Respiratory Protection Bureau of Workers Compensation PA Training for Health & Safety (PATHS) OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 PPT-042-02 1 Respiratory Protection Respirators shall be provided when necessary to protect the health of employees from breathable hazards (should be used as last choice, not first choice!)

Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances: Where exposure levels exceed the permissible exposure limit, or PEL, during time period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering/work practice controls. In regulated areas. Where employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls and these are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL. PPT-042-02

2 Respiratory Hazards There are two main types of respiratory hazards: oxygen deficiency and airborne contaminants Airborne contaminants include: Dusts (e.g. from sawing or grinding) Mists (e.g. from spray painting) Vapors (gaseous forms of a liquid) Fumes (e.g. from welding operations) Gases (e.g. nitrogen, methane) PPT-042-02 3

Types of Respirators Air-Purifying Respirator (APR) Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Supplied-Air Respirator (SAR) Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) PPT-042-02 4 Types of Respiratory PPE

Two general categories: o Air purifying respirators remove contaminants from air through chemical or mechanical means o Atmosphere supplying respirators self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and airline equipment PPT-042-02 5

This Program: APRs Air-Purifying Respirators per 1910.134(b): A respirator with an airpurifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the airpurifying element PPT-042-02 6 Dust Masks OSHA refers to Dust Masks as filtering facepieces which they

define as: Negative pressure particulate respirators with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium. All of the requirements of the Respiratory Protection Standard apply to Dust Masks if: They are required by the employer to protect employees from any form of dust that exceeds OSHAs Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). The only exception is if the use of Dust Masks is voluntary. PPT-042-02 7 Dust Masks

The employer is responsible for deciding if the use of Dust Masks will be voluntary or required. If voluntary, the following applies: Use does not create a hazard in and of itself (e.g. not reusing a contaminated mask, mask used properly). Users must be provided with Appendix D of Standard (Information for Employees Using Respirators When Not Required Under the Standard). Proper use and maintenance per manufacturers instructions must be ensured. Only NIOSH-certified masks are used with proper design for the tasks being performed. PPT-042-02 8

Dust Masks If the employer determines the use of Dust Masks is required they must be included as part of the Respiratory Protection Program which includes: Medical Evaluations for all users. Fit Testing (either Quantitative or Qualitative). Training. Dust Masks should not be used in situations that are Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH) including oxygen-deficient atmospheres. PPT-042-02 9

Ratings N = Not resistant to oil mist R = Resistant to oil mist P = Protective against oil mist Filter efficiency is percentage (%) removed from air stream when tested to 0.3 micron size particles PPT-042-02 10 Air-Purifying Designations Per 42 CFR Part 84 Approvals: N

Tested against sodium chloride Limited to use in non-oil-based particulate atmospheres R&P Tested against dioctyl phthalate (DOP) For filtering any solid or liquid particulates N and R filters may have use limitations P filters do not have use limitations assigned PPT-042-02 11 Use Consideration Chart Filter Series

Filter Maximum Type Designation Efficiency N N N R R R N100 99 95

R100 99 95 99.97% 99% 95% 99.97% 99% 95% PPT-042-02 12 Use Consideration Chart

Filter Series Filter Maximum Type Designation Efficiency P P100 P 99 P 95 99.97% 99%

95% PPT-042-02 13 Per NIOSH Filters with N95, R95 and P95 will be certified as having a minimum efficiency of 95 percent. Filters with N99, R99 and P99 will be certified as having a minimum efficiency of 99 percent. Filters with N100, R100 and P100 will be certified as having a minimum efficiency of 99.97 percent. PPT-042-02

