: Acer rubrum is a red maple Who discovered it- ex: Friula wallacii is a spider discovered by Wallace Place where discovered- ex: Aplysia

californica is a California Sea Hare Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates This is the classificatio n for a human Family Hominidae Genus Homo Species sapien Our scientific name is Homo sapien ECOLOGY Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities,

ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems by Arranging components of a food chain according to energy flow. Comparing the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid Explaining the need for cycling of major nutrients (C, O, H, N, P). c. Relate environmental conditions to successional changes in ecosystems. d. Assess and explain human activities that influence and modify the environment such as global warming, population growth, pesticide use, and water and power consumption. e. Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. (in Organism section) f. Relate animal adaptations, including behaviors, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions. (in Organism section) Levels of Organization in Ecology Population- group of same species in an area (ex: all grey squirrels) Community- group of many different populations (ex: grey squirrels, hawks,

ants, pigeons, students) Ecosystem- interaction btwn organisms and the environment (ex: how squirrels use water, how plants remove nutrients from soil) Biomes- group of similar ecosystems; have similar climates, plants, animals (ex: desert, rainforest, grasslands) Biosphere- all of the biomes, plants, animals, on the planet Food Chains and Webs Food chains show one simple relationship in an ecosystem Arrows show TRANSFER OF ENERGY! Food webs show many (but not all) relationships in an ecosystem Trophic Levels

Every organism occupies a trophic level in a food chain/web Producers- make their own food (autotrophs); bottom of food chain Primary consumers- herbivores that get energy from producer Secondary consumer- carnivore that gets energy from herbivore Tertiary consumer- carnivore or omnivore that gets energy from secondary consumer; top of the food chain Decomposers vs. Scavengers Secrete enzymes onto food and absorb nutrients thru cell wall Recycle nutrients back to soil EX: bacteria, fungi Sometimes steal food from others b/c they are usually too weak to

kill themselves Eat with mouth EX: vultures, worms, ants Ecological Pyramids Energy pyramids- show that energy decreases as you go up food chain Biomass pyramidsshow that mass of available food/organisms decrease as you go up food chain Biogeochemical cycles Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur, Water all must be recycled so new organisms can grow Basic steps: Plants absorb nutrient from soil (nitrogen, sulfur) or air (carbon, oxygen) Animal eats plant Animal dies, defecates, respires and bacteria return nutrient back

to soil or air Succession Primary- happens in an environment for the first time; pioneer species= lichens & moss; ex: after new volcanic island formed Secondary- happens in an environment after a disturbance; pioneer species = weeds/grass; ex: after forest fire, farm left fallow, pond fills in and becomes forest. Population Growth Most populations grow exponentially when theres plenty of food, water shelter (1800-1850 on this graph) Eventually those limiting factors start to dwindle and population growth slows and levels off. (1850-1925) Population might oscillate around carrying capacity- #

of organisms that can be supported by an area. What is the carrying capacity of this population? 1.5 million BIOME CLIMATE PLANT ADAPTATIONS ANIMAL ADAPTATIONS Tropical rainforest Warm all year round Gets most precip. Layered forest Broad, big leaves to capture sunlight in understory; variety of seed adaptations Arboreal (live in trees); long prehensile tails, gliders; insects, monkeys Desert

High temperatures Low precipitation Succulents- store water; spines for protection and decreased transpiration; cacti, aloe Large ears to dissipate heat; burrowers; nocturnal; insects, reptiles, coyotes, jack rabbits Grasslands Tall grasses; a few trees near sources of water Savanna- Africa Prairie- U.S. High temperatures Moderate precipitation Savannas get more rainfall than prairies Frequent fires Grazing animals Feed at different levels to avoid competition

Burrowing animals Temperate Deciduous Forest Moderate temperature Moderate precipitation Deciduous trees- lose leaves in winter to conserve water Oaks, hickory, maple, sweetgum Hibernate in winter Dull colors to blend in with tree trunks or dead leaves in fall/winter Deer, raccoons, squirrels, snakes Taiga/Coniferous forest Long, cold winters Short cool summers Evergreen/coniferous trees- wax on needles prevents water loss so they keep leaves all year; thick bark; pyramid shaped tree to slough snow; shallow roots

Broad hooves/feet to walk on snow; thick fur/blubber; moose, elk, wolverines, insects Tundra Long cold winters Short cool summers Small plants to prevent water loss, grow close to ground to get maximum sun/warmth; lichens, moss, small flowering plants Broad hooves/ feet to walk on snow; thick fur/blubber; hibernate; polar bears, caribou/reindeer, seals POLLUTANT/ ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM CAUSE OF POLLUTANT Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Burning coal in power plants and diesel fuel in trucks

