Education Revision Cards 2014 -

Education Revision Cards 2014 -

SCLY4 Crime & Globalisation Revision Cards 2014 1 7. Globalisation and Crime Includes: What is globalisation? The extent of the global crime economy Globalisation and :risk consciousness, capitalism and organisation Green crime Human rights and state crimes Think about: Power, harm and interconnectedness Crimes of the powerful Zemiology Nation states/large corporations power Cause major harm Hidden crime Unpunished crime Beyond traditional criminology How crime is defined The study of harm Crimes without frontiers Beyond national boundaries

Global connections = more opportunities 2 How to focus on this topic.. Globalisation is a game-changer for the study of crime Globalisation = new forms of crime/new opportunities Global crime = a challenge for nation-states and law making/jurisdiction (hard to police) Global crimes by powerful groups = able to define laws (to serve selves), able to hide crimes, able to escape punishment Global crimes = high level of harm/damage (to environment or to citizens) You can use these as strands to return to again and again in your analysis of them. These revision cards try to focus on these strands for you. 3 The extent of Global crime What is globalisation? The increasing interconnectedness of societies the widening, deepening and speeding up of world wide interconnectedness (Held) causes: global media, cheap travel, ICT, migration, business links

Crime across national borders Global risk consciousness (Beck) Fears of harm/need protection Media exaggeration/moral panics Immigration worries (welfare/jobs) Led to tighter border controls 9/11 terrorism and consequences The level of Global crime Manuel Castells global crime economy = 1 trillion per year Arms trafficking Trafficking nuclear materials People smuggling/illegal immigrants Prostitution/slavery Sex tourism Cyber crimes (fraud/pornography) Terrorism Green crime Drugs trade Demand (rich west) + Supply (3rd world) Money laundering Capitalism and crime Ian Taylor greater inequality = crime Businesses (TNCs) switch to lowwage countries = poverty =

insecurity + frustration = poor people turn to crime New crim. Opportunities for rich and powerful = insider trading/tax avoidance/moving funds Capitalist employers using foreign 4 labour + breaching laws New patterns of criminal organisation GLOCAL organisation McMafia Hobbs & Dunningham Glenny Global economic changes = local crime organisation Individuals with contacts form a hub Loose-knit networks NOT hierarchy (different to subcultures and traditional mafia style gangs) Key root = local context But has global connections Each locality will affect the nature of the criminal organisation (global crime filtered through a local lens) Organisations emerging after fall of communism in 1989 Deregulation of global markets Communism falls = free market except for natural resources, ie) oil Russian govt controlled these and kept prices low (communist officials bought these for next to nothing) They sold them abroad = high price Became very rich/powerful oligarchs Ex-KGB/former convicts formed mafias - used to protect this new

wealthy class, ie) Chechen Mafia Not like Italian mafia kin/hierarchy These mafias were purely economic/ driven by greed Chechen Mafia became a brand ruthless/protection rackets Exported brand elsewhere Built links around the world 5 Example old industry shut because of global competition = nocturnal economy in Sunderland bouncers/body capital Evaluation Not clear if these hubs are new Older structures may still run alongside Green Crime 1. Global risk society and environment Crime against the environment Planet is a single eco-system (goes

beyond national boundaries) Examples: air pollution, water pollution, nuclear disasters Mainly man-made risks today Beck manufactured risks are damaging humanity (made by industry/transport etc)..go beyond national boudaries 3.Types of Green Crime (Nigel South) Primary crimes Direct result of destroying Earths resources: (a) crimes of air pollution (b) crimes of deforestation (c) crimes of species decline/animal rights (d) crime of water pollution Secondary crimes Result from flouting the rules to prevent disasters: (a) State violence against opp. Groups eg) French Govt Greenpeace ship attack (b) Hazardous waste and organised crime eg) business dispose of waste illegally, ship 2. Green Criminology Traditional criminology Harm to the environment may be defined as legal though Traditional criminology is tied to criminal law and green crime ignored Situ & Emmons see env. Crime as an unauthorised act or omission that violates the law a definition that is limited by the law and who control it Green criminology (Rob White) Focus on harm rather than law Some of worst harm = not illegal This is transgressive criminology that moves beyond traditional criminology Different countries have diff. laws Looks at crimes of the powerful like Marxists note invisible/escape punish. 2 views of harm Anthropocentric view human view man can exploit envt. (businesses) 6 Ecocentric view humans and envt.