14 Written Respiratory Program OSHA: Employers must establish a written respiratory program documenting each hazard, site by site, based on work site survey and evaluation. Written program should spell out site-specific procedures that will be implemented to reduce dangers including: o o o o o o

o Medical evaluation of employees required to wear respirators Procedures for selecting respirators Fit-testing procedures Procedures for proper use of respirators in all situations Procedures and schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, etc. Training Program evaluation procedures PPT-042-02 15 Medical Evaluation The employee receives a medical evaluation from a physician or other licensed health care

professional to determine if they can wear a respirator. The immediate supervisor must obtain a written recommendation from a health care professional on whether the employee is medically able to use a respirator. PPT-042-02 16 Medical Evaluation The medical evaluation determines an employees fitness to wear a respirator. It takes into account:

Tobacco use Pulmonary or lung problems Cardiovascular or heart problems Medications PPT-042-02 17 Medical Evaluation It also takes into account:

Vision problems Hearing Back problems Prior chemical exposures Working conditions with the respirator PPT-042-02 18

Medical Findings May indicate the employee can not use a respirator. May require a specific type of respirator. May require a follow-up examination. PPT-042-02 19 Fitting the Respirator Fit of a respirator face piece to ensure a good seal is extremely important: a secure fit = the difference between life and

death! Most face pieces fit only a certain percentage of people. It is very important that face pieces are tested for each potential user. PPT-042-02 20 Factors Affecting Fit Facial features such as beards, hollow temples, prominent cheekbones, dentures or missing teeth Recent jaw surgery

No, due to excess facial hair. Chewing of gum or tobacco Under OSHA regs could this guy wear a respirator? PPT-042-02 21 Initial Fit Testing Employees must be fit tested before initial

respirator use and then annually thereafter. Two types of tests: qualitative and quantitative Qualitative user determines if he/she can smell the testing agent being used Quantitative instruments detect the agent PPT-042-02 22 Fit Testing Types Qualitative (QLFT): Can the face piece create a seal? PPT-042-02

23 Quantitative Fit Testing Quantitative (QNFT): Allows sampling inside face piece -- Has hazard intruded and how much? Tested using the same: Make Model Style Size of respirator to be used PPT-042-02

24 Fit Testing Before Each Use Before using a respirator: user must conduct either a positive or negative pressure test after putting it on. Positive Pressure Test = User exhales into face piece while exhalation valves are closed off: If face piece bulges slightly and no air leaks out, its a good fit. Negative Pressure Test = User breathes in while inhalation valves are closed off and holds breath for 10 seconds: Face piece should collapse against face and stay collapsed. PPT-042-02 25

Fit Test Before initially using a respirator When changing to a different respirator At least annually thereafter Changes in employees physical condition If one respirator fails test, employee may select and fit test with another PPT-042-02 26 Face Piece Seal Protection No facial hair that breaks the seal

No condition to interfere with face piece seal or valve function No glasses (use special inserts) Perform a seal check before each use PPT-042-02 27 Respirator Selection Based on respiratory hazards worker will be exposed to Select a NIOSH-certified

respirator Employer shall select from sufficient number of models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user. PPT-042-02 28 Hazard Compatibility Respirator shall be appropriate for chemical state and physical form of

contaminant PPT-042-02 29 Identify/Evaluate Hazards A reasonable estimate of exposures An identification of the contaminants chemical state and physical form Where exposure cannot be identified the employer shall consider the atmosphere to be IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health) PPT-042-02

30 Gas/Vapor Protection Employer shall provide an atmospheresupplying respirator, or Air-purifying with an ESLI (end of service life) indicator certified by NIOSH for the contaminant Not ESLI appropriate? Change schedule for canister, filter or cartridge required PPT-042-02

31 Particulate Protection An atmospheresupplying respirator, or Air-purifying with NIOSH-certified HEPA filter, or Air-purifying equipped with a filter certified for particulates (42 CFR part 84) PPT-042-02 32

IDLH Atmospheres Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health An atmosphere that: Poses an immediate threat to life or Would cause irreversible adverse health effects or Would impair an individuals ability to escape PPT-042-02 33 Three IDLH Atmospheres Oxygen deficient/enriched

