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Taken from Burke County High School GHSGT ELA Cram Session Types of Literature The two main types of literature on this test are prose and poetry. Prose: consists of a story

written in sentences and paragraphs that come from the authors own imagination. Poetry is set up in groups of lines called stanzas which have a certain rhythm or beat as you read them. Poetry also contains vivid images in very compact language. Prose Literary Elements in Fiction CHARACTER A person(s), animal, or natural force

appearing in a literary work. PROTAGONIST The main character or hero of a short story. ANTAGONIST A rival or opponent of the hero. Basic Story Elements Setting When and where a story takes place Point of View The vantage point from which the story is told the relationship of the narrator to the story. Conflict The struggle between different forces in a story Plot

The sequence of events in a story that leads to the resolution Plot Development l Fal Exposition n tio Ac Risi n

ing g Ac tion Climax Resolution Narrative Hook/Conflict Introduced Point of View (POV) First-person is told by a character who uses the first-person pronoun I. Third-person (Limited or Omniscient) is

the point of view where the narrator uses third-person pronouns such as he and she to refer to the characters. LIMITED: this perspective is distinct from the omniscient mode in that the reader experiences the story through the senses and thoughts of just one character. OMNISCIENT: this perspective is told from the point of view of a storyteller who plays no part in the story but knows all the facts,

including the characters' thoughts. Conflict The struggle between different forces in a story. Internal conflict is a mental or emotional struggle that occurs within a character

(Man vs. Himself) External conflict is a struggle that occurs between a character and outside forces, which could be another character or the environment. (Man vs. Man, Society, Nature, etc) IRONY Verbal irony is when a speaker says one thing but means another, or when a literal meaning is contrary to its intended effect. An example of this is sarcasm. Dramatic irony is when words and actions possess a significance that the listener or audience

understands, but the speaker or character does not. Situational irony is when the result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect . . . what you expect to happen does not come to pass. Writers TONE Tone is a reflection of a writers or speakers attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to

convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm. Flashback & Foreshadowing Flashback is action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character.

Foreshadowing is the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in literature. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come. THEME Theme is the general idea or insight about life that a writer wishes to

expresssometimes referred to a life lesson. All of the elements of literary terms contribute to theme. A simple theme can often be stated in a single sentence. Poetry Poetry consists of imagery, rhythm and rhyme, and figures of speech. Types of Poetry LYRIC: An emotional writing focusing on thought and emotion - can consist of a song-like

quality. Subdivisions include elegy, ode and sonnet. Lyric poetry does not attempt to tell a story. Types of Lyric Poetry Elegy Ode An elegy is a mournful, melancholic or plaintive

poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead. An ode is a serious poem of a meditative nature written for a specific occasion or on a particular subject. They

are often very formal with elevated language. Sonn et A fourteenline poem usually having conventional rhyme schemes and specific structure. Types of Poetry

NARRATIVE A poem which tells a story. Includes the subdivision epic, a long story which tells of the heroic ideals of a particular society, and ballad, which generally tell of an event of interest such as a crime. Ballads were originally Narrative Poetry Epics Epics are long, complicated story-poems. They

tell of extraordinary deeds by supernatural heroes and villains. Ballads Ballads are part of the oral tradition and tella story through song. Their subjects can be heroic, satirical, romantic, or political. They focus on the actions and dialogue of a storynot the characters. Types of Poetry DRAMATIC Any drama written in verse which is meant to

be spoken, usually to tell a story or portray a situation. The majority of dramatic poetry is written in blank verse. Imagery, Rhythm & Rhyme Imagery is words or phrases that recreate an experience of a feeling. It usually appeals to one or more of the five sensessight, sound, smell, taste, or touch. Rhythm is a pattern of sound you hear

as the poetry is spoken or read. Rhyme refers to the repetition of sounds or words within lines (internal rhyme) or at the end of lines (end rhyme). Iambic Pentamenter The most common rhythm in English poetry. Consists of a line ten syllables long that is accented on every second beat. Poetry that Doesnt Rhyme

