# CS 1 - University of Texas at Dallas CS 1 Lesson 5 Loops and Files CS 1 -- John Cole Slide 1 Increment and Decrement Operators ++ is the increment operator. It adds one to a variable. val++; is the same as val = val + 1; ++ can be used before (prefix) or after (postfix) a

variable: ++val; val++; -- is the decrement operator, similar in operation to ++. CS 1 -- John Cole 2 Prefix and Postfix ++ and -- operators can be used in complex statements and expressions

In prefix mode (++val, --val) the operator increments or decrements, then returns the value of the variable In postfix mode (val++, val--) the operator returns the value of the variable, then increments or decrements CS 1 -- John Cole 3 Prefix vs. Postfix - Examples int num, val = 12; cout << val++; // displays 12,

// val is now 13; cout << ++val; // sets val to 14, // then displays it num = --val; // sets val to 13, // stores 13 in num num = val--; // stores 13 in num, // sets val to 12 CS 1 -- John Cole 4 How Increment and Decrement Work

Can be used in expressions: result = num1++ + --num2; Must be applied to something that has a location in memory. Cannot have: result = (num1 + num2)++; Can be used in relational expressions: if (++num > limit) pre- and post-operations will cause different comparisons CS 1 -- John Cole 5

The while Loop Loop: a control structure that causes a statement or statements to repeat General format of the while loop: while (expression) statement; statement; can also be a block of statements enclosed in { } CS 1 -- John Cole 6

The while Loop How It Works while (expression) statement; expression is evaluated if true, then statement is executed, and expression is evaluated again if false, then the loop is finished and program statements following statement execute The expression can be arbitrary complexity but must evaluate to true or false CS 1 -- John Cole

7 while Loop Logic CS 1 -- John Cole 8 while Loop Example unsigned char ch = 31; while(static_cast(ch++) != 255) {

cout << static_cast(ch) << " = " << ch << endl; } CS 1 -- John Cole 9 The while Loop is a Pretest Loop expression is evaluated before the loop executes. The following loop will never execute: int number = 6; while (number <= 5) {

cout << "Hello\n"; number++; } CS 1 -- John Cole 10 Infinite Loops The loop must contain code to make expression become false Otherwise, the loop will have no way of stopping Such a loop is called an infinite loop, because it will repeat an infinite number of times

(How do you stop one?) CS 1 -- John Cole 11 Infinite Loop Example int number = 1; while (number <= 5) { cout << "Hello\n"; } CS 1 -- John Cole

12 The do-while loop do-while: a posttest loop execute the loop, then test the expression General Format: do statement; // or block in { } while (expression); Note that a semicolon is required after (expression)

CS 1 -- John Cole 13 do-while Loop Logic CS 1 -- John Cole 14 do-while Loop Example int x = 1; do {

cout << x << endl; } while(x < 0); Although the test expression is false, this loop will execute one time because do-while is a posttest loop. CS 1 -- John Cole 15 do-while Loop Notes Loop always executes at least once Execution continues as long as expression is true, stops repetition when expression becomes false

Useful in menu-driven programs to bring user back to menu to make another choice (see Program 5-8 on pages 245-246) CS 1 -- John Cole 16 Input Validation with do-while Programs should reject bad input. You can write a while loop to request input until the user enters something valid. The menu in the test program does this. The advantage over what the text shows is

that you dont need your prompt and input twice. CS 1 -- John Cole 17 Input Validation with do-while char ch = ' '; do { cout << "Enter an upper-case letter: "; cin.get(ch);

} while (ch <'A' || ch >'Z'); CS 1 -- John Cole 18 The for Loop Useful for a counter-controlled loop General Format: for(initialization; test; update) statement; // or block in { } No semicolon after the update expression or after the )

CS 1 -- John Cole 19 for Loop - Mechanics for(initialization; test; update) statement; // or block in { } 1. Perform initialization 2. Evaluate test expression 1. If true, execute statement 2. If false, terminate loop execution

3. Execute update, then re-evaluate test expression CS 1 -- John Cole 20 The for Loop is a Pretest Loop The for loop tests its test expression before each iteration, so it is a pretest loop. The following loop will never iterate: for (count = 11; count <= 10; count++) cout << "Hello" << endl;

CS 1 -- John Cole 21 for Loop - Example int count; for (count = 1; count <= 5; count++) cout << "Hello " << count << endl; This displays: Hello 1 Hello 2 Hello 3 Hello 4

Hello 5 CS 1 -- John Cole 22 Example Details First, initialize count to 1 Second, test to see if count is less than or equal to 5 If it is, execute the body of the loop If not, end the loop The first time through, count is 1, so the statement outputs Hello 1

Go back to the top, perform the update expression, and test again. CS 1 -- John Cole 23 Example Flowchart CS 1 -- John Cole 24 When to Use the for Loop In any situation that clearly requires

an initialization a false condition to stop the loop an update to occur at the end of each iteration CS 1 -- John Cole 25 for Loops Can Be Tricky Consider the following code int ix; for (ix=0; ix<10; ix++); cout << ix = <

ix = 10 CS 1 -- John Cole 26 for Loop - Variations You can have multiple statements in the initialization expression. Separate the statements with a comma: int x, y; for (x=1, y=1; x <= 5; x++) { cout << x << " plus " << y

