Earth Systems - Tuscaloosa County School District

Earth Systems - Tuscaloosa County School District

Earth Systems Chapter 8 Earth history Whats here now has been here all along Layers: Core solid inner, liquid outer Mantle made of magma Crust solid rock

Theory of Plate Tectonics Crust is divided into plates which move slowly, carried by convection currents in the magma below Where plates are in contact: Divergent plate boundaries moving apart, magma forces its way up Convergent plate boundaries moving together, one plate forced under the other

Transform plate boundaries one plate moving past another Consequences: Fault zones pressure between plates Earthquakes occur when the pressure releases suddenly Ring of Fire areas where volcanoes are common

The rock cycle Igneous rocks form directly from magma Sedimentary rocks form from sediments compressed and solidified Metamorphic rocks either igneous or sedimentary rocks transformed by heat and pressure

Soil 4 Distinct parts Minerals 45% of typical soil Organic matter about 5% Water about 25% Air about 25% Soil Slowly renewable may take from 200-1000 years to form 1 inch

Provides most of the nutrients needed for plant growth Also helps purify water Formation begins when bedrock - the parent material - is broken down by weathering Decomposition helps produce new soil except in the rainforests, where nutrients in the soil are recycled into living organisms very quickly

Weathering and erosion Breaking down of parent material in soil formation Physical: Expansion of freezing water Biological agents ex: tree roots Chemical: CO2 in soil reacts with H2O to form carbonic acid

(H2CO3) Air pollution can also cause acid rain Erosion removal of rock or soil Wind, water, ice Soil properties - horizons Mature soils have developed over a long time and are arranged in a series of horizontal layers; composition

depends on climate, vegetation, and parent material O horizon: organic detritus A horizon: so-called top soil organic material and minerals mixed together E horizon: a zone of leaching found in acidic soils only B horizon: subsoil mainly minerals with very little organic matter C horizon: the least weathered; similar to the parent

material Soil horizons Soil properties - texture The percentages by weight of different sized particles of sand, silt, and clay Soil properties - texture

> 2mm = gravel/stone not actually soil b/c it has no direct value to plants 0.05 2mm = sand (largest soil particles) can be seen easily with the eye 0.002-0.05mm = silt (about the size of flour) barely visible with the eye < 0.002mm = clay (has the greatest surface value) only seen under an electronic microsope

Soil properties - porosity How quickly the soil drains water: sand silt clay Best agricultural soils have a mixture to promote water drainage and retention Sandy soils can cause problems in areas with industrial discharge pollutants move through

them quickly and contaminate groundwater Many landfills are lined with clay to prevent contaminants from leaching into surrounding soil and groundwater Mining Some types and rocks and minerals are vital to modern life Earths chemical composition is variable

in different locations of the crust Mining Ore concentrated accumulations of minerals Typically contain salt, sand, metals Metals allow electrical and/or heat conduction

Copper, nickel, aluminum Mining surface mining Strip mining removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore Used when the desired ore is relatively close to the surface Mining spoils or tailings unwanted material removed from the surface; usually returned to the hole

Open-pit mining creation of a large hole Resource is close to surface but extends both horizontally and vertically; copper mines Mountain-top removal just like it sounds Placer mining use of river water to separate heavier items (like gold and diamond prospectors)

Mining subsurface Used when the resource is more than 100m below Earths surface Usually a horizontal tunnel dug into a mountainside with vertical shafts The deepest mines are 2.2 miles deep Coal, diamonds, gold Mining - Impacts

Surface Air dust from earth-moving equipment Water contamination of water that percolates through tailings Soil most soil removed from site Biodiversity habitat alteration and destruction Humans decline of air and water quality near mining operation

Mining Impacts Subsurface: Air emissions from fossil fuels used to power mining equipment Water acid mine drainage as well as contamination of water that percolates through tailings Biodiversity road construction fragments

habitats Humans occupational hazards; possibility of chronic lung diseases Mining - Legislation General Mining Act 1872 Allows individuals and companies to recover ores and fuels from federal lands. Contains very few environmental protection

provisions Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act 1977 Regulates surface mining of coal as well as the surface effects of subsurface mining Land must be minimally disturbed during the mining process and reclaimed after mining is completed

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Chapter 13 Vibrations and Waves - Houston Community College

    Chapter 13 Vibrations and Waves - Houston Community College

    Example Carpet Calculations. PHYS I @ HCC. Several carpet installers make measurements for carpet installation in the different rooms of a restaurant reporting their measurements with inconsistent accuracy, as compiled in Table 1.6. compute the areas for (a) the banquet...
  • UCL&#x27;s assessment of its

    UCL's assessment of its

    Welcome and introduction - Nigel Waugh UCL HR Director USS Update - Jon Everard Head of Payroll & Operational Services DRA & Additional Paternity Regulations - Momtaz Rahman HR Policy and Planning Immigration Update - Fiona Daffern HR Policy &...
  • Türkiye Elektrik Sektörünün Finansman İhtiyacı

    Türkiye Elektrik Sektörünün Finansman İhtiyacı

    Türkiye Enerji Piyasası, 4562 ve 4628 /6446 sayılı Kanun ile Sanayi Bölgelerinin Faaliyetleri Muhsin ERSOY Başkan Danışmanı OSBÜK Eğitim Programı
  • Course Selection for 2012-2013

    Course Selection for 2012-2013

    RHHS Graduation Requirements 4 English Credits 4 Math Credits 3 Science Credits 1 American Gov/Econ Credit 1 U.S. History Credit 1 Other Social Studies Credit 1 Computer Literacy Credit (ex. IBA, Digital Multimedia, etc.) 1 PE or ROTC Credit 1...
  • Archives &amp; Special Collections

    Archives & Special Collections

    University of Pittsburgh Library System (ULS) Faculty Senate Library Committee Meeting. October 4, 2018. Kornelia Tancheva
  • cs3102: Theory of Computation Class 25: NP-Complete Appetizers

    cs3102: Theory of Computation Class 25: NP-Complete Appetizers

    k ⋅ n. If there really were a machine with . ... After all, one would simply have to choose the natural number . n. so large that when the machine does not deliver a result, it makes no sense...
  • Tuition Fee FAQ -

    Tuition Fee FAQ -

    Who we are. The University of Toronto Graduate Nurses' Student Society represents, supports and advocates for graduate nursing students. The society provides leadership, and facilitates social involvement and mentorship activities in addition to promoting student-faculty engagement.
  • Kein Folientitel -

    Kein Folientitel -

    JAR OPS Requirement Evaluation Summary Vision: System to be used for FRA PC/L Human Factors From NOTECHS to a New System of Observing Behavioural Markers as a Basis for Assessing Pilots' Performance "A system that trains the evaluator" Influences and...