Employees' Development - srsiwok

Employees' Development - srsiwok

Group behavior, teams and conflicts Prepared for UHS 2062 and SHP 1313 LECTURES at UTM Skudai. Prepared by Siti Rokiah Siwok [email protected] Introduction Employee seldom work in isolation ( Mullins, 2006). Groups are characteristics of all social situations ( Mullins, 2006).

Most employee behaviour takes place in groups or teams; thus important to understand group dynamics (Aamodt, 2007) People in groups influence each other in various ways. Groups may develop hierarchies and leaders . Style of leadership affect groups. Introduction Groups are crucial to the functions of work organizations because through work

groups : Members can pool their resources (talents , energy etc) Provide professional identities for members Satisfies the human need for social interaction Develop of interpersonal relationship on the job Help establish rules for proper behaviour in the work setting and thus play a role in determining the course of action the work and

Definition of a group No agreed definition. Any no. of people interacting with one another, psychologically aware of one another and perceived themselves to be in a group ( Schein, 1988 in Mullins 2006). A group is two or more individuals engaged in social interaction to achieve some goal (Riggio, 2009) A definable membership, group consciousness, shared purpose, interdependence, interaction and ability to

act in a unitary manner ( Adair, 1986 in Mullins 2006) Definition of a group Four criteria must be met (Gordon, 2001 in Aamodt, 2010): Members see themselves as a unit Group must provide rewards to members Members of the group share a common goal

Corresponding effects(whatever happens to a member affects every other member). Groups and Norms Norms are rules that groups adopt governing appropriate and inappropriate behavior for members. Norms have several purposes, they: Facilitate

group production. Increase prediction of group member behavior. Provide a sense of identity to the group. Basic Group Process: Conformity Conformity is the process of adhering to group norms. Conformity is often very strong and

helps maintain order and uniformity in group behavior. Extreme and repeated norm violation results in ostracism from the group. Members who have more power (e.g., the group leader) or who usually conform to norms are more likely to be successful in nonconforming behavior. Basic Group Processes: Group efficacy Group efficacy is a groups shared belief

that they can attain organizational outcomes. Individual member self-efficacy contributes to group efficacy, which in turn increases cohesiveness and productivity (Pescosolido, 2003, in Riggio 2009). Group efficacy is a better predictor of group performance than the sum of individual members self-efficacy. Group efficacy enhances job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Leaders can have an important effect on

group efficacy (Walumbwa et al., 2004, in Riggio 2009). Basic Group Processes Cooperation is very likely in work groups because it is difficult to accomplish work goals alone. Cooperation is often based on the reciprocity rule, the tendency for

persons to pay back those to whom they are indebted for assistance. Cooperation increases with task interdependence, the degree to which an individuals task performance depends on the efforts/skills of others. Social loafing occurs when individuals working in groups exert less effort than when they work alone. Basic Group Processes : Competition Competition is the process whereby

group members are pitted against one another to achieve individual goals. Wage systems in the U.S. and internationally are often competitive in nature (e.g., bonuses, promotions available). While competition may increase motivation to perform, the introduction of competition when goals are already set may lead to a decrease in

performance (Campbell & Furrer, 1995). Reasons for joining a group Assignment Physical proximity Affiliation (to fulfill the need to be with people) Identification Emotional support Assistance or help

Common interest Common goals Factors affecting Group Performance Group cohesiveness Group homogeneity Stability of membership Isolation External pressure Group size Group status

Group ability and confidence Personality of group members Communication network Group roles Presence of others Individual dominance Groupthink

Factors affecting Group Performance: Cohesiveness Group cohesiveness It is the extent to which group members like and trust each other, committed to accomplish a team goal and share a feeling of group pride ( Beale, Cohen, Burke & McLendon, 2003 in Aamodt, 2010) Cohesiveness is the degree of attraction among group members ( Riggio, 2009) Cohesiveness

Cohesiveness increases member satisfaction, but only increases productivity when it is work-related. Cohesiveness increases when group members have equal status. Cohesiveness increases with increased stability of group membership. Greater similarity of group members increases cohesiveness. The we-they feeling is cohesiveness created by the existence of a threat to the

group. Group Cohesiveness Group Cohesiveness are influenced by many elements: 1. Group homogeneity It is the extent to which members are similar Homogeneous or heterogeneous will lead to the best group performance?