(below 19.5% or above 23.5%) Flammable limits achieved Toxic atmosphere All oxygen-deficient atmospheres shall be considered IDLH PPT-042-02 34 Respirators for IDLH Areas Full face piece pressure demand SCBA certified by NIOSH (minimum service

life 30 minutes), or Combination full face piece pressure demand supplied air respirator (SAR) with auxiliary self-contained air supply PPT-042-02 35 Respirators: Non-IDLH Area Adequate to protect employee health, and Ensure compliance with OSHA and regulatory requirements under routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations

PPT-042-02 36 Assigned Protection Factors (APFs) Defined: Workplace level of respiratory protection respirators are expected to provide when employer implements a continuing, effective respiratory protection program PPT-042-02 37

APF Explained Ratio comparison of the amount of contaminant outside the respirator and amount which may intrude the face piece APF= Concentration outside respirator Concentration inside face piece PPT-042-02 38 APF When using a combination respirator, ensure assigned protection factor is appropriate to mode of operation in which respirator is being

used (e.g. airline with an air-purifying filter) PPT-042-02 39 APF Chart Type Half Face Piece Full Face Piece APR 10 50 PAPR 50 1,000

SAR (PD) 50 1,000 Demand 10 50 Continuous 50 1,000 SCBA Demand 10 50 Positive Psi 10,000 *Note: The higher the APF number, the greater the protection

PPT-042-02 40 Maximum Use Concentration (MUC) Maximum atmospheric concentration of hazardous substance an employee can be expected to be protected from when wearing a respirator Determined by the assigned protection factor (PF) and exposure limit of the hazardous substance Highest concentration, not exceeding IDLH concentration, of a specific contaminant in which a respirator can be worn

PPT-042-02 41 Determining MUC The MUC is derived by multiplying the APF by the OSHA permissible exposure limit, or PEL MUC = APF x PEL When no OSHA exposure limit is available, determine the MUC on the basis of relevant available information and professional judgment. PPT-042-02 42

CAUTION Do NOT apply MUCs to IDLH conditions! Use respirators approved for IDLH conditions. When calculated MUC exceeds IDLH level, set maximum MUC at lower limit. PPT-042-02 43 Odor Threshold Materials which user protects themselves against should have an odor threshold below

the hazardous concentrations. This enables the user to know if the hazard has entered the mask via filter or seal. PPT-042-02 44 Filter Selection Base filter selection on identified hazards. Vendor charts are available

to help make this selection. PPT-042-02 45 Hazard Compatibility Filters, cartridges, canisters labeled Color coded with NIOSH approval label

Label is not removed Label remains legible PPT-042-02 46 Hazard Compatibility Be aware of other activities taking place in use area for which filtration may not be compatible.

PPT-042-02 47 Hazard Warning Properties Sign filtration is losing its effectiveness Can be odor, taste or irritation At first sign, change out old filtration device for a new one If hazard has no warning properties, respirator efficiency may drop without users knowledge: it becomes a health hazard PPT-042-02

48 When to Change Filters When breathing becomes labored If feeling nauseous When odor threshold is detected If detecting taste of intruding material If irritation occurs on face

When work area or hazard changes PPT-042-02 49 Leave Hazard Area . . . To wash face or face piece If an odor or gas breakthrough is detected If there are changes in breathing resistance If there is a leakage in face piece To replace respirator or filter means PPT-042-02 50

IDLH Area Procedures One (1) employee (or more, if needed) outside the IDLH atmosphere Communications between entrants and outside via: Visual Voice Signal line This parallels the 2-in/2-out rule in 29 CFR 1910.156 by philosophy PPT-042-02 51 Outside (Backup)

Outside persons are trained in emergency rescue Employer (or designee) is notified before outside staff enter IDLH area to rescue Equipped with Demand or Pressure-Demand SCBA or other positive-pressure respirator Appropriate retrieval equipment PPT-042-02 52 Maintenance and Care Cleaning and Disinfecting

Storage Inspection Maintenance & Repairs PPT-042-02 53 Cleaning and Disinfecting For single employee use: as needed Used by multiple employees: before being worn by another For emergency use: after each use

For training or fit testing: after each use PPT-042-02 54 Cleaning Precautions Various brands of alcohol wipes may be used to clean the respirator. Use these wipes only on rubber face seal area; never on the clear view plate! Check manufacturers information: most respirators may be cleaned with mild detergent and water.

