Perspectives from Neutrinos Hitoshi Murayama (UC Berkeley) TAU2002 Santa Cruz, September 12, 2002 The Question So much activity on neutrino oscillation. Why are we doing this? Window to beyond the Standard Model! Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 2 Why Beyond the Standard Model Standard Model is sooooo successful. But
none of us are satisfied with the SM. Why? Because it leaves so many great questions unanswered Drive to go beyond the Standard Model Two ways: Go to high energies Study rare, tiny effects Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 3 Big Questions Charge quantization, anomaly cancellation, bizarre hypercharge
assignments in the Standard Model Why are there three seemingly unrelated forces yet all gauge forces? Is there a unified description of all forces as Einstein dreamed about? Why is mW<
effective operators Can be classified systematically (Weinberg) Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 5 Unique Role of Neutrino Mass Lowest order effect of physics at short distances Tiny effect (m/E)2~(eV/GeV)2=1018! Inteferometry (i.e., Michaelson-Morley)! Need coherent source Need interference (i.e., large mixing angles) Need long baseline Nature was kind to provide all of them!
neutrino interferometry (a.k.a. neutrino oscillation) a unique tool to study physics at very Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 high scales 6 March 2002 April 2002 with SNO Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 7 Historic Era in Neutrino Physics
Atmospheric is lost (>10), converted mostly likely to (>99%CL) CL) (SK, MACRO) Solar e is converted to either or (>5.3) (SNO) No dark side in solar neutrinos ;-( Explanation is probably neutrino oscillation Other possibilities: Neutrino decay, Violation of equivalence principle, spin resonant rotation, FCNC Possible, but models tend to be ugly Tiny neutrino mass: the first evidence for incompleteness of Minimal Standard Model Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 8 Now what?
We are pretty much convinced that neutrinos have mass. Now what? o What did we learn? o What do we want to know more? o Why are still working on neutrinos? o Any connection to quark sector? o Any connection to cosmology? Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 9 Outline
Introduction Implications of Neutrino Mass Baryon Asymmetry Neutrino and B connection Conclusions Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 10 Implications of Neutrino Mass Neutrinos are Left-handed
Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 12 Neutrinos must be Massless All neutrinos left-handed massless If they have mass, cant go at speed of light. Now neutrino right-handed?? contradiction cant be massive Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 13 Standard Model
We have seen only left-handed neutrinos and right-handed anti-neutrinos (CPT) Neutrinos are strictly massless in the Standard Model Finite mass of neutrinos implies that the Standard Model is incomplete! Not just incomplete but probably a lot more profound Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 14 Mass Spectrum What do we do now? Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002
15 Two ways to go (1) Dirac Neutrinos: There are new particles, right-handed neutrinos, after all Why havent we seen them? Right-handed neutrino must be very very weakly coupled Why? Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002
16 Extra Dimensions All charged particles are on a 3-brane Right-handed neutrinos SM gauge singlet Can propagate in the bulk Makes neutrino mass small (Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali, March-Russell; Dienes, Dudas, Gherghetta; Grossman, Neubert) m ~ 1/R if one extra dim R~10m An infinite tower of sterile neutrinos Or SUSY breaking (Arkani-Hamed, Hall, HM, Smith, Weiner) h ~
Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 M SUSY M Pl 17 Two ways to go (2) Majorana Neutrinos: There are no new light particles Why if I pass a neutrino and look back? Must be right-handed antineutrinos No fundamental distinction between neutrinos and antineutrinos!
