OBJECTIVES 1. Define horizontal cabling. 2. Describe backbone cabling. 3. List different types of backbone cable systems and describe their attributes. 4. Describe a crossconnect panel. 5. Describe procedures associated with proper cable management.
Figure 5-1: Structured Cabling System Figure 5-2: Horizontal Cabling System Components Table 5-1: Wire Colors for TC Crossconnect
Figure 5-3: Horizontal Crossconnect Figure 5-4: Horizontal Cable Run Distances The types of cables that are recognized by TIA for horizontal cabling are as follows: 4-pair, 100-ohm unshielded twisted-pair
Figure 5-6: UTP Pair Assignments for 8-Position Modular Jacks LAB 13 OBJECTIVE Installing a Punch-down Modular Outlet To understand how to install
an RJ45 punch-down modular outlet on a section of 100-ohm UTP cable TIP The end of the cable needs to be prepared first. Once you have done that, simply disregard the
instructions that pertain to connector or cable types that are not included in your parts inventory. Keep in mind that the unshielded twisted pair cable does not require the grounding clip to be installed. Use the stuffer cap for one side of wires, and the punch-down tools for the other side. Once the wires have been punched
down, go ahead and install the second stuffer cap so that both halves of the jack look identical. Figure 5-7: Testing Modular Jack and Cable Continuity TIP
Recall that the RJ45 cable from Lab procedure 6 was already checked. Any problems noted on this test should point to the newly created cable. Figure 5-8: Fitting the Outlet into the Wall Plate
TIP Dont worry about installing the modular jack upside-down, because the design of the wall plate will prevent this. LAB 13 QUESTIONS
1 What does the instruction sheet 408-3354 indicate about keeping the wires twisted to within specific distances from the termination? LAB 13 QUESTIONS
2 When using the steel-tip punch-down tool, what impact setting is recommended? LAB 13 QUESTIONS
3 Are the wires cut on the inside or the outside of the wiring block? LAB 13 QUESTIONS 4 How are dimensions indicated on
the instruction sheet? LAB 14 OBJECTIVE Assembling Edge-Connector Modular Outlets To understand how to assemble an RJ45 edge-connector modular outlet on a section of 100-ohm
UTP cable TIP Although you will be using 100-ohm UTP cable, this type of RJ45 modular outlet can accommodate STP cable of both the 100-ohm, 8-wire and 150-ohm (Token
Ring), 4-wire systems. When installing the connector within the matching housing, your parts may either snap or screw together. Figure 5-9: Aligning the Connector and Housing
Figure 5-10: Removing 2 Inches of UTP Cable Jacket TIP A 110Connect arrangement comes with the edge connector already installed in the port housing and remains this way during the wiring. The AMP-BARREL
arrangement requires that the edge connector be terminated prior to its being mounted into the housing. Both types of installations are covered in the instruction sheet. TIP
Dont forget to install the two stuffer caps on the edge connector, regardless of how the wires were punched down. They help to protect the connections against exposure. Figure 5-11: Pushing the Jack Insert
TIP As a rule, any housing that will not currently carry an active service would be outfitted with a blank insert, until a future need for expansion occurs. You will not be installing a face plate as part
of this lab procedure. Figure 5-12: Testing Modular Jack and Cable Continuity LAB 14 QUESTIONS
1 After reading the instruction sheet 408-3232, which edge connector (110Connect or AMPBARREL) appears to be the easiest to install? LAB 14 QUESTIONS 2 Which type of edge connector
(110Connect or AMP-BARREL) requires termination prior to being installed in the housing? LAB 14 QUESTIONS
3 Why is it a good idea to lace the middle wires into the edge connector first? LAB 14 QUESTIONS 4 Which type of edge connector comes
already installed in the port housing? Figure 5-13: Work Area Components The important specifications related to work area cabling include: Equipment cords should have the same performance
capabilities as patch cords of the same type and category. When adapters are used, they should be compatible with the transmission capabilities of the equipment to which they connect. Maximum horizontal cable lengths are specified using a maximum cable length of 3 meters (9.8 feet)
for work area equipment cords. The important points to remember about horizontal cabling subsystems include: Any application-specific components (such as splitters or baluns) cannot be installed as part of the horizontal cabling system. If used, they
are located external to the telecommunications outlet or horizontal crossconnect. The proximity of horizontal cabling to sources of EMI must be taken into account. The important points to remember about horizontal cabling subsystems include:
(continued) Horizontal cable types that have been recognized by TIA/EIA T568A include: 4-pair, 100-ohm UTP 2-pair, 150-ohm STP-A 2-fiber (duplex), 62.5/125 m, or a multimode optical fiber such as 50/125 m, which is
permitted under TIA/EIA T568B The important points to remember about horizontal cabling subsystems include: (continued) ISO/IEC 11801 permits 120-ohm UTP, and 50/125 m multimode optical fiber.
