d3jc3ahdjad7x7.cloudfront.net

d3jc3ahdjad7x7.cloudfront.net

IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport 5.2 Information processing 1. Outline the two continua of motor skill classification below. Illustrate your answers using sporting examples. (i) Fine and gross [3] (ii) Externally and internally paced skills [3] fine and gross: this is concerned with the precision of accuracy of movement / involvement of muscle mass; gross motor skills involve large muscle movements e.g. running/jumping; fine motor skills involve more intricate movements using small muscle groups e.g. rifle shooting / finger action across the seam of cricket ball; Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information

processing 3. Principles of skill learning externally and internally paced skill: this refers to the timing of the movements / the extent to which the performer has control over the timing of the movement; external paced skills are sailing/windsurfing/receiving a serve; internal paced skills are javelin throw/gymnastics routine; (d) Compare the type of performance you would expect to observe between a skilled performer and a novice performer. [4] feature consistency accuracy learned control efficiency certainty fluency goal direction skilled high high nature good/autonomous high high high smooth

good novice low; low; poor/cognitive; low; low; low; erratic; poor; 6. (a) (i) Define the term technique. [1] (i) a way of doing/way in which a sports skill is performed / natural or acquired facility in a specific activity [1] (ii) State the relationship between ability, skill and technique. [1] (ii) skill = ability + selection of an appropriate technique / skill is the ability to perform the appropriate technique on demand [1] IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics

1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning 5.2 Information processing Why is Cristiano Ronaldo so good? IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and

classification of skill 5.2 Information processing Why is Cristiano Ronaldo so good? Unit 5.2 Key learning intention (KLI) Information processing To understand how the brain processes information and how that affects sports performance and practice Success criteria I can produce a concept map using Welfords (1968) model of information processing that gives a detailed explanation of what happens during the performance of a movement in sport (Ronaldo skill). Resources P114-121 Key words Information processing model, feedback, response time, reaction time,

movement time, psychological refractory period (PRP) 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning IB Sports, exercise and health science 5.2 Information processing Topic 5 Skill in sport Concept map example Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information

processing 3. Principles of skill learning IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning 5.2 Information processing IB

Sports, exercise and health science 5.2 Information processing Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning How is the model on your worksheet different from the one in your text books? Is the difference important? As you progress, you should be adding things to your A3 sheet. You are not allowed to add anything to your sheet if you dont know what it is.

IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning 5.2 Information processing IB Sports, exercise and health

science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning What is sensory input? IB Sports, exercise and health science Outline two components associated with sensory input. [4] Topic 5

Skill in sport e.g. exteroceptors; sensory nerve end receptors/sense organ that respond(s) to external light/sound/odour/tactile stimuli; located in the skin/oral cavity/eyes/ears/nose; Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning e.g. proprioceptors; neuromuscular receptors that register stimuli such as stretch/tension/movement/sensory nerve receptors / awareness of body position in space; located in the muscles/tendons/joints/inner ear; e.g. interoceptors; sensory nerve end receptors; located in the lining of the mucous membrane of the respiratory and digestive tracts/internal visceral organs/vascular system/blood vessels (blood

pH)/chemoreceptors/nociceptors (free nerve endings in most body tissues that respond to potentially damaging stimuli/pain); IB Sports, exercise and health science Describe the signal detection process (perception) in the information processing model. Include examples from physical activity. Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning

1. perception is the process by which the brain makes sense of the stimuli received; 2. short term memory stores large amounts of information for a very short time; 3. selective attention looks out for anticipated stimuli; 4. selected stimuli compared to long term memory to select the appropriate response; [4] 5. Award [1] for suitable examples e.g. defensive positioning in soccer. Athlete filters numerous stimuli extracting the relevant cues such as position of team mates, opposition, the ball and position on the field in IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Explain the signal detection process when receiving service in tennis. [7] Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and

classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning perception is the process by which the brain interprets and makes sense of the information it is receiving from the sensory organs e.g. the height of the servers ball toss; the senses, which are the most important in the perception of information present in the environment, are visual and auditory receptors; vision is generally considered to be the most important of the senses e.g. gathering information about the speed of the serve from the rate of change of the increasing diameter of the incoming tennis ball; perception consists of detection, comparison and recognition (DCR); detection is the process by which the brain identifies that a stimulus is present e.g. the server has tossed the ball above their head rather than slightly in front; IB Sports, exercise and

health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Explain the signal detection process when receiving service in tennis. [7] Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning stimulus stands out from the background noise/those aspects of the display that are not directly relevant to receiving service e.g. the colour of the servers

socks; comparison the stimulus is passed through the memory and compared with similar codes stored in the memory e.g. from previous serves in this match or even from previous matches with the same opponent; recognition occurs when the code of the incoming information matches a code stored in the long-term memory; early signal detection / detect what kind of service is being delivered before the server strikes the ball / perceive a signal from only partial information / pattern recognition e.g. the path of the tennis racquet just before impacting the ball; IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing

3. Principles of skill learning What is Selective attention? IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning What is Selective attention?

IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning What is Selective attention? IB Sports, exercise and health

science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning What is Selective attention? Switchball IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Selective attention it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Stroop effect IB Sports, exercise and health science What is Divided attention? Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics

1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Can you think of examples of both selective and divided attention in the sports that you play? IB Sports, exercise and health science Memory and its relationship with Selective attention Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics

and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning We know about sensing the world around us and how that information is delivered. Make sure this information is on your concept map. But what happens next? memory allows us to benefit from our past experiences all incoming information is held for a short time in the short-term sensory store STSS/most of the information in the STSS is lost within about 0.5second incoming information is only retained and processed if it is attended to in the short-term memory STM most/90% of all information entering the STM is lost within 10 seconds retention and passage to the long-term memory are dependent on rehearsal that is processed mentally/physically/both the STM has a small capacity/space limitation. The LTM has a large capacity (unlimited) the way we overcome the limited capacity of the short term memory is by the use of selective attention SELECTIVE ATTENTION SHORT TERM

SENSORY STORE selective attention SA operates in the short term sensory store STSS only the relevant information is passed to the short-term memory STM where it is held for several seconds information selected to the STM can be determined through previous experience and information in the LTM SA ensures that information overload does not occur and prevents confusion as the brain would not be able to cope with streams of information SA is very important when accuracy/fast responses are required a filtering mechanism operates, which separates the relevant information from the irrelevant noise information so that athletes concentrate on one cue/stimulus for example the ball, position of player in a game of tennis to the exclusion of others SA can be improved by learning through past experience/practice/coaching which improves a persons anticipation/interaction with long-term memory/memory trace IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and

classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning 5.2 Information processing How is your concept map coming along? IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Methods for Improving memory The relationship between the STM and LTM Sub-topics 1. The

characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Remember there is an arrow missing!!! Use the diagram in your books. This concerns the nature of memory stores, i.e. where the information is stored, how long the memory lasts for (duration), how much can be stored at any time (capacity) and what kind of information is held. The way we store information affects the way we retrieve it. There has been a significant amount of research regarding the differences between Short Term Memory (STM ) and Long Term Memory (LTM). Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory. Miller (1956) put this idea forward and he called it the magic number 7. He though that short-term memory capacity was 7 (plus or minus 2) items because it only had a certain number of slots in which items could be stored. However, Miller didnt specify the amount of information that can be held in each slot. Indeed, if we can chunk information together we can store a lot more information in our short-term memory. In contrast the capacity of LTM is thought to be unlimited. IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Methods for Improving memory Clarity and Brevity the quality of expressing much in few words Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning 1. brevity e.g. giving a learner a small amount of information at a time to avoid overload; 2. clarity e.g. avoid trying to learn or teach two similar but distinct items in the same session, as the memory of one may interfere with the memory of the other; IB Sports,

exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Methods for Improving memory Encoding When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored. (Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another). For example, a word which is seen (on the whiteboard) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. semantic processing). Sub-topics There are three main ways in which information can be encoded (changed): 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning

1. Visual (picture) 2. Acoustic (sound) For example, how do you remember a telephone number you have looked up in the phone book? If you can see it then you are using visual coding, but if you are repeating it to yourself you are using acoustic coding (by sound). IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Methods for Improving memory

Encoding Read and review the following list of words for a period of 1 minute: Admiration Cow Ethics Integrity Bed Write down which ones do you think you'd be more likely to remember several days later. Check yourself in three days. Research shows that the words with concrete meanings are more memorable than abstract words. Researchers theorize that when you encounter a word that has a concrete meaning, your mind processes it in two different ways: Phonetically (the sound of the word) Visually (the picture that forms in your mind's eye) IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and

classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Methods for Improving memory Encoding IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing

3. Principles of skill learning Methods for Improving memory IB Sports, exercise and health science Methods for Improving memory (Coding - association) palace Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of

skill learning memory IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Methods for Improving memory IB Sports,

exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Methods for Improving memory Brevity the quality of expressing much in few words IB Sports, exercise and

health science Methods for Improving memory Chunking Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning How is the relevant to sport? Methods for Improving memory IB Sports, exercise and

health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning organisation Bed orange Racoon Nose Elephant

Tuna Nail Dog Bread Hand Fridge Onion Ear Cupboard Chair IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Methods for Improving memory Association IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics

and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Methods for Improving memory Association This refers to getting information out storage. If we cant remember something, it may be because we are unable to retrieve it. When we are asked to retrieve something from memory, the differences between STM and LTM become very clear. STM is stored and retrieved sequentially. For example, if a group of participants are given a list of words to remember, and then asked to recall the fourth word on the list, participants go through the list in the order they heard it in order to retrieve the information. LTM is stored and retrieved by association. This is why you can remember what you went upstairs for if you go back to the room where you first thought about it. IB Sports, exercise and health

science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Methods for Improving memory Association IB Sports, exercise and health science Methods for Improving memory

REHEARSAL Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning What other information can we add to our concept map?? IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning (a) Outline two methods which can be employed to improve a persons memory. [2] 1. brevity e.g. giving a learner a small amount of information at a time to avoid overload; 2. clarity e.g. avoid trying to learn or teach two similar but distinct items in the same session, as the memory of one may interfere with the memory of the other; 3. chunking e.g. learners can hold more in the short-term memory if the information is chunked, instead of being presented as individual items; 4. organization e.g. we remember more easily if we organize the way in which we are to learn and ensure that the information is meaningful / coaches often use imagery to aid organization / OWTTE; 5. association e.g. good coaches and teachers always ensure that new learning is linked to what players already know; 6. practice e.g. no skill is learned without practice / practice

shuttles the image of the skill backwards and forwards between the short-term and long-term memory and in doing so establishes what is known as a memory trace/pathway; rehearsal e.g. processed mentally or physically; 7. coding e.g. name/label sets of information; [2 max] IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Discuss the possibility of investigating any of the memory methods or phenomenon we have see this week

1.brevity 2.clarity 3.Chunking 4.organization 5.Practice 6.Coding 7.Association 8.Selective attention 9.Divided attention 10.Stroop effect 11.Signal detection IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill

2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning What have we learned so far? IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Objectives

1.To define what the psychological refractory period is and suggest examples from our own sport 2.Define the terms response, reaction and movement time and the factors that affect it. 3.Understand what motor program theory is and how it is relevant to our sport IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of

skill learning Response time, reaction time and movement time. IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Response time, reaction time and movement time. What factors effect response time? Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill AGE

2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Gender No. of choices IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of

skill learning Response time, reaction time and movement time. Response time, reaction time and movement time. IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning

1. From what you now know about how the brain works and the factors that effect response time what ideas do you have for investigations on response time? 2. Can you think how you could test Hicks Law in a sporting environment? 3. Are there any other factors that you can test in a sports environment to see there effect on response time, such as; 1. Warm up 2. Mental rehearsal 3. Practice 4. Anticipation 5. Experience 6. Level of arousal/motivation 7. Concentration 8. Develop physical fitness 9. Early cue detection IB Sports, exercise and health

science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning The Psychological Refractory period (PRP) The term psychological refractory period (PRP) refers to the period of time during which the response to a second stimulus is significantly slowed because a first stimulus is still being processed IB Sports, exercise and health science

Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning The Psychological Refractory period (PRP) IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics

1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning The Psychological Refractory period (PRP) in your Sport? The Psychological Refractory period (PRP) IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics

and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning (c) An athlete has to respond to a constant stream of stimuli. Evaluate the concept of the psychological refractory period (PRP). A diagram may help to illustrate your answer. (3) the period of time between the presentation of a second stimuli prior to the completion / initiation of the previous action; Identify the single channel hypothesis / brain processes one action at a time causing a time delay in responding to the second stimulus; Reaction times may be reduced by anticipation / cue detection / practicing open skills/controlling anxiety; IB Sports, exercise and health science

Topic 5 Skill in sport The Psychological Refractory period (PRP) Coursework You now have experience of using games software to test and improve the functioning of the information processing system. Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning You can now devise an experiment using any of the software you have used or one of your own choice to test either response time or memory. This should be a complete piece

IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning 5.2 Information processing How is your concept map coming along? IB

Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning 5.2 Information processing How do our bodies collect and utilise information when performing a motor skill? IB Sports, exercise and

health science Motor Programmes where does this fit? Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Remember you should be completing your concept map. Motor programmes are the outcome. Here they are called the effectors. We are now looking at the relationship between Long term store and our actual movement and choice of movement. IB Sports,

exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Motor Programmes and executive programmes IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5

Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Motor Programmes and executive programmes A number of subroutines can be put together to make up an executive Programme. executive programme: backstroke subroutines: for example start position feet up on wall/hands gripping and arms lifting body/spring and backward dive/kicking/arm circumduction/arm rotation Motor Programmes and executive programmes IB Sports,

exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport A number of subroutines can be put together to make up an executive Programme. Sub-topics Executive program: Backstroke 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing spring and backward dive 3. Principles of skill learning

kicking hands gripping and arms lifting body dive/kicking/arm Circumduction IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of

skill learning Choose an executive program from your own sport and select the subroutines that are involved. IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Motor Programmes and

executive programmes IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Motor Programmes and executive programmes IB Sports, exercise and

health science Open Loop Control Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing utilized when skills are well learnt 3. Principles of skill learning utilized when skills are executed quickly skills are completed without feedback all the information for one movement is sent in a single message to the effectors it will depend on task difficulty and/or level of skill of the performer IB Sports,

exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Using sporting examples, discuss motor programmes from open loop perspectives. This theory suggests that when a skill is being learned an overall plan/programme of that skill is built up in long-term memory; MEMORY TRACE Skills are built up in a hierarchical or schematic way i.e. the executive programme is made up of a number of (sub) routines, which consist of small routine units;

The programme is ordered sequentially / it is able to tell the muscles in what order to produce the appropriate subroutines e.g. learning a skill means practicing the skill so that the subroutines are properly sequenced and coordinated and also become increasingly automated and subconscious; Once this skill is learned, open loop theory suggests that it can be put into action IB Sports, exercise and health science Closed loop control Adams theory Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill

2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning closed loop is when a skill uses feedback throughout its execution errors are detected and adjustments are made for example juggling a performer detects that there is a change in trajectory and adjusts their movements to match a memory trace is formed in the performers long-term memory which tells them what to do that is, the motor programme a perceptual trace is then generated as they perform and this is compared to the memory trace IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill

2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Using sporting examples, discuss motor programmes from closed loop perspectives. motor programme is structured in the same way (as open loop) but its commands can be countermanded/reversed by the need to correct errors; kinesthetic/internal feedback is used; closed loop movement control is more effective with skills requiring slower limb movements or movements taking place over longer periods of time; it is suggested that performers are continually moving between open and closed loop control; short-term memory compares with the long-term memory, if the match is good the movement continues; short-term memory compares with the long-term memory, if there is a mismatch the learner tries to correct the error; IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Explain Adams (1971) closed theory of motor learning in relation to sporting performance. Perceptual trace is when we can change the movement when we are performing it. This is called closed loop. If a movement is slower, like kicking a football, you can change the action in real time. Open loop movements dont have perceptual trace as they are very fast and dont rely on feedback. Jab in boxing. Memory trace is when you select a movement before performing it. Sub-topics 1. The

characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning

Exam practice State two characteristics of a motor programme. [2] a set of movements stored as a whole in the memory / executive programme; an executive programme consists of subroutines; as proficiency increases executive programmes reduce to subroutines; [2 max] (b) An athlete participating in the 110 m hurdles uses Closed Loop Control to enhance performance. Comment on the Closed Loop Theory as an explanation of how the athlete optimizes their performance. [5] the athlete may adjust their performance using feedback / feedback occurs at the same time as performance; the skill is stored in long term memory known as the memory trace; the perceptual trace is recorded in the short term memory; perceptual trace is compared to the memory trace; performance of the skill is adjusted if an error is detected; this process strengthens / develops the memory trace; criticized as being too simplistic an explanation / Schmidt's schema theory; IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5

Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Schmidts schema theory ON a blank sheet of lined paper write your name according to the following instructions: 1.With your dominant hand 2.With your non-dominant hand 3.Holding the pen/pencil in your mouth 4.Holding the pen/pencil in your toes Schmidts schema theory IB Sports, exercise and health science

Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning The schema connection A short stop is able to throw to different bases from various positions on the file by assigning appropriate parameters values to the motor program. But how does the performer know exactly how much force or how fast the ball should be thrown? The answer lies in the development of a schema which is Schmidts second aspect of motor program theory.

IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Schmidts schema theory IB Sports, exercise and health science

Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Schmidts schema theory How can schema theory help you learn sports skills? Discrete perceptual motor skills GENERALISED MOTOR PROGRAM (GMP) A Generalized Motor Program (GMP) captures the basic form of our movements. If you want to have a swing that looks like a top player then what

you need to do is develop a GMP that produces the same motions. Get some coaching, watch videos, work on your form, and you can look the part even if you've never actually hit the ball. RECALL SCHEMA The theory is that the exact motion produced by a GMP is driven by 'parameters' (e.g. required speed, height), which are amounts fed to the GMP by the second bit of the theory, the Recall Schema The Recall Schema provides parameter values to the GMP after observing your situation and intentions. For example, if your badminton opponent has just cleared the shuttle to the back left corner of your court then a Recall Schema will feed parameters of direction and speed to a GMP to get you in position to hit the shuttle. RECALL

SCHEMA What Recall schema examples can you think of for your own Sport? RECOGNITION SCHEMA The Recognition Schema is what allows us to know when we've made an error, just by feel. It is an expected feeling for the movement. HOW TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE DEVELOP A STABLE GMP DEVELOP A RECALL SCHEMA THAT IS WELL CALIBRATED HOW TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE Why do athletes performance decrease initially when they change technique, tools, body-shape etc?

HOW TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What is the difference between saying to yourself "Oh damn, I missed" and thinking "Oh, that's the second time in a row I've hit the bottom edge of my racquet trying to get more power. I need to adjust like ... this." HOW TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE Use Schmidt's schema theory to decide which you think is more important, game practice or technique practice. Give reasons for your answer. IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Explain how response time is

affected by schmidts theory of motor learning. Experienced performers would have a well-developed GMP that is calibrated through recall schema which allows them to perform faster. Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Recognition schema gives them the feedback to enable them to fine tune their response and make it faster. IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Compare the recall and recognition schema from schmidts schema theory and how they would differ in an experience and inexperienced performer. Experienced performer calibrated recall schema through experience, practice and feedback. They would be able to adapt their GMP. Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Their recognition schema would give them more accurate feedback due to this experience on which they can call upon. IB Sports, exercise and health

science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning What have we learned so far? IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics

1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Feedback IB Sports, exercise and health science Other types of Feedback Topic 5 Skill in sport Concurrent Sub-topics 1. The

characteristics and classification of skill Positive Feedback 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Negative Terminal IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics

1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Feedback IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information

processing 3. Principles of skill learning State how KP and KR help novice performers. KP is intrinsic feedback of a performance help because it develops a feelingof what is correct. KP is extrinsic feedback helps because it can motivate the novice performer and it can highlight weaknesses and strengths. Coaches and video are examples. A study was carried out to determine the relationship between different types of feedback on learning. The sketch Graph below shows the effect of feedback on performance. Line A = knowledge of results (KR) and knowledge of performance (KP) Line B = knowledge of results (KR) and social reinforcement (SR) (a) Outline the relationship between the different types of feedback and performance. (1) knowledge of results and knowledge of performance is more effective than knowledge of results and social reinforcement; IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport A study was carried out to determine

the relationship between different types of feedback on learning. The sketch Graph below shows the effect of feedback on performance. Line A = knowledge of results (KR) and knowledge of performance (KP) Line B = knowledge of results (KR) and social reinforcement (SR) Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning (a) Outline the relationship between the different types of feedback and performance. (1) knowledge of results and knowledge of performance is more effective IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5

Skill in sport Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Feedback Explain how feedback in a sports skill learning situation helps the sportsperson improve performance. IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning Collaborative assessment How can skilled players use information processing to their advantage when playing a sport? IB Sports, exercise and health science Topic 5 Skill in sport

Sub-topics 1. The characteristics and classification of skill 2. Information processing 3. Principles of skill learning 5.2 Information processing How is your concept map coming along?

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • The Oral Surgery Commissioning guide - Dental Referrals

    The Oral Surgery Commissioning guide - Dental Referrals

    The Oral Surgery Commissioning guide. Level 1 - Procedures/conditions to be performed or managed by a clinician commensurate with a level of competence as defined by the Curriculum for Dental Foundation Training or equivalent.
  • Electric Potential - McMaster University

    Electric Potential - McMaster University

    Density Substance r SG water 1000 kg/m3 1 mercury 13600 kg/m3 13.6 air 1.29 kg/m3 0.00129 helium 0.18 kg/m3 0.00018 P force per unit area unit: 1 N/m2 = 1 pascal (Pa) Also, 1 atmosphere (atm) = 101.3 kPa Pressure...
  • מצגת של PowerPoint‏

    מצגת של PowerPoint‏

    This series of 10 tiles depicts the story of Cinderella. It was designed by Edward Burne-Jones and painted by Lucy Faulkner. Burne-Jones account book for September 30, 1862 refers to : "10 designs for tiles, Cinderella paid £7.10s" which may...
  • Présentation PowerPoint

    Présentation PowerPoint

    Obtain dD information from a fit to the D0 Dalitz plot The D0→KSp+p- Dalitz model Determine on clean, high statistics sample of 81500 D*+→D0p+ events ASSUME no D-mixing or CP violation in D decays Build model from 15 known resonances...
  • THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM IN HUMAN DISEASE Joseph C. Fantone 4/12/02

    THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM IN HUMAN DISEASE Joseph C. Fantone 4/12/02

    Case A: A 23yo man complains of fever (102oF), headache, neck stiffness and fatigue of 2 days duration. Lumbar puncture shows increased pressure with cloudy cerebrospinal fluid containing large numbers of neutrophils, increased protein, decreased glucose and gram negative diplococci.
  • GCE Economics - Toot Hill School

    GCE Economics - Toot Hill School

    Transferable skills, university quotes about philosophy/religion. The Russell Group of top universities has made it clear that RS A level provides 'suitable preparationfor University generally'. ... Deontology "Deontology...is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness ...
  • The Challenge: To Create More Value in All Negotiations

    The Challenge: To Create More Value in All Negotiations

    Tom Peters' Excellence2006: The Relentless Pursuit of
  • T&I / Lpss Update Summer 2014

    T&I / Lpss Update Summer 2014

    KURT DILLON / Peggy Torrens. Drive-In Workshop 2014AG / T&I / LPSS. Approved Pathways by Cluster 2014-15. Agriculture - 356. Architecture & Construction - 299. Arts, AV, Comm. - 267. ... T&I / LPSS UPDATE SUMMER 2014 Last modified by:...