Blank verse is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Whereas, free verse (sometimes referred to free form) is not written in iambic pentameter. Blank Verse Free Verse Practitioners include Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare

Practitioners include Walt Whitman and TS Eliot Types of Stanzas Couplet Triplet = a two line stanza = a three line stanza Quatrain = a four line stanza Quintet = a five line stanza Sestet = a six line stanza Septet

= a seven line stanza Octave = an eight line stanza Figures of Speech Figures of Speech are images that depart from standard wording to achieve a special meaning of effect. Poetry Sounds Assonance is the repetition of vowelsounds within non-rhyming words. Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds within words.

Alliteration is the repetition of same sounds at the start of words. There is an example of all three of these terms in one line of the poem, The Raven, written by Edgar Allan Poe: And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Assonance is the repetition of the ur sound in "purple" and "curtain. Consonance is the repetition of the s sound within "uncertain" and "rustling. Alliteration is the repetition of the s sound at the start of "silken" and Hyperbole Hyperbole is exaggeration or overstatement.

Example: I'm so hungry I could eat a horse. He's as big as a house. Simile and Metaphor Simile is the comparison of two unlike things using like or as. Example: He eats like a pig. Vines like golden

Metaphor is the comparison of two unlike things using the verb "to be" and not using like or as as in a simile. Example: He is a pig. Onomatopoeia & Personification Onomatopoei a is a word that

imitates the sound it represents. Personificatio n is giving human characteristics to something non-human. Example: splash, wow, gush, kerplunk

Example: smiling moon Oxymoron Oxymoron is a combination of contradictory or opposite words. Examples: pretty ugly jumbo shrimp legally drunk

Paradox Paradox is a statement that at first appears false but in reality is true. Example: Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all. American Literature Understanding the Literary Periods

Native American Literature Native American (30,000BC1730AD): Characteristicsfocus on the common origin of all things, tribal traditions and rituals, respect for all nature. Types of literaturemostly oral, some written, consisting of ceremonial songs and prayers, historical narratives, and poems. The Colonial Period Puritan/Colonial (1620-1730): Characteristicsfocus on predestination, plainness in all

things. Types of literaturesermons, diaries, journals, narratives, and poetry; fiction or drama was forbidden. The Revolutionary Period Revolutionary (1750-1800): Characteristicshigh regard for reasoning and scientific observation; strong belief in human progress; freedom from restrictive laws and government; moderation and self-control in all things; stress on elegant, ornate style of writing. Types of literaturepolitical writings, almanacs, speeches, essays, and some

poetry. The Romantic Period Romantic (1800-1840): Characteristicshigh regard for inner feelings and emotions; focus on the individual; reverence for the imagination; use of language of the common people. Types of literaturepoetry, novels, short stories, sketches, and folklore. The Transcendentalist Period Transcendentalism & AntiTranscendentalism (1840-1860): Characteristics(T) reverence for

nature; happiness comes from individualism and self-reliance; (AT) critical of optimistic views; human nature a mixture of good and evil. Types of literatureessays, novels, short stories, and poetry. Realism & Naturalism Realism & Naturalism (1855-1918): Characteristics(R) expression of life as it is actually lived; factual description of ordinary characters and events; regionalism or local color; focus on dialect, customs, and characters of a particular region; (N) heredity, environment, and economics determine ones destiny; nature as a brutal force; influence of

scientific method. Types of literaturestories, novels, poetry, travel books, songs, and spirituals. The Modern Period Modern Age (1918-present): Characteristicsopposition to dehumanizing trends in modern life; short stories with a more open form that stress mood and character rather than plot; loss of idealism due to war; experimental forms of poetry--free verse, imagism, and confessional poetry; rise in AfricanAmerican heritage, culture, and Reading