<< " equals " << (x+y) << endl; } CS 1 -- John Cole 27 for Loop - Variations You can also have multiple statements in the update expression. Separate the statements with a comma: int x, y; for (x=1, y=1; x <= 5; x++, y++) {

cout << x << " plus " << y << " equals " << (x+y) << endl; } CS 1 -- John Cole 28 for Loop - Variations You can omit the initialization expression if it has already been done: int sum = 0, num = 1; for (; num <= 10; num++) sum += num;

CS 1 -- John Cole 29 for Loop - Variations You can declare variables in the initialization expression: int sum = 0; for (int num = 0; num <= 10; num++) sum += num; The scope of the variable num is the for loop. It is undefined outside the loop. CS 1 -- John Cole

30 Which Loop Do I Use? The while loop is a conditional pretest loop Iterates as long as a certain condition exits Validating input Reading lists of data terminated by a sentinel The do-while loop is a conditional posttest loop Always iterates at least once Repeating a menu The for loop is a pretest loop

Built-in expressions for initializing, testing, and updating Situations where the exact number of iterations is known CS 1 -- John Cole 31 Sentinel Values sentinel: value in a list of values that indicates end of data Special value that cannot be confused with a valid value, e.g., -999 for a test score Used to terminate input when user may not know how many values will be entered Needed because the console (keyboard) has

no end of file indicator CS 1 -- John Cole 32 Sentinel Values -- Example double avg = 0; double total = 0; double score; int num = 0; cout << "Enter -1 to end entry of test scores" << endl; while (true) {

cout << "Enter a score: "; cin >> score; if (score < 0) break; total += score; num++; } cout << "Average of " << num << " scores is " << (total / num) << endl; CS 1 -- John Cole 33 Nested Loops

A nested loop is a loop inside the body of another loop Inner (inside), outer (outside) loops: for (row=1; row<=3; row++) //outer for (col=1; col<=3; col++)//inner cout << row * col << endl; CS 1 -- John Cole 34 Notes on Nested Loops Inner loop goes through all repetitions for each repetition of outer loop

Inner loop repetitions complete sooner than outer loop Total number of repetitions for inner loop is product of number of repetitions of the two loops. CS 1 -- John Cole 35 Using Files for Data Storage You can use files instead of keyboard, monitor screen for program input, output This allows data to be retained between

program runs Steps: Open the file Use the file (read from, write to, or both) Close the file CS 1 -- John Cole 36 Using Files Use fstream header file for file access File stream types: ifstream for input from a file

ofstream for output to a file fstream for input from or output to a file Define file stream objects: ifstream infile; ofstream outfile; CS 1 -- John Cole 37 Opening Files Opening a file creates a link between file name (outside the program) and file stream object (inside

the program) Use the open member function: infile.open("inventory.dat"); outfile.open("report.txt"); Filename may include drive, path info. Output file will be created if necessary; existing file will be erased first Input file must exist for open to work CS 1 -- John Cole 38 Testing for File Open Errors Can test a file stream object to detect if an open

operation failed: infile.open("test.txt"); if (!infile) { cout << "File open failure!"; } Can also use the fail member function CS 1 -- John Cole 39 Using Files You can use an output file object and << to

send data to a file: outfile << "Inventory report"; You can use an input file object and >> to copy data from file to variables: infile >> partNum; infile >> qtyInStock >> qtyOnOrder; CS 1 -- John Cole 40 Using Loops to Process Files The stream extraction operator >> returns

true when a value was successfully read, false otherwise Can be tested in a while loop to continue execution as long as values are read from the file: while (inputFile >> number) ... CS 1 -- John Cole 41 Closing Files Use the close member function: infile.close(); outfile.close();

Dont wait for operating system to close files at program end: There may be a limit on number of open files There may be buffered output data waiting to send to file CS 1 -- John Cole 42 Specifying a File Name The open member function requires that you pass the name of the file as a

null-terminated string, which is also known as a C-string. String literals are stored in memory as null-terminated C-strings, but string objects are not. CS 1 -- John Cole 43 Specifying a File Name string objects have a member function named c_str It returns the contents of the object formatted as a null-terminated C-string.

Here is the general format of how you call the c_str function: stringObject.c_str() CS 1 -- John Cole 44 Sample Code char strFilename; char strLine; ifstream infile; while (true) {

cout << "Enter file name: "; cin.getline(strFilename, sizeof(strFilename)); infile.open(strFilename); if (infile) break; } while (infile.getline(strLine, sizeof(strLine))) { cout << strLine << endl; } CS 1 -- John Cole 45

Breaking Out of a Loop You can use break to terminate execution of a loop Use sparingly if at all makes code harder to understand and debug When used in an inner loop, terminates that loop only and goes back to outer loop See example on in the previous slide CS 1 -- John Cole 46 The continue Statement

Can use continue to go to end of loop and prepare for next repetition while, do-while loops: go to test, repeat loop if test passes for loop: perform update step, then test, then repeat loop if test passes Use sparingly like break, can make program logic hard to follow CS 1 -- John Cole 47