Multipair and multiunit cables are permitted, as long as they meet the hybrid/bundled cable requirements of TIA/EIA T568A-3. Grounding must conform to all applicable local/ federal building codes, as well as TIA/EIA 607. The important points to remember about
horizontal cabling subsystems include: (continued) A minimum of two telecommunications outlets are required for each individual work area, such that: The first outlet is wired to 100-ohm, twisted-pair.
The second outlet is wired to 100-ohm, twisted-pair, or to 150-ohm STP-A, or to 62.5/125 m multimode fiber. The important points to remember about horizontal cabling subsystems include: (continued)
One transition point (TP) is allowed between different forms of the same cable type, such as in situations where under-carpet cable connects to round cable. This term is broader by definition in ISO/IEC 11801 than in TIA/EIA T568A. In addition to the transitions for undercarpet cabling, it also includes consolidation point (CP) connections.
The important points to remember about horizontal cabling subsystems include: (continued) Although 50-ohm coax is recognized by TIA/EIA T568A, it is not recommended for new cabling installations.
Although additional outlets may be provided, they are considered to be in addition to, rather than replacements for, the minimum requirements of the standard. For copper-based horizontal cabling, bridged taps and splices are not permitted. Splices are allowed for fiber, however.
Figure 5-14: Backbone Cabling System Components Figure 5-15: Telco Connector
Figure 5-16: Patch Panel with RJ45 Connectors Figure 5-17: Cable Tidy Between RJ45 Panels Figure 5-18: Patch Panel with ST Fiber Optic Connectors
Figure 5-19: Backbone Cable Types The types of cables that are recognized by TIA for vertical backbone cabling are as follows:
fiber cable. Figure 5-20: Backbone Configurations The important points to remember about vertical
backbone cabling systems include: Equipment connections to backbone cabling should be made with cable lengths of 30 m (98 feet) or less. The backbone cabling shall be configured in a star topology. Each horizontal crossconnect is wired directly to a main crossconnect or to an
intermediate crossconnect, then to a main crossconnect. The important points to remember about vertical backbone cabling systems include: (continued) The backbone is limited to no more than two hierarchical levels of crossconnects (main and
intermediate). No more than one crossconnect may exist between a main and a horizontal crossconnect and no more than three crossconnects may exist between any two horizontal crossconnects. A total maximum backbone distance of 90 m (295 feet) is specified for high bandwidth capability over copper. This distance is for uninterrupted
backbone runs. (No intermediate crossconnect). The important points to remember about vertical backbone cabling systems include: (continued) The distance between the terminations located in the entrance facility and the main crossconnect shall be documented, and should be made available to the
service provider. Multipair cable is allowed, provided that it satisfies the power sum crosstalk requirements. The proximity of copper-based backbone cabling to sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) shall be taken into account. Bridged taps are not allowed.
The important points to remember about vertical backbone cabling systems include: (continued) Recognized media may be used individually or in combination, as required by the installation. Quantity of pairs and fibers needed in individual backbone runs depends on the area served.
Currently recognized backbone cables consist of: 100-ohm UTP cable 150-ohm STP-A cable 62.5/125 micron optical fiber cable (recall that the TIA T568B specification recognizes 50/125 m multimode fiber) single-mode optical fiber
The important points to remember about vertical backbone cabling systems include: (continued) Crossconnects for different cable types must be located in the same facilities. In ISO/IEC 11801, the equivalent cabling elements to the main crossconnect (MC) and intermediate
crossconnect (IC) are called the campus distributor (CD) and building distributor (BD), respectively. Just as with horizontal cabling, two alternate backbone cabling types are allowed by ISO/IEC (120-ohm, twisted pair and 50/125 m, multimode optical fiber).
The important points to remember about vertical backbone cabling systems include: (continued) Again, 50-ohm coaxial cabling is recognized by TIA/EIA T568A, but is not recommended for new installations. The following are the currently recognized
categories of UTP cabling by the TIA/EIA: Category 3. Category 4. Category 5. Table 5-2: Color Code for 100-Ohm UTP
The following is a list of recommendations for the installation of 100-ohm UTP work area outlets: All four pairs of a 4-pair cable should be terminated on an 8-position jack. All work area outlets should be terminated as either T568A or T568B. Both ends of a line should be terminated by the same
designation, either as TIA/EIA T568A or TIA/EIA T568B. The suggested maximum allowable untwisting for CAT3 cable is 3 inches. The following is a list of recommendations for the installation of 100-ohm UTP work area outlets:
(continued) TIA/EIA T568A specifies that the maximum allowable untwisting of CAT4 cable is 1 inch, and for CAT5 cable, the maximum allowable untwisting is inch. It is suggested that the maximum allowable untwisting for any category above CAT5 be less
than inch. Always leave 1 to 3 feet of service loop for repairs, changes, moves, and additions. The following is a list of recommendations for the installation of 100-ohm UTP work area outlets: (continued)
The bend radius should be no tighter than four times the cables outside diameter (usually 1 inch). The bend radius for cables with more than four cable pairs is ten times the cables outside diameter.