0 Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 18 Seesaw Mechanism Why is neutrino mass so small? Need right-handed neutrinos to generate neutrino mass , but R SM neutral ( L mD L 2 m R )
m = D <
To obtain m3~(m2atm)1/2, mD~mt M3~10 GeV! 15 M3 Neutrino mass may be probing unification: Einsteins dream Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 20 Rest In Peace
Minimal SUSY SU(5) GUT RGE analysis SuperK limit MHc>7.6 1016 GeV Even if 1st, 2nd generation scalars decoupled, 3rd generation contribution (Goto, Nihei) MHc>5.7 1016 GeV (HM, Pierce)
Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 21 Avoiding Proton Decay Unfortunately, proton decay rate/mode is highly model-dependent more threshold corrections (HM, Pierce) Some fine-tuning (Babu, Barr) GUT breaking by orbifolds (Kawamura; Hall, Nomura) Depends on the triplet-doublet splitting mechanism,
Yukawa (non-)unification Many modified models predict decay rate within 10100 beyond limit Dont give up! Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 22 Superpartners as probe Of course, we need to see SUSY directly Once found, their masses tell us if unification is true
(LHC and LC combined) Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 23 Baryon Asymmetry Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis Crisis the past few years Thuan-Izotov reevaluation of
4He abundance Sangalia D abundance probably false Now concordance = nB 1.0 10 =(4.7+ 10 ) 0.8 n
Early Universe 10,000,000,001 10,000,000,000 q q They basically have all annihilated away except a tiny difference between them Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 27
Baryon Asymmetry Current Universe us 1 q q They basically have all annihilated away except a tiny difference between them Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 28 Sakharovs Conditions
for Baryogenesis Necessary requirements for baryogenesis: Baryon number violation CP violation Non-equilibrium (B>0) > (B<0) Possible new consequences in Proton decay CP violation Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 29 Anomaly washout Actually, SM violates
B (but not BL). In Early Universe (T > 200GeV), W/Z are massless and fluctuate in W/Z plasma Energy levels for lefthanded quarks/leptons fluctuate correspondingly QuickTime and aAnimation decompressorare needed QuickTime and aAnimation decompressorare needed L=Q=Q=Q=B=1 BL)=0 Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 30
Two Main Directions BL0 gets washed out at T>TEW~174GeV Electroweak Baryogenesis (Kuzmin, Rubakov, Shaposhnikov) Start with B=L=0 First-order phase transition non-equilibrium Try to create BL0 Leptogenesis (Fukugita, Yanagida) Create L0 somehow from L-violation Anomaly partially converts L to B Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 31 Leptogenesis
You generate Lepton Asymmetry first. L gets converted to B via EW anomaly Fukugita-Yanagida: generate L from the direct CP violation in right-handed neutrino decay (N1 i H) (N1 * * i H) Im(h1j h1khlkhlj ) Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 32 Leptogenesis Two generations enough for CP violation because
of Majorana nature (choose 1 & 3) * * h33) M1 (N1 i H) (N1 i H) 1 Im(h13h13h33 = ~ (N1 i H) +(N1 i H) 8 M3 h13 2 Right-handed neutrinos decay out-of-equilibrium Much more details worked out in light of oscillation data (Buchmller, Plmacher; Pilaftsis) M1~1010 GeV OK want supersymmetry Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002
33 Does Leptogenesis Work? Some tension with supersymmetry: unwanted gravitino overproduction Thermal production (TRH<109 GeV) Non-thermal production from preheating (TRH<105 GeV?) (Giudice, Riotto, Tkachev) (Kawasaki, Kohri, Moroi) Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002
34 Leptogenesis Works! Coherent oscillation of righthanded sneutrino (Bose-Einstein condensate) (HM, Yanagida+Hamaguchi) Inflation ends with a large sneutrino amplitude Starts oscillation dominates the Universe Its decay produces asymmetry Consistent with observed oscillation pattern Possible imprint on CMBR (Moroi)
QuickTime and aAnimation decompressorare needed 2 h13 nB T T ~ ~ 6 arg 2 s M1 10 GeV h33 Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002
