CST simulations of the impedance of a new design for the PS wire scanners F. Caspers, A. Grudiev, E. Mtral, B. Salvant Many thanks to W. Andreazza, R. Calaga and F. Roncarolo (BI) Agenda Context Main assumptions Simulation of the wire scanner tank alone Simulations of the wire scanner with the wire and arm (parking position IN) Simulations of the wire scanner with the wire and arm (parking position OUT) Summary

Context 4 wire scanners are installed in the PS Beam losses due to small aperture of current wire scanner tank design New design for wire scanner in the PS See EDMS document 999629 Request for building the new tanks, but impedance had not been checked. History of broken wires in the SPS due to beam induced losses "Cavity Mode Related Wire Breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and Loss Measurements of Wire Materials" F. Caspers, B. Dehning, E. Jensen, J. Koopman, J.F. Malo, F. Roncarolo - Proc DIPAC 2003 (pdf) "Wire Measurements on the LHC wire scanner" F. Caspers, T. Kroyer, ABP/RLC meeting (pdf) 2 main risks to this new design increased impedance (longitudinal and/or transverse) can lead to instabilities increased longitudinal impedance can lead to burning the wire

What can we do to check the impedance? Theory Simulations Measurements Here we use simulations (CST) Time domain simulates the EM interaction of a line density bunch with a 3D model CST Particle Studio Wakefield Solver Frequency domain simulates the modes that can be excited in a 3D model CST Microwave Studio Eigenmode Solver Main assumptions

Geometrical model Hexahedral mesh approximates the structure Model can be different from drawing Drawing can be different from what is really installed!!!! Material properties In time domain, very coarse fit of the input frequency dependence (see work of Carlo and Lukas Haenichen of TU Darmstadt) EM properties of materials at high frequencies are not always measured and can be very different from the model used in CST (very often, they are not part of the specs!!! Also, effect of mechanical and RF damage over time, anisotropies, inhomogeneities, etc.) See work of Tatiana, Carlo and phase 2 collimation for instance Specific issues of modeling a thin wire (see work of Tom Kroyer CERN-AB-Note-2008018 )

Interaction with the bunch (Particle Studio) single pass of a line current density (see work of Carlo and Prof. Vaccaro) limited wakelength limitated to low Q values in MWS, perturbation method, well suited to high Q values and no thick dispersive materials Agenda Context Main assumptions Simulation of the wire scanner tank alone Simulations of the wire scanner with the wire and arm (parking position IN)

Simulations of the wire scanner with the wire and arm (parking position OUT) Summary 1. Wire scanner tank alone STP model exported from CATIA CST model after import and processing Reasons for changing the tank: - improve aperture - enhance measurement accuracy Note: import a model from CATIA Method currently used:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ask the model owner to export it in *.STP format Open the *.STP file in HFSS (and check the structure) Export in *.SAT format Import the *.SAT in CST Suppress unnecessary parts and use the CST healing functions Fill the simulation space with vacuum and use the separate shape function on the resulting solid to keep the vacuum inside the element and suppress the

vacuum around it. Current issues: CERN does not have a direct import license for CATIA or STEP files, hence the need to go through HFSS CATIA models are only accessible through SMARTEAM, a shared environment (2-week-training course required) Resulting models in CST sometimes present serious issues, and obtaining a consistent model is not always trivial

Longitudinal wake from CST Particle Studio beta =1, sigma = 2 cm, 2 M mesh cells, wake of ~20 m, indirect testbeams wake integration 1.18 GHz 1.45 GHz 0.95 GHz 0.9 GHz 0.8 GHz 1.12 GHz Eigenmodes of the tank Mode frequency ID (GHz) Q

Rs (x,y=0) Rs/Q Ploss in W 3 0.79 5890 30 k

5 3 10-7 6 0.90 4730 24 k 5 2 10-10

8 0.94 6030 103 k 17 4 10-11 12 1.11

4930 92 k 2.8 3 10-17 15 1.17 6730 116 k

17 3 10-19 2fW P with W= total stored energy Remarks: Q is obtained with the formula Very small !!! Q (W=1J in eigenmode)

and P=dissipated power V2 (linac convention) P R Perturbation method id used to obtain the Q and R for stainless steel. Power losses calculations If we assume the mode frequency overlaps with one of the beam harmonics (conservative approach) 2 q Ploss Rs exp

tb z c 2 With the parameters of the LHC nominal beam at ejection of the PS

nominal bunch charge after splitting q = 18.4 nC (1.15 e11 p/b) bunch spacing = 25 ns (worst case scenario) smallest nominal RMS bunch length = 30 cm Rs is the shunt impedance (linac convention) z is the rms bunch length in m Why is the dissipated power so small? Bunch power spectrum for LHC type bunches of various lengths = 30 cm (PS ejection nominal) = 20 cm (PS ejection smaller emittance) = 11 cm (LHC injection) = 7.5 cm (LHC ejection) Peaks higher than 0.5 GHz are washed out by the large bunch length in the PS With LHC bunches with small longitudinal emittance, bunch length is around 20 cm, and dissipated power for mode 1 becomes 0.3 W.

