Classification and Introduction to Animals Chapter 18 & 34

Classification and Introduction to Animals Chapter 18 & 34

Intro to Animals (EUMETAZOA) Image from: Diagram from slide show by Kim Foglia Animal Evolution Cnidaria

Porifera sponges jellyfish Nematoda Platyhelminthes Annelida Mollusca Echinoderm

Arthropoda flatworms roundworms mollusks segmented worms insects spiders Chordata starfish vertebrates

backbone segmentation endoskeleton eucoelom body cavity bilateral symmetry tissues multicellularity

Ancestral Protist Animals Invertebrates (animals without a backbone) Porifera Cnidaria Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Arthropods

Anima ls VertebratesAnimals with backbones Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals LIFE ON EARTH

Image from: Characteristics of ALL Animals: 1.Eukaryotic 2. Heterotrophic 3.Multicellular/differentiated cells 4.Cells have NO cell walls 5. Movement 6. Reproduction (Most sexual)

Body Systems : _____________________ INTEGUMENTARY OUTSIDE BODY COVERING (fur, skin, scales, feathers) Covers and protects, ID, prevents heat & water loss

Orangutan image from: Fish image from: Frog image from: Cardinal image from: Body Systems : _________________ DIGESTIVE Breaks down food to obtain nutrients & gets rid of

undigested waste Image from: EX: tapeworm NO OPENINGS: Food enters through cell surface

Image by Riedell EX: sponges Sponge images from Animals slide show by Kim Foglia @ Images from: EX: jellyfish, hydra, planaria

ONE OPENING combined digestive/circulatory space = GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY Image from: TWO OPENINGS: FOOD IN at one end (mouth) WASTE OUT at other end (ANUS) Image from:

Two openings: Most efficient If food flows only one direction it allows for organ specialization (Different parts can start to do different jobs) Body Systems : __________________

CIRCULATORY Transports nutrients/oxygen to body cells Carries carbon dioxide/nitrogen waste away from cells Circulatory fluid can be: CLOSED inside blood vessels = _________ loose inside body spaces OPEN = _______ Image from:

IMMUNE SYSTEM Protection against foreign invaders Body Systems : ___________________ RESPIRATORY Exchange gases with

the environment take in oxygen remove waste gases (CO2 &/or Image from: ammonia) GAS EXCHANGE THROUGH SKIN BOOK LUNGS


anterior air sacs posterior air sacs BREATHING WITH LUNGS Positive pressure Air pushed into lungs

Negative pressure Air pulled into lungs (diaphragm) UNIQUE BIRD LUNGS AIRS SACS ATTACHEDTO LUNGS ALLOW OXYGEN IN LUNGS on the INHALE and on the EXHALE Animation from: Body Systems : EXCRETORY ___________________ Collect and remove nitrogen waste made by cells Help with HOMEOSTASIS by maintaining water/ion balance OSMOREGULATION

(_________________________) NITROGEN WASTE : AMMONIA Most TOXIC ________________ Must be removed QUICKLY Needs MOST water to dilute UREA Made from ammonia by liver

______________ Less toxic than ammonia Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs less water to dilute than ammonia) URIC ACID ______________ LEAST TOXIC Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs LEAST amount of water to dilute)


made by cells left over from from break down of proteins undigested food & nucleic acids Body system used? Handled by Handled by digestive system excretory system In what form?

Feces (poop) ammonia, urea, or uric acid (waste + water = urine NEPHRIDIA MALPIGHIAN TUBULES FLAME CELLS KIDNEYS

Body Systems : SKELETAL ___________________ Framework to support body/protection Skeleton on inside ENDOSKELETON = _______________ Skeleton on outsideEXOSKELETON = _______________ Walking skeleton image from:

Insect lefg image from: Image from: Body Systems : MUSCULAR _______________ Locomotion- move body itself OR move substances through body (EX: food through digestive system;

blood through vessels) Body Systems : _____________________ REPRODUCTIVE Produce offspring by combining genetic material from 2 parents SEXUAL = __________________________ REPRODUCTION

Produce offspring using genetic ASEXUAL material from only 1 parent REPRODUCTION =_______________________ Family image from: Planaria animation:

REPRODUCTIVE INDIRECT DEVELOPMENT ______________ immature LARVA looks different than adult Metamorphosis image from: Frog image from: DIREC __________ DEVELOPMENT T

young are smaller versions on adults Image from: Sperm and egg join External fertilization outside females body = ___________________ Sperm and egg join Internal

fertilization inside females body = ____________________ Animation from: ___________________ NERVOUS Receive sensory info about environment & send response signals ENDOCRINE __________________ Make hormones that regulate other body systems Image from: Kinds of Symmetry

Asymmetry Radial Images from: Bilateral

DORSAL POSTERIOR ANTERIOR VENTRAL Animation from: CEPHALIZATION ________________ Concentration of nervous tissue and

sensory organs in anterior end of an organism (head area) First seen in Platyhelminthes (flat worms) Associated with bilateral symmetry Efficient response to stimulus Sense organs encounter environment first

EMBRYOLOGY Image from: 1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up? 2. What do embryos look like as they divide? 3. When do cells decide what they will be? EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Image from:

Become s digestiv e system 1.Where does BLASTOPORE end up? Images modified from: What do embryos look like as they


When do cells decide what they will become? Image from: Cells decide early Removing cell causes death DETERMINATE

Cells decide later Removing cell OK INDETERMINATE Images modified from: THATS WHERE TWINS COME FROM ! ONLY Deuterostomes

can have identical twins! MONOZYGOTIC TWINS (Maternal twins) Identical DNA DIZYGOTIC TWINS (Fraternal twins) DIFFERENT DNA ANIMALS

(Triploblastic) PROTOSTOMES DEUTEROSTOMES Blastopore becomesBlastopore becomes ANUS MOUTH Decide later Decide very early (INDETERMINATE)

(DETERMINATE) RADIAL SPIRAL cleavage cleavage ALL VERTEBRATES MOST INVERTEBRATES (Fish, amphibians, except ECHINODERMS birds, reptiles, mammals) plus ECHINODERMS Image from:

Exception to the rule ECHINODERMS ARE THE ONLY INVERTEBRATE DEUTEROSTOMES Porifera and Cnidarians have only TWO germ layers Not considered PROTOSTOMES BODY PLAN INVERTEBRATES Dorsal heart Ventral nerve cord VERTEBRATES Ventral heart Dorsal nerve

cord GASTRULATIONcells move inward overlip of blastopore THREE germ layers form Becomes digestive system Image from: All animals have 3 germ layers

= TRIPLOBLASTIC Except: sponges, jellyfish, anemones = DIPLOBLASTIC Endoderm Digestive system, respiratory Muscle, excretory, bones Mesoderm circulatory EctodermOuter skin, brain,

nervous system Types of Coeloms (SeeLums) No cavity (space) around organs Image from: ACOELOM = without space FLATWORMS are ACOELOMATES!

Types of Coeloms (SeeLums) Space around organs but only lined with mesoderm on one side (lines body wall BUT NOT around Image from: gut) PSEUDOCOELOM ROUND WORMS are PSEUDOCOELOMATES!

Kinds of Coeloms (SeeLums) EUCOELOM: Body cavity (space) lined on BOTH sides by mesoderm Image from: EUCOELOM = TRUE COELOM = COELOM EUCOELOMATES ALL

VERTEBRATES & MOST INVERTEBRATE S 3 Types of Coeloms ACOELOM ectoderm mesoderm endoderm

EUCOELOM PSEUDOCOELOM Image from: FUNCTIONS of having a COELOM (body space): Provides space/cushion internal orga In animals without a skeletonFluid in coelom space can act as a HYDROSTATIC skeleton

n animals without blood vesselsFluid in coelom space can circulat nutrients and oxygen to cells ADVANTAGE OF a EUCOELOM? Digestive organ muscles and body wall muscles come from MESODERM in different places so organism can digest food and move at same time. Images from: ECTOTHERMIC ADVANTAGES: Slow metabolism means you can survive on 1/10 the food as a same size endotherm DISADVANTAGES: Cant to live in extremely cold places (NO reptiles in Arctic) Cant keep up max activity level for long Endothermic warm-blooded

Create own body heat FAST metabolism allows for: high activity for extended time ability to live in variety of environments EX: Birds, Mammals SOURCES Anemone from: Snail from: Crab from:

Clam from: Ant from: Millipede from: Starfish from: Jellyfish from:

Tree frog: Turtle: Bird: Fish from: Orangutan: Earthworm :

4.03/Exxon/Food%20Chain%20images/ExxonPicsLarge/Earthworms.jpg Starfish from: Snail from: Crab from: All images on this page from:

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