35 Preheating Oscillating inflaton (mass ~1013GeV) The coupling to right-handed neutrino (M+g)NN Mass vanishes at =M/g non-adiabatic explosive production up to 1017GeV (Giudice, Riotto, Tkachev) The case of SUSY more subtle because complex (Chacko, HM, Perelstein) Nonetheless can produce N up to 1015GeV Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002
36 CP Violation 2 P( e ) P( e ) =16s12c12s13c13 s23c23 m2 m2 m2 sinsin 12 L sin 13 L sin 23 L 4E 4E 4E Possible only if: m122, s12 large enough (LMA) KamLAND JHF, OANuMI? 13 large enough
? Can we see CP violation? May need better parameter determination using solar pp Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 neutrinos 37 Can we prove it experimentally? We studied this question at Snowmass2001 (Ellis, Gavela, Kayser, HM, Chang) Unfortunately, no: it is difficult to reconstruct relevant CP-violating phases from neutrino data alone
But: we will probably believe it if 0 found CP violation found in neutrino oscillation EW baryogenesis ruled out Archeological evidences Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 38 Do we need seesaw? Natural explanation for small neutrino mass Seesaw: m~2/M What about h~mSUSY/M? (Arkani-Hamed, Hall, HM, Smith, Weiner) (Borzumati, Nomura)
Suppresses neutrino Yukawa coupling Naturally light Dirac neutrinos Light right-handed neutrinos Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 39 Small Neutrino Mass From SUSY Breaking <>~mSUSY+2 mSUSY MPl breaks SUSY and U(1)N, preserves U(1)L+N Heavy vector-like lepton doublets Coupling: M+ L+NHu (HM, Pierce) Most general couplings allowed by lepton number and U(1)N number
Exchange of generates <>LNHu/M Small Yukawa <>/M Large L and R mixing (interesting for LHC/LC) Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 40 Dirac Leptogenesis Heavy doublets decay to L or NHu Decay produces asymmetry (2
gener.) L+LN=0, but L =LN0 LN0 protected because of small Yukawa Lpartially converted to B Practially only now (T ~ m ~ 103 K), L & LN equilibriate, but do not cancel any more (Dick, Lindner, Ratz, Wright) The explanation for small neutrino mass provides the origin of baryon asymmetry! (HM, Pierce)
Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 41 Neutrino and B connection Large 23 and quarks Large mixing between and Mixing among right-handed
fields drop out from CKM matrix But mixing among superpartners physical Interesting effects in bs transition? Make it SU(5) Then a large mixing between sR and bR Constraints from e etc prevent effects >10%CL) if R all degenerate
Goto, Okada, Shimizu, Shindou, Tanaka; Moroi In nave SO(10), O(1) effects on bs transition possible Chang, Masiero, HM Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 43 Consequences in B physics CP violation in Bs mixing (BsJ/ ) (Chang, Masiero, HM)
Compared to W. A. from JKs +0.7310.055 Maybe a hint (~2.7 of SUSY flavor physics? But BdKs, K+KKs? Even if the current discrepancy disappears, it remains true that this is a very reasonable place for new physics to show up. Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002
45 Conclusions Neutrino physics going through a revolution Naturally small neutrino mass requires major plumbing in the theory GUT/seesawMajorana neutrino Extra D/SUSY breakingDirac neutrino Leptogenesis gaining momentum Many viable models (coherent oscillation, preheating) Majorana neutrino not mandatory Interesting possible consequences of neutrino mixing in bs through GUT, models of flavor
Need truly multi-prong approach Energy frontier, flavor experiment, non-accelerator experiments 46 Signals of Electroweak Baryogenesis ~20%CL) enhancements to md, ms with the same phase as in the SM (HM, Pierce) Find Higgs, stop, charginos (Tevatron?) Eventually need to measure the phase in the chargino sector at LC to establish it Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002
47 (HM, Pierce) Hitoshi Murayama TAU2002 48 B-physics Challenges Lattice QCD: need B parameters at 5%CL) then Bs mixing in business Vtd has been determined from B mixing Not legitimate in presence of SUSY loop Need to determine Vtd from other sides, angles Vub (from q2 distribution?) 1 (from BJ/Ks) possible help from 2 (from B with
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