Comprehension Literal & Inferential Understanding; Writers Purpose & Pattern Literal Understanding Literal understanding refers to information that is directly stated in a passage. A main idea is the basic topic of a passage. It is often stated directly at the beginning of a passage. Sometimes it can be stated at the end, and, occasionally, it may not be stated at all. A supporting detail expands or clarifies the main idea of a passage. Since the supporting details develop the main idea, there are usually

several. They may explain the main idea by cause-effect examples, sequence, or comparing and contrasting. Inferential Understanding Inferential understanding is information not directly stated in a passage. You may be asked to make various types of inferences reading between the lines, an educated guessabout a passage. These inferences will take the form of (1) implied main ideamain idea that is not stated directly; (2) conclusionforming a

judgment or opinion based on what is stated; or (3) predictionapplying information from a passage to a new situation. Propaganda Propaganda is information that tries to falsely influence your opinions or feelings. It is found in television commercials, newspaper ads and editorials, political speeches, and everyday conversations too. Continue for examples . . .

Propaganda: Testimonials (1) testimonials a commonly used technique in which famous persons endorse a product even though they may not be qualified experts.

Example(s): Michael Jordan eats Wheaties. Sarah Jessica Parker states in a commercial that Preference hair color has better conditioners. Propaganda: Plain Folks (2) plain folks a technique which

persuades us to think or act a certain way because other people are doing the same thing. Example(s): Everyone is having sex before marriage so it must be OK. The cool kids wear Polo and Tommy Hilifiger.

Propaganda: Transfer (3) transfera technique in which we connect our feelings about something to another unrelated thing (often symbols like flags, respected leaders, or historical figures

are used). Example(s): The Statue of Liberty represents Liberty Insurance so people will respect the companys products. A political candidate gives a speech with the American flag in the background so people will trust in what he is saying. Propaganda: Snob Appeal

(4) snob appeala high social status is the reward for thinking or acting a certain way. Example(s): Uncommon, unusual, unlike the rest Avanti! The height of fashion is a Coach purse.

Propaganda: Glittering Generality (5) glittering generalitya general claim with no proof to support it. Example(s): New, improved Speed Hair Spray! Vote for a future of progress and prosperity.

Writers PURPOSE Purpose refers to why an author writes. Readers can better understand written material when they can determine the reason an author writes. Four common purposes for

writing are: (1) narrative tells a story through a series of unrelated events; (2) descriptionrecreates a person, place, or thing through words that appeal to the five senses; (3) expositorypresents information about a topic, usually through facts or examples; and (4) persuasionurges an Types of Writing Type of Writing

Examples Narration The Time I Wrecked my New Car Falling in Love for the First Time Description The Beach at Sunset My Grandmothers Hands Exposition Tips for Conserving Water at Home How to Change a Tire Persuasion Homeless People Need Homes! Why We Should Raise the Minimum Wage! Writers PATTERN Pattern means how a writer organizes the

details of a passage. These details will follow a certain pattern in explaining the main idea. Four common patterns writers use are: (1) climacticsometimes this pattern is called order of importance because the writer starts with the least important details and ends with the most important details to make a point;

(2) comparison/contrastshows similarities or differences between two ideas or things; (3) causeeffectcause refers to the reason for an action whereas effect is the result of an action; and (4) subordinationhelps us see the Organization: Climatic Least Important Most Important Most Important

Least Important Examples: Ranking Household Expenses Most/Least Favorite Class Key Words: First in addition Second next Third then

Finally most of all Also worst of all Organization: Comparison/Contrast Comparison Contrast Alike Differ Compare

Contrast Similar Unlike Same On the other hand Equally But Resembles

However Examples: How My Mom and Dad are Alike (Comparison) How My Mom and Dad are Different (Contrast) Organization: Cause/Effect Cause Effect Reason

Result Because Affect Source Consequenc e Basis Outcome Examples:

Why Earthquakes Happen How Earthquakes Affect California Organization: Subordination Subordination helps us see logical relationships between facts; the relationship is made clearer

by subordinating one idea to another. Key Words for Subordination after so if because as

since unless which before whereas though although when

that while until Examples: Before we left for vacation, we asked out neighbors to watch the house. Americans want to lower taxes so that more of us can pay our bills. If you pass the final, you will