The following is a list of specifications for installing 100-ohm UTP cable: Do not exceed 25 pounds of pulling tension on a 4-pair cable. Do not cut, or damage, the cables outer sheath when pulling it. Follow the proper color code.
All of the hardware used should be of the IDC type. Installation must be neat and well organized. The following is a list of specifications for installing 100-ohm UTP cable: (continued)
Document every phase of the installation, including the locations of all components. Label cable runs at their beginning, middle, and end for easy identification. Figure 5-21:
CAT5 Patch Cables Cable design experts have zeroed in on several chronic problems that have, as their primary cause, bad patch cables being used somewhere along the data path. These include:
Poor data quality through various crossconnections Communications networks bombarded with increased error rates and junk traffic Severe crosstalk and attenuation problems Generally degraded network performance
Todays manufacturers are striving to differentiate their patch cable products through: Quality testing Various colors Tolerance buffers
Icons Strain-relief boots Cost
Snagless features User-friendliness Quick turnaround on orders
Installing and Testing a DB15 Connector To understand how to install a DB15 connector on transceiver cable for use with 10base5 Thicknet systems Figure 5-22: Tap/Transceiver Hybrid
Table 5-3: AUI Pin Assignments Figure 5-23: Twisting the Foil Shield TIP If you are not wiring the shield to pin 8, strip one inch of foil shield from each end of the
cable, without damaging any of the twistedpair wires inside the shield. Again, use the tension scale/tape measure for accuracy. This leaves 1/4 inch of foil shielding intact, and 1 inch of the twisted pairs (with bare drain wire, where applicable) exposed at each end of the cable.
Figure 5-24: Stripped STP Cable Figure 5-25: Inserting a Wire into a Connector Pin TIP The edge of the crimper tool should line up evenly with the edge of the barrel
portion of the pin. Figure 5-26: Lining Up the Crimper and Pin
TIP If the wire is not tight, try rotating the pin a quarter turn, and recrimp the barrel. Figure 5-27: Orienting
the Tabs for Crimping Figure 5-28: DB15 Male Connector Pin Numbers Table 5-4: DB15 Pin/Wire Assignments
Figure 5-29: Positioning the Insertion/Extraction Tool Figure 5-30: Inserting a Pin with the Insertion/ Extraction Tool Figure 5-31: Completed DB15 Male Connector Wiring
TIP Figure 3-32 includes a wired foil shield to pin 8. TIP The multimeter should show an infinite resistance between any adjacent pins (or
wires) with the exception of pin 8 and the foil shield, if applicable, and a short circuit on matching continuity checks. If it does not, the cable is not correctly prepared, and you may have to repeat this procedure. If the cable checks out good so far, continue with the remaining steps.
Figure 5-32: Installing the Strain Relief Figure 5-33: Positioning the Connector/Strain Relief TIP Make a preliminary check to be sure
that none of the wires are blocking the screw holes. TIP You dont want to tighten these housing halves completely until after the next few steps.
Figure 5-34: Fastening the Housing Halves Together TIP
Now its time to install the female DB15 connector on the free end of the cable. Figure 5-35: Reading the Pin Numbers on a Female DB15 Shell
Figure 5-36: Completed DB15 Female Connector Wiring TIP Figure 3-37 includes a wired foil shield to pin 8.
TIP The multimeter should show an infinite resistance between any adjacent pins (or wires) with the exception of pin 8 and the foil shield, if applicable, and a short circuit on matching continuity checks. If it does not, the cable is not correctly prepared, and you
may have to repeat this procedure. Remember that the cable checked good before you mounted the male hood. Any problems should be confined to the newly installed female connector shell. TIP
Make a preliminary check to be sure that none of the wires are blocking the screw holes. Figure 5-37: Fastening the Housing Halves Together TIP
You dont want to tighten these housing halves completely until after the next few steps. TIP To recover usable parts, clip the connectors and store the remaining length of cable, and
disassemble the hoods, strain reliefs, and end connector shells. Use the insertion/ extraction tool to remove any male/female pins from the end connectors. Discard the used pins and twisted-pair fragments and recover all of the short screws, slide clips, metal clips, retaining screws, connector
shells, housing hoods, and long screws. LAB 15 QUESTIONS 1 Describe the differences in how pins are numbered between male and female D connectors.
LAB 15 QUESTIONS 2 Why should the continuity check be done before installing the hood housings?
