This presentation will: Give a thorough background about Cyberbullying Detection and all its underlying techniques. Present a survey of all existing literature in multilingual techniques of cyberbullying detection. Present future plans in Multilingual Cyberbullying Detection. I. Introduction
Presence of Cyberbullying Cyberbullying is the new form of bullying. It is executed by Internet and electronic media. Cyberbullying is affecting a lot of children around the world including Arab countries. Awareness for cyberbullying is rising around the world. Research for multilingual cyberbullying had been done (English, Dutch, Indian, Chinese ) but None for Arabic Cyberbullying. Percentage of teens around the world reporting
being bullied / according to countries 50% 39% 32% 34% 21% America
Morocco Lebanon Cyberbullying Among Youth Jordan UAE
II. Background A. Cyberbullying Definition The use of Internet, cell phones, video game systems, or other technologies to send or post text or images intended to hurt or embarrass another person or group of people Cyberbullying is more severe than physical bullying due to the fact that it is wider, public, and the victim has nowhere to escape. A Predator or Bully attacking a Victim.
Flaming: starting a form of online fight. Masquerade: a bully pretending to be someone else for malicious intents. Denigration: sending or posting gossip to ruin someones reputation. Impersonation: Pretending to be someone else and sharing material to get that person in trouble or danger or damage his reputation or friendships. Harassment: Repeatedly sending profane and cruel messages. Outing: Publishing someones embarrassing information, images or secrets. Trickery: Talking someone into revealing secrets or embarrassing information to
share them. Exclusion: Intentionally and cruelly excluding someone from an online group. Cyberstalking: Repeated, intense harassment and denigration that includes threats or creates significant fear. Consequences On the Victim On the Predator
Mental and physical effects. Mental and physical effects. Emotional, concentration, and behavioral issues. Online predators have tendency to become actual predators outside cyberspace. Trouble getting along with peers.
1 out of 4 felt unsafe at school. Frequent headaches, recurrent stomach pain, and sleeping difficulties. More likely to be hyperactive, have conduct problems, abuse alcohol, and smoke cigarettes. Might lead to suicide. II. Background B. Machine Learning
Machine Learning Definition Machine Learning (ML) is defined as the ability of a computer to teach itself how to take a decision using available data and experience. Available Data is known as Training Data. A computer classifies a new piece of data depending on a Learning Algorithm. Leaning Algorithms : Data Labelling Supervised Learning Algorithm When the training data is labeled (classified by human experts) Unsupervised Learning Algorithm
When the training data is unlabeled Semi-supervised Learning Algorithm When both supervised and unsupervised learnings are combined together by using labeled and unlabeled data, to get the most out of both ways Learning Algorithms : Tasks Binary Classifier Classify a certain object as belonging or not belonging to a certain category :
Email Filtering (Spam / Not Spam) Multi-Class Classier Match a certain object against several classes or Regression Predicting a value for an object. Priority level for an incoming email categories.
Available ML Algorithms Naive Bayes Probabilistic supervised learning method. Calculates the probability of an item belonging to a certain class. Was used for sexual predation detection. Nearest Neighbor Estimators A simple estimator . Uses distance between data instances, in order to map a certain instance to its closest distance neighbor.
Available ML Algorithms (Cont.) Support Vector Machine (SVM) Supervised algorithm. A binary classifier.
Assumes a clear distinction between data samples. Tries to nd an optimal hyper plane that maximizes the margin between classes. Decision Tree
Supervised learner. Classify data using a command and conquer approach. An implementation is C4.5 algorithm . Was used by Santos et al. and Reynolds. II. Background C. Natural Language Processing NLP Definition Linguistics + Artificial Intelligence +Computer Science.
Used to make computers capable of understanding the natural unprocessed language spoken between humans. Extracting grammatical structure and meaning from input. NLP Areas include: Acoustic Phonetic Morphological Syntactic Semantic - Pragmatic II. Background D. Performance Measures
Performance Measures Definition Evaluation metrics at first were adapted in Information Retrieval (IR). Then extended to other computer science fields such as ML. Measures Available Recall Proportion of returned documents (or values) which are relevant (or correct) out of all relevant documents returned and not returned.