Examples of Green crimes/studies Evaluation Bhopal disaster 1984 - India Union Carbide Leaking cyanide safety failure 30 tons of gas = 20000 deaths and 120000 continue suffering recognises importance of global issues Air pollution from industry/transport Deforestation Amazon for beef cattle Water Pollution 25 million die each yr from contaminated water (toxic waste and untreated sewage) Day those who oppose governments supporting nuclear power/arms are seen as enemies of the state (Greenpeace) Walters ocean floor has been a radioactive rubbish dump for decades shows where law is lacking where harm is concerned reveals how the powerful define laws and hide crimes hard to define the boundaries of green criminology definitions are value-laden with moral criteria used Bridgland 2004 Tsunami = barrels of radioactive waste dumped by European countries washed up by Somalia Rosoff notes how cheap disposing of toxic waste in 3rd World coiuntries 7 The extent of state crime What are state crimes? Crimes of the powerful - state organised crime (Chambliss) Green & Ward illegal or deviant

activities perpetrated by, or with complicity of, state agencies The state is able to define what is criminal Examples genocide, torture, imprisonment without trial, assassination McLaughlin 4 categories of state crime Political crimes Crime by security/police forces Economic crimes Social/cultural crimes The extent of state crime Michalowski & Kramer argue that these crimes are s0 serious because: The state has a monopoly on violence potential to cause much harm It can conceal its crimes and avoid punishment It is hard to police the actions of these states (by other states) It makes laws and can use them to control/persecute their enemies 8 The extent of state crime Example of state crimes? Cambodia (1975-8) Pol Pots Khmer Rouge government killed 2 million people Nazi Germany persecution of Jews, the Final Solution Guantanamo Bay US using

excessive methods with terror suspects Iraq Saddam Hussein attacking the Kurds in Northern Iraq Vietnam My Lai massacre of 400 civilians by US troops during Vietnam war Hiroshima/Nagasaki Atomic bombs dropped by US on Japanese cities in WW2 The Violation of Human Rights Natural Rights/Civil Rights Protection from state Schwendinger & Schwendinger Crime = level of violation of human rights (harm/zemiology) States denying basic human rights Crimes include: racism, sexism, homophobia, economic exploitation Evaluation Cohen not objective/easy to explore economic exploitation There is limited agreement on what is classed as a human right 9 How states crimes become possible States hiding their crimes Cohen state crimes are being

explored more within criminology and notes how states try to hide/ legitimate their crimes Denial 3 stages didnt happen/its not what it seems/its justified Neutralisation theory Applies Matzas model for justifying deviant behaviour State crime as acceptable How normal people perform evil acts on behalf of states Kelman & Hamilton 3 factors that create crimes of obedience: Authorisation given permission = duty to obey Routinisation role/detached Dehumanisation enemy seen as sub-human (linked to propaganda) Dehumanisation and Techniques : denial of victim, denial modernisation of injury, denial of responsibility, condemning the condemners, appeal to higher loyalty Negotiation/social construction Science and technology help states to commit these crimes (Bauman) They dehumanise and turn mass 10 murder in a routine/admin task Globalisation & Crime (bring together) Evaluation Issue of defining crime Objectivity/values

Political flavour (committed sociology) STATE CRIME GLOBAL CRIME Levels/types(Castells) Risk consciousness Global capitalism Examine Globalisation & Crime What are state crimes? The level of harm Examples Violations of human rights How states conceal crimes (denial) How states make such crime acceptable Organisations Glocal McMafia GREEN CRIME Global risk consciousness Green criminology + harm Types of green crime Examples Evaluation 11

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