PPT-042-02 55 Storage Protect from adverse effects and damage caused by: Contamination Dust

Sunlight Temperature/moisture extremes Damaging chemicals (direct contact/vapors) Pack to prevent deformation of parts PPT-042-02 56 Emergency Response Storage Accessible to work area In compartments or covers and clearly marked For Emergency Use Stored in a manner to be donned and used without delay

PPT-042-02 57 Emergency Respirators Certify the respirator by documenting the following information on a storage compartment tag or label:

Inspection date Inspectors name Findings Required remedial action Serial number or other identifying means for the respirator PPT-042-02 58 Inspection Routine use: Before each use and during cleaning Emergency use: At least monthly &

checked for proper function before and after use Emergency, escape-only: Before being carried into the workplace for use PPT-042-02 59 Items Inspected Check function

Tightness of connections Condition of: Face piece Head straps Valves Connecting tube Filtration means Check elastomeric parts for pliability/distress PPT-042-02 60 Maintenance and Repair Remove failed or defective units from service

Discard, adjust or repair Repairs should be completed by appropriatelytrained persons using only approved parts The following repairs should only be completed by the manufacturer or a technician trained by the manufacturer: Reducing and admission valves Regulators Alarms PPT-042-02 61 Respirator Training Topics Respiratory hazards that employees are potentially exposed to during routine and

emergency situations Proper use, including putting on (donning) and removing (doffing) Limitations on use Maintenance Procedures for regularly evaluating the effectiveness of the program PPT-042-02 62 Employee Training Training must be: Comprehensive

Understandable Provided prior to respirator usage Provided annually, and more often if there are: o o o Changes in workplace or type of respirator Inadequacies in employees knowledge Other situations in which training appears needed. PPT-042-02 63 Employee Can Demonstrate

Need for respirator and what can compromise its effectiveness Unit capabilities and limitations How to inspect, don, use (also in emergency conditions), doff and check seals Maintenance and storage Medical signs and symptoms limiting effectiveness General requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134 PPT-042-02 64

Program Evaluation Conducted by employer to determine program and use efficiency Employer seeks employee input concerning respirator use All problems identified will be corrected Areas assessed: Respirator fit Appropriate respirator selection Proper use Proper maintenance PPT-042-02 65

Recordkeeping Medical evaluation RP Program Records Fit testing: Name of tested employee Type of fit test Specific make, model, style, size of respirator tested Pass/fail results for QLFT and fit factor and strip chart or other recording for QNFTs

PPT-042-02 66 Recordkeeping Written copy of current respirator program Written materials required to be retained shall be made available upon request to: o o Affected employees Assistant secretary of labor (federal) or designee

PPT-042-02 67 Respirators - Remember Should not be the first choice Use engineering and/or administrative controls before using respirators Should be selected based on need and task (e.g. full face, half face, supplied air) All users should have a medical evaluation and fit testing before use PPT-042-02 68

Mandatory Compliance Appendix A Fit Test Procedures Appendix B-1 User Seal Check Procedures Appendix B-2 Respirator Cleaning Procedures Appendix C OSHA Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire PPT-042-02 69 Free Training Videos From OSHA: http://www.osha.gov/video/respiratory_protection/

general_industry.html PPT-042-02 70 Contact Information Health & Safety Training Specialists 1171 South Cameron Street, Room 324 Harrisburg, PA 17104-2501 (717) 772-1635 [email protected] Like us on Facebook! https://www.facebook.com/BWCPATHS PPT-042-02

71 Questions PPT-042-02 72

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