Logic and Fallacies Logic refers to reasoning writers use to communicate their ideas. Unfortunately, writers can sometimes make errors in reasoning or fallacies. Elements of Logic: Sequence Certain questions on sequence will ask you to organize a group of sentences into a logical sequence of events. These events would then lead to a final

concluding sentence. Example: Organize the following sentences into a sequence of events that will lead to this conclusion: All the animals sought refuge from the fury of the storm. 1. The pines swayed and branches feel from trees. 2. There was a sudden calm and the air was heavy. 3. Black, ominous clouds gathered overhead. 4. Birds screeched and dogs barked as the wind intensified. 3, 2, 4,

1 C. 2, 3,quietly 1, 4 and Since A. a storm usually begins B. 2, up 3, 4, 1 D.the 3, 1, 2, answer 4 then picks

strength, best is B. Elements of Logic: Generalizations A generalization is a statement that summarizes or ties together information in a passage. It may be stated directly or it

may be inferred from evidence in the passage. Example: Which of the following statements is the best generalization about this passage? The blood carries oxygen from the lungs to each cell in the body. In addition, the blood carries carbon dioxide from the cells to the lings where it is expelled as a waste product. Nutrients like protein and glucose depend on the blood for their dispersal throughout the body. 1. The blood serves many functions in the body 2. Protein and glucose provide food for the blood.

3. No one can survive without a plentiful supply of blood. Based the provides evidenceoxygen in the passage, 4. Theon blood to every the cell best in the answer body.is A. This generalization summaries what the passage is about. Elements of Logic: Not

Questions Not questions require you to find irrelevant statements in a selection. These irrelevant statements are examples, facts, or ideas not mentioned in a passage. Types of NOT Questions: Which statement would not be useful for

establishing a new community center? Which sentence is irrelevant to the persuasive purpose of the writer? The American literary movement least influenced by the Industrial Revolution was All of the following statements are necessary for supporting this argument except Which statement is not an example of fallacious (erroneous) reasoning? Tips for Answering Not Questions 1. Read the question two or three times, eliminating statements that are relevant. 2. The one that is left is your irrelevant statement. 3. Always verify your answer by going back through the passage.

Elements of Logic: Argument An argument is a method of logic or reasoning. The writer uses reasons to support a claim or assertion about a topic or issue. Tips for Analyzing an Argument 1. Identify the assertion or claim of the

argument. Usually it is the first sentence of the passage. In some kinds or argument, it may appear at the end as the conclusion. Occasionally, you will have to arrive at your own conclusion based on the evidence. 2. Decide whether each reason supports the claim. Some reasons will strongly support the claim they will be logical and relevant to the argument. However, other reasons may be weak and irrelevant to the argument, Logical Fallacies Logical

fallacies are errors in reasoning. They reveal unclear thinking that weakens an argument. Sharp readers should be able to spot fallacies. The four most common fallacies are (1) hasty generalizations, (2) false analogies, (3) circular reasoning, and (4) personal attacks. Hasty Generalization Hasty Generalizations making an inference or judgment based on insufficient

Example: evidence. You arrive to your English class. No one is there, so you decide the class has been cancelled. This judgment is based on too little evidence. The class could be on a field trip, in another room, at a special assembly, etc. False Analogy False Analogy a misleading comparison between two ideas that are not alike in all aspects. Example: High school students got along without cars in the 1940s; therefore, they can get along without cars today as well.

Although there are high school students in both time periods, circumstances are different today. Cars are plentiful, more affordable, and, in most cases, a necessity because of greater distances Circular Reasoning Circular reasoning part of a point is used as evidence to support it. This is also called begging the question. Example: Cheating on exams is wrong because looking at someone elses test is bad. No real reasons for cheating are given; the statement merely repeats itself. Personal Attacks

Personal Attacks attacking a persons life rather than his or her ideas. Example: Carla is always joking with her friends, so how could she run for student council president?! Carlas sense of humor has little connection with how she would lead students. In fact, it could turn into an asset. Features of Printed Materials Research Reference Materials Some

of the questions on the test will test your ability to locate specific information found in features of printed materials. Reference Materials Table of contents Preface Introduction Titles and subtitles Glossary