Carbon dioxide (CO2) Deforestation- fewer trees to remove CO2; increasing population = increasing use of fossil fuels Fertilizers used on yards, golf courses; animal waste from livestock (cows, pigs); raw sewage from broken pipes EFFECT OF POLLUTANT Ozone depletion Use of ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs) in spray cans (now banned) and CFCs in refrigerants in air conditioners (still used) Increases air pollution which can cause respiratory problems; causes acid rain Increases greenhouse gases in atmosphere which trap heat and lead to global climate

change N2 flows into lakes/ponds, algae grow, die, decompose, oxygen levels in water decrease due to too many bacteria, fish die due to lack of oxygen. This process is called EUTROPHICATION Thinning of the ozone layer in the stratosphere over Antarctica; increase in UV rays reaching Earth; increased skin cancer rates Global warming Increased use of fossil fuels (mostly attributed to CO2 and methane release) Intensifies the greenhouse effect (Greenhouse effect is a good thing b/c otherwise it would be too cold- but too much of a good thing can be bad!) Sea levels rise due to icecaps/glaciers melting; flooding along coast; climate change in some areas- dry areas become wet, wet become dry; will affect ability to grow crops; animal

migration/hibernation is disrupted Nitrogen (N2) ORGANISMS Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) SB3 Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. b. Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms c. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms. PROKARYOTES (no nucleus or membrane bound organelles) Domain Kingdom DOMAIN ARCHAEA EUKARYOTES (have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles)

DOMAIN BACTERIA DOMAIN EUKARYA Kingdom Archaea Kingdom Eubacteria K. Protista K. Plantae K. Fungi K. Animalia Extreme bacteria Common bacteria

Mostly unicellular multicellular mostly Multicellul ar Multicellular Prefer salty, hot, or high pH environment Prefer normal warm, moist environment Cell walls made of cellulose in some Cell walls made of cellulose Cell walls

made of chitin No cell walls Autotrophic or heterotrophic autotrophic Heterotrophic heterotrophic Characteristics Viruses Ex: chicken pox, herpes, HIV, cold/flu Not considered living b/c they do

not grow, develop, need energy, must have a host cell to reproduce. Do have DNA or RNA but b/c they do not have ALL characteristics of life they are not considered living. FYI: You CANNOT take an antibiotic to get rid of a virus. When you contract a virus you become immune thanks to antibodies created to fight future infection. Antibiotics work on bacteria only. BACTERIA Prokaryotic Smallest, simplest of all living things Prefer warm, moist environments

Heterotrophic & some autotrophic Reproduction- conjugation & binary fission Importance: decomposers, recycle nutrients to soil, flavorings in food, nitrogen fixers, help digest food Most can be killed by antibiotics which weaken their cell walls and cause them to burst. Ex: Salmonella, streptococcus, E. coli KINGDOM PROTISTA General traits of all protists Eukaryotic, mostly unicellular, some have cell walls, some autotrophic, some heterotrophic Protists are classified into 3 groups Animal-like protists Plant-like protists Fungus-like

protists Classified based on Method of movement Color of chlorophyll Method not mentioned Types Sarcodines move with pseudopods ex: amoeba Eulgena are both animallike & plant-like but more plant-like (green) Slime molds Ciliates move with cilia ex: paramecium

Green algae found in freshwater Downy mildews & water molds- caused potato blight in Ireland Flagellates move with flagella Ex: trychonympha Diatoms used as abrasives Sporozoans dont move ex: plasmodium (causes malaria) Dinoflagellates- cause red tide that poisons shellfish REPRODUCTION IN SIMPLE ORGANISMS (bacteria & protists) BINARY FISSION- nucleic CONJUGATION- Nucleic acid (DNA) is copied and cell acids (DNA) are

divides (asexual) exchanged (sexual) Animal-like protist Plant-like protist KINGDOM PLANTAE General Characteristics Eukaryotic, multicellular, cell walls w/cellulose, autotrophic TWO MAIN GROUPS OF PLANTS: 1. Nonvascular- no xylem or phloem, typically small, no true roots, stems, leaves, need moisture for reproduction (ferns, mosses) 2. Vascular- have xylem (carries water) and phloem (carries sugar) vessels for movement of material thru plant (trees, flowers, pine trees, grass, etc.) Nonvascular ferns & mosses need water to transport sperm to egg so found in moist, shady areas Use alternation of generations for reproduction (oscillate btwn sexual & asexual reproduction) Two main groups of Vascular Plants:

1. Gymnosperm- produces seeds in cones (ex: pine tree) 2. Angiosperm- produces seeds in flower (ex: deciduous trees, roses) Roots- take up nutrients & water from soil. Store sugar during the winter PARTS OF A VASCULAR PLANT Stems- contain xylem & phloem, pathway to connect roots to leaves. Leaves- contain chloroplasts to collect sunlight for photosynthesis. Can be modified into spines (cactus), needles (pine needle) to prevent water loss or vines, tendrils for climbing Flowers- contain reproductive organs to make pollen & egg, colorful or have smell to attract pollinators. KINGDOM FUNGI General Characteristics Eukaryotic, mostly multicellular, cell walls made of chitin, heterotrophic Types Club fungi Sac fungi Imperfect

fungi Terrestrial mold Examples Bread mold Importance of fungi: Mushrooms Truffles, morels penicillium Penicillin is made from penicillium mold- used as an antibiotic; cause disease; decomposers; source of food (mushrooms); used to make food (yeast to make bread) KINGDOM ANIMALIA General characteristics: Eukaryotic, multicellular, no cell walls, heterotrophic

TWO MAJOR GROUPS Invertebrates: no Chordates: has a backbone, no true spinal backbone/spinal cord cord (most have a nerve cord to react to stimuli) INVERTEBRATES Porifera (sponges) Cnidarian (jellyfish, coral, sea anemone) Flatworm (planarian) Roundwrm (ascaris) Annelids (segmentd worms) Mollusks

(snails, squid, clams) Echinoderms (starfish) Arthropod (insects, crustacean s) Feeding Filter feeder Nematocyst to sting prey; one opening Dig. Enzymes dissolve food use straw like tube to suck up food; one opening

2 body openingsmouth & anus; some parasitic 2 body openings; crop (stores food) gizzard (grinds) 2 body openings; snailstongue to scrape algae; clams- filter; squid- beak 2 body openings; eject stomach 2 body openings; various mouth

parts Reproduction Fragmentation; budding; hermaphrodi tes Sexual- male & females; budding Hermaphrodi tes Sexualmales & females Hermaphrodi tes Snailhermaphrodites Clams & squidseparate sexes Regeneration of body

parts; separate sexes Separate sexes- male & female Special Traits Spiculesneedle-like parts for body support Tentacles; statocystcells help maintain balance Pharynxstraw like tube that sucks up food; eyespots Parasiticcause disease

Segmented bodies; leeches are parasitic Gastropodssnails Bivalvesclams Cephalopods - squid Spiny skin Variety of adaptations Chitin in exoskeleton Body shape VERTEBRATES Class Agnatha (lamprey) Class Chondrichthyes

(sharks) Class Osteichthyes (bony fish) Class Amphibia (frogs/toads) Class Reptilia (lizards, snakes) Class Aves (birds) Class Mammalia (mammals) General traits Slimy skin, no scales, no jaws

Small scales, rough skin, biting jaws Distinct scales, biting jaws Moist, smooth skin used for breathing Dry, smooth scaly skin Skin covered in feathers, feet have scales Skin has hair, mammary glands Skeleton Cartilage

Cartilage Bone Bone Bone Bone Bone Respiratory Gill slits Gills Gills with operculum (gill covering) Breathe thru skin, also have gills as tadpoles & lungs as

adults Lungs Lungs with air sacs for extra oxygen storage Lungs with diaphragm muscle for taking in large amts. of air Heart chambers 2 chambered heart 2 chambered heart 2 chambered heart

3 chambered heart 3 chambered heart 4 chambered heart (sep. oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood 4 chambered heart Reproductio n Separate sexes Separate sexes Separate sexes; some spawn

Separate sexes; need water to keep eggs moist Separate sexes; lay amniotic egg on land Separate sexes; lay amniotic egg in nests Separate sexes; have pouch or placenta for growing baby Special Adaptations Parasites of other fish

Have lateral line sys. For detecting prey Have swim bladder for floating in water Tadpoles live in water, adults on land Amniotic egg keeps baby moist so no water needs Eat constantly to get energy for flight Variety of adaptations

PLANT BEHAVIORS Tropisms- plant movements Positive- moves toward the stimulus Negative- moves away from the stimulus Phototropism- response to light Geotropism- response to gravity Hydrotropism- response to water Thigmotropism- response to touch ANIMAL BEHAVIORS Innate- instinctive behavior- born with this; sea turtle babies move toward ocean when they hatch

Learned- not born with this; gorillas can learn to communicate w/computers Hibernation- body systems slow during cold months to conserve energy Migration- move with rainfall to keep up with food/water source; wildebeest migration across savanna in Africa Territoriality- defend a territory/mates Estivation- hibernate during dry season

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