2. Stability of membership The greater the stability, the greater the cohesiveness Thus members who remain for long periods of time are more cohesive and perform better than groups that have high turnover (Bell, 2005 in Aamodt, 2007) Group Cohesiveness 3. Isolation Group that is isolated tends to be highly cohesive 4. External pressure Groups that are pressured by external forces tend to be

highly cohesive; which can be explained by the phenomena psychological reactance ( Brehm, 1966 in Aamodt, 2007) 5. Group size Groups are most cohesive and perform best when the size is small. However, not all small group are always the best; also depends on the tasks. Group cohesiveness: Group Size

Smaller is best for cohesiveness Performance depends on task type additive tasks conjunctive tasks disjunctive tasks 17 Group Size and tasks

Additive tasks are the those for which the groups performance is equal to the sum of the performances by each group member. Each group members contribution is important. Larger group is better than small group Group Size and tasks

Conjunctive tasks are those for which groups performance depends on the least effective groups member. Smaller groups are best. Disjunctive tasks are those for which the groups performance is based on the most talented group members. Larger groups are better. Examples of Task Types Task Type

Group Activity Additive Typing pool Relay race Bowling team Car washing Problem solving Brain storming Golf tournament

Assembly line Hiking Disjunctive Conjunctive 20 Group Size: variations The additional of a new member to a group

has the greatest effect when the group is small. Example: a single great player can turn a poor basketball into a victorious team. The effect of size is also different with different apparatus used. Example: With the use of computers, larger groups appear to perform best and members are most satisfied (Dennis, Valacich and Nunamaker, 1990 etc in Aamodt, 2010) Group Cohesiveness

6. Group status The higher the group status, the greater is the cohesiveness; thus a group can be made more cohesive by increasing its status, at least in the eyes of the members. Factors affecting Group Performance Group ability and confidence Groups with high-ability members outperform groups with low-ability members Groups whose members believe that their team

can be successful perform better than those whose members are not confident. Personality of group members Groups with members who score high in openness and emotional stability will perform better that groups whose members do not have these characteristics ( Bell, 2005 in Aamodt, 2007) Factors affecting Group Performance Communication network Communication network affects groups

performance The best network depends on the situation and the goals of the group. A good leader must choose the best communication network which facilitates the achievement of the groups goals. Communication Structure Chain Bob Jill

Centralized Peggy Jill Peggy Bob Circle Jill Bob

Peggy Open Jill Peggy Bob 25 Factors Affecting Group Performance: Group Roles

Roles are patterns of behavior that are adapted based on expectations about the functions of a position in a group. Role expectations are beliefs concerning the responsibilities and requirements of a particular role. Role differentiation is the process by which group members learn to perform various roles. (Riggio,

2009) Roles Early researchers (Benne and Sheats, 1948) identified three categories of work roles in groups. Group task roles are related to getting the job done (e.g., leader, evaluator). Group building and maintenance roles deal with maintaining personal

relationships among members (e.g., encourager, compromiser). Self-centered roles involve satisfying personal rather than group goals (e.g., recognition seeker, aggressor). Riggio, 2009, page (Riggio, 2009 page 310) Roles Role ambiguity involves a sense

of uncertainty over the requirements of a particular role. Role conflict results when the expectations associated with one role interfere with the expectations concerning another role. Roles Organizational socialization is the

process by which new employees learn group roles and norms and develop specific work skills and abilities. Organizational socialization occurs in stages. Anticipatory socialization: new employees develop expectations concerning the job and assess they fit

in the organization. Accommodation: new employees learn about work group roles and norms. Role management: newcomers transition to regular members. Factors Affecting Group Performance: Presence of Others Social Facilitation and Inhibition mere presence of others

comparison of performance evaluation apprehension distraction Social Loafing effort wont be noticed free-rider theory sucker-effect theory 32 Factors affecting Group

Performance :Individual Dominance By the group leader If the leader has an accurate solution to a problem in the group, then the group performs at high level. By a group member 33 Factors affecting Group Performance:

Groupthink Groupthink is a syndrome characterized by a concurrence-seeking tendency that overrides the ability of a cohesive group to make critical decisions. Factors affecting Group Performance: Groupthink Can occur when the group : is cohesive is insulated from outsiders

believes it is infallible it is morally superior is under pressure to conform has a leader who promotes a favorite solution has gatekeepers who keep information from members (Aamodt, 2010)

35 Riggio, 2009, page Group versus Individual Performance When several people work individually on a problem but do not interact, they are called nominal group. When several individuals interact to solve problems are called interacting group. Research shows that interacting group will

usually outperform one individual, but interacting groups do not outperform nominal groups ( Kerr and Tinsdale, 2004 in Aamodt 2010) Group versus Individual Performance Interacting Groups Are more risky Individuals (nominal groups) Are more creative and higher quality ( comparison using brainstorming

activities) Make a decision more quickly 38 Nominal versus Interacting groups There is a tendency for interacting groups to take more extreme positions than the positions of individual members. This tendency is called polarization. Thus : Group polarization is the tendency

for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than those made by individuals ( Riggio, 2009) Nominal versus Interacting groups The superiority of nominal group over interacting groups may depend on the type of task. Wilson (2007 in Aamodt, 2010) criticizes the results of research which seem to

conclude the superiority of nominal over interacting groups. He believes that the tasks were too easy and if the tasks were difficult, the interacting group are superior. Groups or teams? Groups or teams? Not all groups are teams. Teams occurs when a number of people

have a common goal and recognize that their personal success is dependent on the success of others. They are all interdependent ( Crainer, 1998, in Mullins 2006) Teams verses groups Teams are more likely to consist of people with diverse abilities, with their own specialization and different perspectives to ensure the completion of a common task. Eg: a surgical team.

Teams usually develops more interdependence compared to groups. Members in teams have high degree of group identity and thus more like to identify themselves as a team. ALL TEAMS CONSIST OF GROUPS, BUT NOT 43 Comparison :Group and team TEAM GROUP

Size Limited Medium or large Selection Crucial Immaterial

Leadership Shared or rotating Solo Perception Mutual knowledge understanding

Focus on leader Style Role spread coordination Convergence conformism Spirit

Dynamic interaction Togetherness persecution of opponents (Belbin, 2000 in Mullins 2006) Teams 45

What is a Team? Donnellon (1996) Identification Interdependence Power differentiation Social distance Conflict management

tactics Negotiation process 46 Teams and Teamwork A team is an interdependent group of workers with complementary skills working toward shared goals. Teams are most appropriate for

complex tasks, complex decisionmaking, or creative tasks. Teams are also appropriate when the situation is variable, requiring the team to adapt to changing external conditions. Self-managing work teams have (Riggio, 2009 ) complete responsibility for

whole work tasks. Riggio, 2009, page 338 Types of Teams Work Teams Parallel Teams Project Teams Management

Teams 49 Types of Teams Project Teams Work Teams Focus Group Parallel Teams Management Teams

50 Project Teams Exists in almost every type of organization. Consists of variety of individuals who get together to solve problems or make decisions. In project teams, the individuals are usually specially assigned to coordinate

the successful completion of an assigned task. Example: a student affairs administrator or a campus police detective. Work Teams Exists in almost every type of organization. Consists of variety of individuals who get together to solve problems or make decisions. Is a group of people who are responsible for the entire work process or segment of the

process that delivers a product or service to an internal or external customer. Usually are subdivisions of a larger group; can exist for an indefinite period of time or until a specific project is completed. Work teams Work teams can also serve many purposes, including solving problems, making decisions, socializing and learning.

Groups and Teams Although there are distinctions between groups and teams, the differences are not dramatic. Exist on a continuum, some have more characteristics of a group, while others resemble more of a team. (Sieler and Beall, 2011, page 414)

Work Team : Focus Group Focus group is a special form of work team. Usually consists of a manageable number of participants plus a facilitator or leader The goal for the formation of the team is to find out what the members think about specific ideas, issues or people. Information obtained will be analysed and used for decision making.