Index Bibliography Dictionary Appendix Encyclopedia Almanac Online Research Websites Pay

close attentio n to the endings of web address es. When you are looking at websites, it is useful have an understanding of implications of the common suffixes used in the addresses for websites (called URLs). Some suffixes give a clue about the nature of the organization which owns the website. .com

Commercial site; usually selling something .net Network .org Non-profit organization .gov Local or National Government

.edu Educational site Types of Books AUTOBIOGRAPHY A non-fictional account of a person's life--usually a celebrity, an important historical figure, or a writer--written by that actual person. BIOGRAPHY A non-fictional account of a person's life written by someone other than who is being highlighted. Primary & Secondary

Sources Incorporating Source Materials Fact vs. Opinion Whats the Difference? A fact is a true statement that can be proven through observations, research, or statistics. An opinion is a statement of judgment or personal belief. It may or may not be true. Adjectives or the word I is often used.

Problem Solving Problem solving is a technique used to arrive at a solution to some difficulty. Problem Solving Strategies Brainstorming Generating ideas, often with others, to find new ways of solving a problem. Example: Discussing ways to build racial understanding. Creating Metaphors Solving a problem by connecting it to a similar problem. Example: Visiting a recycling center in Macon to learn how to

recycle waste in Waynesboro. Constructing Models Creating a chart or design to solve a problem. Example: Making a drawing of Role Playing Solving a problem by acting it out. Analogy Finding pairs of words that are related in some way to a first pair of

the new auditorium for a high school. Example: Rehearsing an upcoming job interview with a friend so youll know what to expect. A Tip for Solving Analogies Remember: The first two words in an analogy are related to each other in some way. You have to figure out what the relationship is. Then look for a similar relationship in one of your choices. Common Types of Analogies

1. Cause effect cut : pain 2. Size whale : mouse 3. Shape balloon : sphere 4. Time Sunday : Monday 5. Similarities faith : belief 6. Opposites day : night 7. Part to a whole branch : tree 8. Purpose or use

hammer : nail 9. Object to an action football : kick 10.Worker & tool farmer : plow Grammatical Conventions Slang & Standard American English The English we use may be appropriate in one situation but not in another. On the test, you may be asked specific questions about language; make sure

you can distinguish between (1) slang, (2) colloquial language, (3) inappropriate English, and (4) Standard American English. The Categories & What they Mean Slang Informal language that enjoys brief popularity then generally becomes obsolete. Examples: crib, dis, sike, yo mama, word, peace, my bad, etc. Colloquial English

Words that are appropriate in dialogue and informal writing but inappropriate in formal writing [contractions, short words, or clichs]. Examples: You bet Ill be there! Hes in so deep theres no way out! The apple never falls far from the tree. Inappropriate English Contains grammar and usage that do not follow the standard rules for English. Example: I done really bad on that test yesterday! Aint no way Im gonna pass that class.

Standard American English English most widely accepted in the United States; it is the language of educated people. Example: I preformed Subject-Verb (S/V) Agreement Grammar rules state that the subject of a sentence MUST agree with the corresponding verb of the sentence. The subject is the word performing the action (verb). The number of the verb is not affected by material that comes between the verb and subject. Determine the real subject of the verb; watch out for intervening words that might

mislead you. Remember that the number of the verb is not altered when other nouns are attached to the subject by means of prepositions such as in addition to, together with, as well as, with, along with. Remember also that indefinite pronoun subjects like either, neither, each, one, everyone, no one, somebody take singular verbs. Examples: Immediate settlement of these problems is vital. The cost of replacing the asbestos shingles with cedar shakes Pronoun-Antecedent (P/A) Agreement A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or another pronoun. The word for which a pronoun stands is called its antecedent. Examples:

I called Harry, but he didnt answer. [He substitutes for Harry. Harry is the antecedent of he.] I will wash my car tomorrow. One of my friends is painting his house. To use pronouns effectively and without confusing your reader, you must follow two basic principles: (1) You must establish a clear, easily identified relationship between a pronoun and its antecedent, and (2) You must make the pronoun offers signals showing the reader where ideas separate and where they blend together. Punctuation may signal contrasting elements or complimentary ones.