LAB 15 QUESTIONS 3 When disassembling the D connectors, which parts must be discarded? Figure 5-38: IBM Token-Ring 150-Ohm STP Cable
Table 5-5: STP-A Balanced Mode Attenuation/NEXT Signal Loss The physical design of 150-ohm STP-A cable should meet the following specifications: The insulated conductor shall not exceed the
diameter of .26 mm (0.102 inches) maximum. The cable shall be restricted to 2-pair only. The color code for 150-ohm STP cable is as follows: Pair 1: green is tip, and red is ring. Pair 2: black is tip, and orange is ring.
Two types of crossconnect panels are generally used for STP patching: A panel with IDCs for termination of the building cables An open panel with lock openings for 150-ohm, STP snap-type media interface connectors
In either case, the installer needs to follow the manufacturers recommendations for making the terminations. Other recommendations should include: Allow 1 to 3 feet ( 1/3 to 1 meter) of service loop for future adds, moves, and changes.
For 19-inch (483-mm) rack-mounted crossconnect panel installations, allow room on the rack for possible telecommunications equipment associated with the 150-ohm STP cable. In either case, the installer needs to follow the
manufacturers recommendations for making the terminations. Other recommendations should include: (continued) Racks should have at least the following clearances for access and cable dressing space: 30 inches (762 mm) in the rear
36 inches (915 mm) in the front 14 inches (356 mm) on the side The following list summarizes the most important recommendations for the installation of 150-ohm STP cables: Always follow the manufacturers recommended
termination methods. Maintain at least 1 meter (approximately 3 feet) of cable for a service loop. Telecommunications closet design must follow TIA/EIA 569. Patch cord lengths should be limited to 7 meters (approximately 23 feet).
Equipment cord lengths should be limited to 3 meters (approximately 10 feet). To maintain proper cable management techniques, you should: Plan for those inevitable future changes by allowing sufficient space in closets, and elsewhere,
to make them. Assure that all connections include the necessary cabling service loops to effect these changes, and to maintain category compliance. To maintain proper cable management techniques, you should: (continued) Include the following items in your worksheet
documentation for each installation: Indicate the length of cable runs to each room. In order to save hours of future troubleshooting, document all of your wiring and test results. Also document any problems that may have occurred, along with any solutions that were found.
Include the following items in your worksheet documentation for each installation: (continued) Differentiate between all primary and secondary outlet locations in your documentation, and include the station phone numbers for each access line.
Be sure to document the cabling color code, the wire color combinations for each line, and the relationships between the wire colors. This is very important in situations where colors have been converted at a distribution device. Include the following items in your worksheet
documentation for each installation: (continued) Maintain the relationship of pairs and lines at the distribution device, and clearly label the lines if the distribution device does not have a valid marking scheme. Note any special circumstances. For future reference, remember to provide a
copy of the documentation at the wiring location (near a distribution device) and to keep a copy for your records. To maintain proper cable management techniques, you should: (continued) Be certain that all your cable runs are labeled in
the middle, and at both ends, and clearly indicate the marking scheme on your worksheet. Logically plan the system crossconnect points so that each individual channel can be tested without making additional or unnecessary connections, which would degrade system performance. This is also an important point for category compliance.
To maintain proper cable management techniques, you should: (continued) Avoid making quick fixes to any installation. Instead, use standard wiring practices to ensure that all connections can be easily found and identified, now and later. Crossconnections made
in ceilings, for example, are not standard, and will probably be forgotten about and difficult to manage. To maintain proper cable management techniques, you should: (continued) Make your wiring plan consistent throughout your
documentation. Regardless of whether the installation calls for a simple or complex wiring plan, it must: Be complete and orderly. Be scrupulously maintained. Be readily accessible. Be decipherable by other installers.
To maintain proper cable management techniques, you should: (continued) Neatness is an essential ingredient of any installation. Therefore: All wiring should be laid out methodically and consistently.
Closets should be kept clean, with adequate room to work. Unused equipment, leftover materials, and miscellaneous items should be removed from all ERs and TCs to provide full access to the cabling and the equipment currently in use at these locations.
REVIEW QUESTIONS 1 How much extra cabling should be allowed for a service loop? REVIEW QUESTIONS
2 What types of cables are recommended by TIA to be used for vertical backbone cabling? REVIEW QUESTIONS
3 Where should cabling be labeled? REVIEW QUESTIONS 4 What is the maximum recommended pulling tension on a 4-pair cable?
REVIEW QUESTIONS 5 What is the maximum cable length from a user outlet to a station device? REVIEW QUESTIONS
6 Hubs are connected together to the crossconnect facilities using riser or _____________. REVIEW QUESTIONS
7 State the color code for an 150-ohm STP cable. REVIEW QUESTIONS 8 How much of a CAT3 cable can be
untwisted? CAT4? CAT5? REVIEW QUESTIONS 9 What type of topology is horizontal cabling?
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