How Teams Develop Tuckman (1965) Theory Forming Team members get to know one another Everyone is on their good behavior Group clarifies its mission Storming Disagreement and frustration set in Norming Group members work at easing tension

Acceptance of team leader Performing Goals get accomplished 56 How Teams Develop Punctuated EquilibriumTheory (Gersick, 1988) Teams do not go through set stages Basic method of formation Develop direction and strategy during first

meeting Follow this direction for a period of time Revise their strategy about half way thorough the life of the team 57 Why Teams Dont Always Work The team is not a team Excessive meeting

requirements Lack of empowerment Lack of skill Distrust to the team process Unclear objectives 58 Conflict Group Conflict

Group conflict Working together in a group or teams always presents the potential for the occurrence of conflicts. Key component to conflict is perception. The level of conflict is a function of the importance of the goal, behavior or relationship. Conflict : Definition

Conflict is a psychological and behavioral reaction to a perception that another person is Keeping you from reaching a goal Taking away your right to behave a certain way Violating the expectancies of a relationship 61

Conflict can be Functional Dysfunctional Dysfunctional and functional conflicts Most conflicts results in lower team performance, and lower members satisfaction, Most conflicts are dysfunctional , as the conflicts prevents people from working

together, lessens productivity and increases turnover. Moderate degree of conflict , called functional conflicts can result in better performance- stimulate new ideas, increase friendly competition and increase team effectiveness. Consequences of Dysfunctional Conflict Decreased

productivity Low morale Absenteeism Stress Turnover Law suits Violence 64 Types of conflicts Interpersonal conflict Individual group conflict Group group conflict

What are the causes of conflicts? Causes of Conflict 1. 2. 3. 4. Competition for resources Task interdependence

Jurisdictional ambiguity Communication barriers Physical Cultural Psychological 5. Beliefs 6. Personality ( Aamodt, 2010) 67 Personalities:

Types of Difficult People Type Need Tank Control Sniper Control Know-it-all Control Whiner Perfection No person

Perfection Nothing person Perfection Yes person Approval Maybe person Approval Grenade Attention Friendly sniper Attention Think-they-know-it-all Attention

Description Pushes, yells, intimidates Uses sarcasm, criticizes Dominates conversations Constantly complains Disagrees with everything Doesnt do anything Agrees to everything Wont commit or make a decision Throws tantrums Uses jokes to pick on others

Exaggerates, lies, gives advice 68 Dealing with Difficult People Direct Intervention address behavior explain impact of behavior on others Indirect Intervention

positive feedback when appropriate behavior is used Direct Coping separate difficult employee from others Indirect Coping provide training to others on

dealing with difficult personality 69 Resolving conflict Prevention /prior to conflict occurrence When conflict first occurs Third -party intervention

PREVENTION OF CONFLICT Preventing Workplace Conflict An organization should have a formal policy on how conflict to be handled, which states that : Employees should first try to resolve their own conflicts If the above is not successful, employees can

utilize a third party intervention Employees should receive training on the causes of conflict, ways to prevent conflict and strategies to resolve it. Preventing Workplace Conflict Well-written job descriptions Unambiguous policies Clarification of roles and

expectations Training on new policies Conflict management training For teams, clarification of levels of authority 73 WHEN CONFLICT FIRST OCCURS When conflict FIRST occurs

The two parties should be encouraged to use conflict resolution skills which they had learned. These skills include: Expressing a desire for cooperation Offering compliments Avoiding negative interaction Emphasizing mutual similarities Highlighting common goals When conflict FIRST occurs Key to resolving conflict is to reduce tension

and increase trust between the two parties; which can be accomplished by : Stating an intention to reduce tension Publicly announcing steps to be taken to reduce tension. Inviting the other side to take action in to reduce tension. Making sure all initiative are unambiguous. When a conflict is

unavoidable, there are several ways/styles to be adopted. What determines ones responses to conflict? Goodwin and Griffith (2007) state that ones responses to conflict is determined by two considerations: 1. How important is a particular outcome to you? 2. How important is the relationship with

the other party? Clarifying your values is very important. Major styles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Avoiding style Forcing style