Punctuation END PUNCTUATION Examples: End punctuation 1. When a tree falls in the signals when a woods, it may land in the sentence is creek with a splash. complete. It also 2. If a tree falls in the woods signals the type of sentence: statement, onto a moss bed, does it make with period (.);

a noise? question, with 3. When that tree fell in the question mark (?); or woods onto my car, it made a exclamation, with an huge noise! exclamation point (!). Punctuation continued COMMAS Examples: The use of commas is

varied and valuable. Some comma functions are as follows: signaling restatement; separating two independent clauses when paired with a conjunction; or setting off direct address; and 1. Plato, one of the creators of philosophical thought, developed the

image of reality as shadows on a cave wall. 2. Plato and Aristotle were philosophers in the same age, and they motivated each other to achieving ever greater insights. 3. The philosophy of the winner takes all in reality programs seems insane to me, Alexis. 4. Speaking of Platos reality as shadows on a wall, its banality is proven by reality shows like Survivor, The Punctuation continued SEMI COLONS Examples: Semi-colons

1. Ms. Flores said that it was a signal philosopher who first asked that if stronger a tree falls in the woods does it pause than make a sound if no one is there to commas but are used in hear; this kind of unsolvable similar question can be used as an ice situations. breaker for people who are getting They are used acquainted.

to separate 2. The membership of our philosophy independent clauses (without club may surprise most people as conjunctions), it includes Troy Birch, a start and they basketball player; Jason Simpson, separate Punctuation continued COLONS A colon is a definite break in the flow of a

text. Some textual uses include signaling new information to be added or attaching a list of items to the sentence. Examples: 1. It is said that History repeats itself: at least if it is not remembered and the lessons are not learned. 2. Spanish-born George Santayana wrote on many

topics such as the following: life/death, individuality/society, and knowledge/faith. Practice Lets apply what youve learned . . . . Suppose you are writing an essay about the water quality for residents in your area. Which of the following is the best way to state your research question? A. What is being done to make our environment cleaner? B. Is the water Americans drink becoming more polluted? C. Does the water in this community meet health and safety standards? D. What are the differences between bottled water and tap water? Answer: C. Does the water in this community

meet health and safety standards? Which sentence would be best to include in a letter to the school board requesting more money for the school band? A. The school band is horrible because the uniforms are out of fashion. B. You should have given us more money because our band is awesome. C. It isnt our fault that the band is terrible, so you shouldnt blame us. D. Please consider supporting the band, which is vital to our school. Answer: D. Please consider supporting the band, which is vital to our school. Which of the sentences below is written correctly? A. Pat has the best grades in the school. B. Pat has the better grades in the school. C. Pat has like the best grades in the school.

D. Pat has the more better grades in the school. Answer: A. Pat has the best grades in the school. Of the following, who MOST believed in working hard and living a strict life from the bible? A. Benjamin Franklin B. Spanish Explorers C. James Oglethorpe D. Puritans Answer: D. Puritans How would you improve your understanding of Transcendentalism?

A. Read the works of Henry James B. Research the life of Samuel Clemens C. Read Thoreaus Walden D. Research Natty Bumppos adventures on the American frontier Answer: C. Read Thoreaus Walden To whom did Gertrude Steins The Lost Generation refer? A. American ex patriots who disappeared in Europe B. Her parents generation of wealthy patricians

C. Unemployed young Americans living in Europe D. World War I era artists whose Answer: A. American experiences hurtex patriots them who disappeared in Europe Read the following passage and answer the question below. Paula wants to go to the mall; however, she still has chores to finish. She must clean her room, do her laundry, and walk

the dog before she will be permitted to go. A. Change the semicolon after mall to a colon B. Remove the comma after laundry C. Change permitted to permission D. No is needed Answer: D correction No correction is needed. Early American literature includes works by A. Native Americans B. Colonists