Agenda Context Main assumptions Simulation of the wire scanner tank alone Simulations of the wire scanner with the wire and arm (parking position IN) Simulations of the wire scanner with the wire and arm (parking position OUT) Summary 2. Wire scanner tank with wire and mechanical system CST model after import and processing STP model exported from CATIA

Wire at parking position (OUT) CST model after import and simplification fork Mechanical system Ion pump Wire after scan (IN) Tank with wire (IN position) Longitudinal impedance beta =1, sigma = 3 cm, 2 M mesh cells, wake of ~20 m Fork and casing in stainless steel, wire as PEC wire

total power loss in the structure P=800 W for this mode Additional simulation with Eigenmode solver (152,000 mesh cells) f0 =292 MHz Rs= 43 k Q= 1200 Is this new mode an issue? Compare with the losses of the old design Fork and casing in stainless steel Additional simulation with Eigenmode solver (156,000 mesh cells)

f0 = 292 MHz Rs= 8.7 k Q= 730 total power loss in the structure P=160 W for that mode (new design 800 W) Surface currents (freq domain) Old design New design Voltage in the wire (1st try) Old design New design Charge of the bunch = 1 nC

Rms bunch length: 20 cm R=1.43 Ohm P = V2/R = (0.004*18.4)2/1.43 = 4 mW peak in the wire this method should be crosschecked with the SPS case for which wires actually broke Can we damp this mode? Trying to damp this 300 MHz mode Putting some dispersive materials in the structure helps reducing losses due to HOM: Fritz: 1) Losses are proportional to Rs P = Rs I2 2) Rs/Q is constant whatever the material 3) Both Rs and Q decrease if we create losses in dispersive materials 4) P = Rs/Q *Q I2 create EM losses with dispersive materials

lower Q for that mode fewer losses! However, of course more losses at low frequencies are expected, and we should be careful with the transverse impedance First try to damp that modes with available blocks of ferrite William says the only possible spots for ferrites are on the top and bottom They already have 4S60 ferrite plates and they would like to use them if possible. Possible positions Where do we put the ferrite plate

Proposed position for the ferrite Longitudinal impedance (real) Time domain wakefield solver Rms bunch length 20 cm All materials ss304L except wire Ferrite 4S60 Nice damping! frequency shifts down Mode properties Simulation type

f0 Rs Q Ploss No ferrite eigenmode 292 MHz 43 k

1200 800 W With ferrite wakefield 270 MHz 0.26 k 21 8W

Longitudinal impedance (imaginary) Im(Z/n) = 0.07 to 0.08 Not too much additional low frequency longitudinal impedance maybe not expected to be checked Horizontal dipolar impedance (LF) No symmetry We displace the beam by 10 mm towards the engine and look for the slope of the horizontal impedance (first approximation)

Imaginary LF horizontal dipolar impedance =(20-8)/0.01= 1.2 k/m Vertical dipolar impedance (LF) There is a symmetry in the vertical plane Imaginary LF vertical dipolar impedance =13/0.01= 1.3 k/m Agenda Context Main assumptions Simulation of the wire scanner tank alone Simulations of the wire scanner with the wire and arm (parking position IN) Simulations of the wire scanner with the wire and arm (parking position OUT) Summary

Tank with wire (OUT position) No other harmful mode detected Longitudinal: Z/n=0.04 Ohm horizontal: 0.9 kOhm/m Vertical: 0.5 kOhm/m Mode due to the wire and fork Wire position Simulation type f0

Rs Q Ploss OUT No ferrite eigenmode 264 MHz 2.6 k

853 89 W OUT With ferrite wakefield 256 MHz 0.06 k 30

2W IN No ferrite eigenmode 292 MHz 43 k 1200 800 W

IN With ferrite wakefield 270 MHz 0.26 k 21 8W Summary Need to check the new wire scanner design for the PS

From these simulations, new design seems to create more longitudinal impedance and more losses. From the figures obtained, this increase does not appear huge What should we do? recommendation for short term: build like this and be ready to install ferrites if needed. recommendation for longer term: Compare these figures with simulation of the SPS wire that broke. Perform wire measurements when the tank is built. optimise the position, shape and material of the ferrites Thank you for your attention Mode 3 H field

E field Mode 6 Longitudinal impedance Horizontal dipolar impedance at low frequency LF simulation parameters: 40,000 mesh cells Rms bunch length=20cm Ez Field patterns of this mode |H| field pattern of this mode