Accommodating Collaborating style Compromising style (Wilmont and Hocker, 2007 in Aamodt 2010) Conflict Continuum I win, you lose (competitionA) I lose or give in (accommodate B) We both get something (compromiseC) We both win(collaborateD)

A B C D 80 Conflict Management Style McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights

Reserved Responding to conflict Responding to conflict Responding to conflict Responses to Conflict: Avoidance People will adopt avoiding approach to conflict when the conflict is trivial to

them or has little stake in the outcome or concern with whom there is dispute The issues are not important to them, hope the issues will go away. The cost of engaging in the conflict is not worth the possible benefit to be gained Needs to buy time such as to gather information Responses to Conflict: Avoidance This response is also called withdrawal or

retreating (Why?) It is failing to engage ( Corvette, 2007) Avoidance can be partial or total. Common withdrawal behaviours include talking b behind the back and forming alliance with others ( Martin and Bergmann, 1996 in Aamodt, 2010). Withdrawal can make one feel better but .. Responses to Conflict: Avoidance What other variables are at play if this

response style is adopted? Triangling is a form of avoidance and it is when the party involved discusses the conflict with a third party; with the hope that the 3rd party will talk to the other person who is involved in the conflict. What is the best course of action for a supervisor when triangling occurs? Responses to Conflict: Adversarial/Forcing /Competitive

This style is a win/lose approach; does what it takes to win, with little regard for the other party. One of the underlying belief is that resources are limited. This style may range from mildly adversarial to extremely aggressive. Behaviour that exemplifies this approach includes making remarks with no regard to other people's feelings, refusing to back down, belittling the other, using accusatory tactics and the like.

Responses to Conflict: Adversarial Forcing/Competitive http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/ newLDR_81.htm Responses to Conflict: Adversarial Forcing/Competitive This style is self-centred. On the extreme this style may lead to trickery and violence.

Another behaviours which may be associated with this approach are agreeing openly but internally dissatisfied, and criticizing, criticizing, defensiveness, stonewalling and contempt. Responses to Conflict: Adversarial Forcing/Competitive The strategy of winning at all costs holds especially when one party considers his/her side is correct and the other party

is incorrect. Especially crucial when each side NEEDS the victory to gain or retain status. Examples: union or management conflicts. Adversarial Forcing/Competitive: Disadvantages and appropriateness Damage relationships. Create other conflicts. Backing down difficult when involves status;

more likely to prolong conflict. Appropriate : in emergencies, or when there is violation of policy/ethical or legal grounds or When the position holder is actually correct and if winning the conflict is more important that the possible damage to future relationships. Responses to Conflict: Accommodating This style is to give up part of you want at

the request of the other ( Corvette, 2007). Used when a person is so earnest on settling a conflict. Stakes are usually high and the person is considered cooperative ( but weak). Responses to Conflict: Accommodating Low in assertiveness and high in cooperation Appropriate to use when one party wants to show reasonableness, develop performance, create good will, or keep peace.

Some people use the accommodating mode when the issue or outcome is of low importance to them. (http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams ) Responses to Conflict: Accommodating The accommodating mode can be problematic when one uses the mode keep a tally or to be a martyr. Accommodating skills: Forgetting your desires Selflessness

Ability to yield Obeying orders (http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams ) Responses to Conflict: Collaboration In cooperation or collaboration style, we are

finding a way to get the other person/group want and what we/our group want. It is consistent with win-win approach. Both parties put their efforts ( creatively) together to meet mutual goals. Key behaviours are listening and expressing feelings and desires in the best manners. Assertiveness and respecting other peoples views are essential too. 94

Responses to Conflict: Collaboration The collaborating mode is high assertiveness and high cooperation. Collaboration has been described as putting an idea on top of an idea on top of an idea in order to achieve the best solution to a conflict. With such a positive outcome for collaboration, some people will profess that the collaboration mode is always the best conflict mode to use.