C. Settlers D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above During the late 19th to early 20th century, _____ became a new force in American literature. A. B. C. D. Novelists Dramatists Women Poets

Answer: C. Women The purpose of a presentation can be to inform, to persuade, or to entertain. For each topic, choose the letter that best describes the purpose of the presentation. How to operate a fire extinguisher. A. To inform B. To persuade C. To entertain Why the movie version of The Color Purple is better than the book. A. To inform B. To persuade C. To entertain Answer: A/B. To Inform/persuade Your teacher asks you to use at least three primary sources in your research paper about an author. Which of the following would fulfill this requirement?

A. B. C. D. A novel by the author, an interview with the author, and a letter written to the author A Web site about the author, an encyclopedia entry about the author, and a diary entry by the author An encyclopedia entry about the author, an email mentioning the author, and a speech by the author A survey about literature of the time, a journal article about the authors work, and a textbook mentioning the author Answer: A. A novel by the author, an interview with the author, and a letter written to the author After reading a literary critics analysis of Hemingways use of bullfighting in his novel Death in the Afternoon, you restate her findings in your own words. Which technique are you using? A. A direct quote

B. Paraphrasing C. Summarizing D. Anecdotal scripting Answer: B. Paraphrasing Ben Franklin once said, early to bed early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. This is an example of _____. A. A direct quote B. Paraphrasing C. Summarizing D. Anecdotal scripting Answer: A. A direct quote Which of the following would make the MOST effective research question for a research paper about American literature?

A. What are molecules? B. During which years was Willa Cather alive? C. How did Henry David Thoreaus friendships influence his writing? D. How many books did Flannery OConnor write? Answer: C. How did Henry David Thoreaus friendships influence his writing? Which of the following is an example of a secondary source? A. An interview B. A textbook C. A speech D. A poem Answer: B. A textbook

Choose the sentence that uses the correct punctuation and capitalization. A. Lets go through the tunnel around the park and down Melcher Street to get home. B. Lets go through the tunnel, around the park, and down Melcher Street to get home. C. Lets go through the tunnel, around the park, and down Melcher Street to get home. D. Lets go through the tunnel, around the park and down Melcher Street, to get home. Answer: B. Lets go through the tunnel, around the park, and down Melcher Street to get home. Until this year, mathematics _____ my favorite subject. A. Is B. Are C. Was D. Were Answer: C. Was

What is the primary persuasive technique used in the following advertisement? Everyone wants strong and shiny hair, and thats why women across America are trying our new BelleVitamin Shampoo. Our shampoo has a fresh, clean scent that youll love. Dont be left in the cold with dull, boring hair. Join the rest of us, and try BelleVitamin Shampoo. We promise others will notice! A. Stereotyping B. Bandwagon C. Card stacking D. Rhetorical questions Answer: B. Bandwagon Maria wants to include a passage from Mark Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in her paper, but it is very long. She thinks she can cut out the middle of the passage and still keep the more important parts. What punctuation does she need to add to her excerpt so that the reader knows she omitted something? A. Parenthesis B. A colon

C. A hyphen D. An ellipsis Answer: D. An ellipses Which literary device is used in the following sentence? I was so tired last night that I slept like a log. A. Onomatopoeia B. Simile C. Metaphor D. Hyperbole Answer: B. Simile The fact that a sweet carbonated drink has names like coke, pop, soda, and soft drink suggests differences in A. Dialect

B. Spelling C. Meaning D. Pronunciation Answer: A. Dialect A literary movement emphasizing emotions and feelings that began in the late eighteenth century and ended during the Civil War was A. Transcendentalism B. Naturalism C. Post-Modernism D. Romanticism Answer: D - Romanticism Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau represent authors from which literary movement?