Also known as Sensitivity of a system. Precision Proportion of returned documents (or values) which are relevant (or correct) RlRt. Also known as Accuracy of a system. Measures Available F-Measure Proposed by van Rijsbergen in 1979.
Weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall. Overcome the negative correlation between Precision and Recall. F1 Special case of F- measure with =1. 0 III. Previous Work A. Cyberbullying Detection
Methods of Detection Filtration Methods Automatic Detection Has to be employed by social networking platforms, in order to automatically delete or shade profane words.
Uses Machine Learning and other techniques. Limited by its inability for detecting subtle language harassment. Has to be manually installed. All the rest of Previous Work talks about automatic detection. Previous Work in Automatic Detection (Topics)
Subtle Language Detection Dinakar et al. Common sense reasoning to detect cyberbullying content. Dataset built from Youtube and Formspring for training and testing. Used Unigrams, profane words, tf-idf weighting scheme, Ortony Lexicon for negative effect, Part-of-speech tags for commonly occurring bigrams, and Label Specic Features for the feature set. SVM
Yin et al., tf-idf for local features. Dadvar et al., they proved including context (such as gender) enhances detection. Bullying on Social Networks Santos et al. Detect and associate fake profiles on twitter. Bayzick, Kontostathis and Edwards Proposed the BULLYTRACER software
Detected cyberbullying in chat rooms 58.63% of the time Chen et al Proposed Lexical Syntactic Feature-based Detect harassment in online posts. Used semantic analysis and NLP techniques. Fuzzy Logic and Genetic algorithms Nandhinia and Sheebab Proposed a new system using those two methods.
Achieved better Accuracy, F1-measure and Recall than previous fuzzy methods. Previous Work in Automatic Detection (Researches) Nahar, Li and Pang Tf-idf weighting scheme for building features. Building a network of victims and predators.
Chayan and Shylaja Enhanced the performance of cyberbullying detection through looking at comments from peers. Using supervised ML and logical regression. Didnt detect sarcasm. Hosseinmardi et al. Distinguished between cyberbullying and cyber aggression. Proved that Linear SVM enhances classification to 87%. Used features other than text : Images for better detection.
Potha and Maragoudakis Used Window of Time. Time series model and SVM for Feature selection. SVD for Feature reduction. DTW for matching time series collections. III. Previous Work B. Arabic Language
Arabic Language Characteristics Complex morphological nature. A script language which is read and written from right to left. Constituting of 28 alphabet letters. Diacritics : representing vowels. Arabic Diglossia : Classical Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) Dialects
Arabizi (Or Arabish) Key Phrase Extraction Ghaleb Ali and Omar. Used Machine Learning. SVM, Linear Logistic Regression and Linear Discriminant Analysis. Proved that SVM was best in the three algorithms for key phrase extraction. Arabic Named Entity Extraction Shaalan et al
Proposed Named Entity Recognition for Arabic (NERA). Achieved satisfactory performance. recall : 86.3%, precision 89.2% and F1 87.7%. Spam On Emails: El-Halees, on pure English, pure Arabic and mixed collections of emails. Several ML techniques were used, including SVM, NB, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) and Neural Networks. Proved SVM better on English.
Proved Stemming for Arabic enhances classification. On Social Networks Sentiment Analysis Done on Arabic Facebook Comments by Hamouda Used SVM, NB and Decision Trees for classification. Best performance achieved by SVM : 73.4%. Done on Arabic Tweets by Duwairi et al.
handling Dialects. Used NB, SVM and K-NN. Best accuracy from NB. Done on Arabizi also by Duwairi et al Converted Arabizi to Arabic first. Applied SVM and NB SVM outperformed NB. Stemming
Khojas Stemmers and Light Stemmers. Gadri and Moussaoui elaborated a multilingual stemmer. IV. Future Work The Vision The plan to use NLP and ML to build a system to detect Cyberbullying written in Arabic, Arabizi or English. Building on previous work in Arabic and English NLP to process data. Data will consist of tweets and Facebook comments from the Middle East region. It will be used to train and test ML classifiers.
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