(http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams ) Responses to Conflict: Collaboration However, collaborating takes a great deal of time and energy. Therefore, the collaborating mode should be used when the conflict warrants the time and energy (http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams ) Collaboration

The collaborative mode is appropriate : when the conflict is important to the people who are constructing an integrative solution, when the issues are too important to compromise, when merging perspectives, when gaining commitment, when improving relationships, or when learning (http://www.foundationcoalition.org/ teams )

Collaboration : Skills involved Active listening Nonthreatening confrontation Identifying concerns Analyzing input (http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams Responses to Conflict: Compromising The person adopting this style utilizes give-and-take

strategies to enable each side to get some of what it wants but not everything it wants. Most conflicts are resolved through some form of compromise so that the solution benefits both sides. Compromise usually involves a great deal of negotiation and bargaining. The negotiation process begins with each side making an offer that asks for much more than it really wants. Each side understands what the other is doing and the process continues until and acceptable terms are achieved ( Aamodt, 2010)

Responses to Conflict: Compromising The compromising mode is moderate assertiveness and moderate cooperation. Some people define compromise as giving up more than you want, while others see compromise as both parties winning. (http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams Compromise The compromising mode is appropriate

are when: you are dealing with issues of moderate importance, when you have equal power status, when you have a strong commitment for resolution, or used as a temporary solution when there are time constraints. (http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams

Compromise : Skills involved Negotiating Finding a middle ground Assessing value Making concessions (http://www.foundationcoalition.org/teams Choosing the appropriate style All five styles may be used in one

negotiation. Each of the five styles can be used appropriately at different times. The collaborative style is usually the most effective choice; but not all the time. Styles may vary from person to person and from situation to situation. Choosing the Appropriate Style In complex matters, containing many issues, we may compromise on certain

things while the main approach is collaboration. For issues not important and not worth to put your energy in, you may use avoidance. Choosing the Appropriate Style Seldom competitive/forcing is the best choice, but a necessity when in an emergency or when you have to act

accordingly, especially when the other party is competitive. Collaboration is most of the time the best approach ( although not always) . It needs lots of efforts and creativity. You may have to do what you are not used to do. Choosing the Appropriate Style The optimum negotiation strategy will be determined by the dynamic interaction of each party unique personality, style of interaction,

temperament;also culture, value, needs, goals etc Our natural negotiation style is strongly influenced by our view of conflict and our personalities. Creativity is always useful. Knowing ourselves aids in developing alternative style s as well as using our natural style to the optimum Third-party Intervention A third-party intervention Impasse may occur at any point in the

process of negotiation and persuasion process. A third party may then be necessary to facilitate agreement and resolution. A third-party intervention can help the conflicting parties to reach either a : mediation, arbitration or litigation. Dictation is also a third-party intervention that can be used at the workplace. 108 Third Party Intervention

Dictation Arbitration Mediation Litigation 109 Third Party Intervention Dictation Supervisor dictates the solution Dictation is best when: parties are irrational

no trust exists too angry to be realistic have mental health issues alcohol or drugs are involved when violent behavior is potential parties have poor communication skills there are time constraints 110

Third Party Intervention Mediation A neutral party is asked to help both parties to reach a mutually agreeable solution to the conflict. Mediators do not make decision. Mediators role is to facilitate communication process so as to provide the conflicting parties safe and equitable venue for reaching solutions. Mediators can be employees of the organizations such as team leader, supervisor etc or can be professional mediators .

For mediation to be successful, both parties must agree that there is a conflict and that a solution can be found through working together. Third Party Intervention Arbitration In arbitration, the conflicting parties involved forgo their control over the outcome. The arbitrator serves all the functions serves by a mediator, plus the function of resolution. In arbitration, the decision is made by the

arbitrator (Corvette, 2007) The use of outside arbitrators is on the increase, to handle discrimination claims by employees. These are to avoid the negative publicity associated with discrimination suits and to reduce the costs of litigation( Aamodt, 2010). Third Party Intervention Arbitration Mandatory arbitration can be effective, arbitration is more expensive than mediation.

Arbitration can be either binding or nonbinding. Arbitration can end conflict quickly, but usually neither side is satisfied with the outcomes as both would have if they settled the conflict themselves or used mediation. Third Party Intervention Arbitration Employees used arbitration when ( Arnold and Carnevale, 1997 in Aamodt, 2010) : Perce

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