A. Transcendentalism B. Naturalism C. Realism D. Modernism Answer: A Transcendentalism In Anna Karenina, the story is told by an all-knowing narrator, allowing the reader to see the world through the eyes of many characters, not just Anna's. This is an example of which point of view? A. First person point of view B. Second person point of view C. Third person-limited point of view D. Third person-omniscient point of view

Answer: D - Third person omniscient point of view In what literary era did writers begin to break with tradition and rebel against the sentimentality of the Romantics? A. Realism B. Naturalism C. Transcendentalism D. Modernism Answer: A - Realism Members of the high school student body decided to make a presentation to the administration for support and funds to form a marching band. Some students decided to pretend to be the principal and vice principal arguing against the idea. Other students responded to their comments.

What problem-solving technique were these students using? A. constructing models B. creating metaphors C. brainstorming D. role-playing Answer: D role-playing As per your request, I am enclosing a xerox copy of your account. This statement lists all of your activities from the last twelve months. If we may provide any further assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us. This excerpt would most likely come from: A. Personal Writing C. Social Writing B. Academic Writing D. Business Writing Answer: D Business Writing

The correct contraction of they are is which of the following? A. their B. theyre C. there D. theyr Answer: B Theyre Use the context clues in the sentence to decide the best meaning of the underlined word. They tried to ameliorate the hostage crisis with negotiations, but the terrorists were unreasonable and the situation worsened. A. worsen B. hide C. calm D. improve Answer: D - improve

Which of the following sentences has a subject-verb agreement error? A. Everything is the same as it was when we left. B. No one is going to join us for a drink. C. None wanted to go to the beach. D. None of the guys is going to the movie. Answer: D guys/is Corrected guys/are Which sentence has the correct apostrophe usage? A. Its going to rain. B. Its going to rain. C. Its going to rain. D. Its going to rain. Answer: C Its - (It is) going to rain.

Authors who tell a story using I or we such as JD Salinger in Catcher In the Rye are using A. objective point of view B. first-person point of view C. third-person point of view D. omniscient point of view Answer: B First-person Clear, direct language and ordinary, everyday events characterize A. Realism B. Modernism C. Transcendentalism D. Naturalism Answer: A - Realism

Puritan writing is characterized by A. fiction B. drama C. sermons D. humor Answer: C - Sermons Native American literature was characterized by which of the following? A. poetry B. drama C. symbolic writing D. oral tradition Answer: D Oral Tradition

Complete the analogy: Doctor : Patient :: Lawyer : A. Judge B. Criminal C. Client D. Bailiff Answer: C - Client During what time period was there the first significant movement of black writers and artists? A. the Colonial Period B. the Harlem Renaissance C. Modernism D. Post-Modernism

Answer: B Harlem Renaissance Choose the following word that matches the definition: A way of speaking that is characteristic of a social group or of a certain geographical area is called ___. A. Epithet B. Assonance C. Dialect D. Diction Answer: C - Dialect An expository passage is most likely written to ___. A. narrate B. entertain C. inform D. persuade

Answer: C - inform All of the following are examples of facts except A. Mt. Rainier, in Washington State, is 14,410 feet. B. Vermont is the state with the smallest black population. C. Franklin Roosevelt was the first president to use the radio as a communication device. D. Women firefighters are more capable in their work than male firefighters. Answer: D Place the following events in their proper order: 1. Finally, results are analyzed and interpreted with respect to the perceived correctness of the hypothesis. 2. Predictions are made based on the

hypothesis, and methods are designed for testing those predictions. 3. The experiment is conducted and data are collected. 4. Experimental design begins with asking a question and forming a testable hypothesis. A. 1,3,2,4 B. 1,3,4,2 C. 3,2,1,4 D. 4,2,3,1 Answer: D Which statement expresses an opinion rather than a fact? A. Patrick Henry delivered his Give me

liberty or give me death speech in 1775. B. Jacqueline Kennedy was the wife of President John F. Kennedy. C. George Washington was the most admired president of all time. D. The Gift of the Magi was written by O. Henry. Answer: C Resources The following resources were used in the creation of this PowerPoint: 1. AMCs Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test in English Language Arts (2007).

2. CPCs Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test in Mathematics, Writing, and English Language Arts (1995). 3. Miscellaneous Internet sites.

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