Classification and Introduction to Animals Chapter 18 & 34

Classification and Introduction to Animals Chapter 18 & 34

Intro to Animals (EUMETAZOA) Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html Diagram from slide show by Kim Foglia Animal Evolution Cnidaria

Porifera sponges jellyfish Nematoda Platyhelminthes Annelida Mollusca Echinoderm

Arthropoda flatworms roundworms mollusks segmented worms insects spiders Chordata starfish vertebrates

backbone segmentation endoskeleton eucoelom body cavity bilateral symmetry tissues multicellularity

Ancestral Protist Animals Invertebrates (animals without a backbone) Porifera Cnidaria Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Arthropods

Anima ls VertebratesAnimals with backbones Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals LIFE ON EARTH

Image from: http://ology.amnh.org/biodiversity/treeoflife/pages/graph.html Characteristics of ALL Animals: 1.Eukaryotic 2. Heterotrophic 3.Multicellular/differentiated cells 4.Cells have NO cell walls 5. Movement 6. Reproduction (Most sexual)

Body Systems : _____________________ INTEGUMENTARY OUTSIDE BODY COVERING (fur, skin, scales, feathers) Covers and protects, ID, prevents heat & water loss

Orangutan image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php Fish image from:http://www.woodburning.com/fish/ Frog image from: http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~mmorley/rainbow/green%20frog.jpg Cardinal image from: http://www.nps.gov/fopu/pulaskione/GRAPHIC/IMAGES/birds/Northern%20Cardinal.jpg Body Systems : _________________ DIGESTIVE Breaks down food to obtain nutrients & gets rid of

undigested waste Image from: http://infozone.imcpl.org/kids_diges.htm http://www.tape-worm.info/ EX: tapeworm NO OPENINGS: Food enters through cell surface

Image by Riedell EX: sponges Sponge images from Animals slide show by Kim Foglia @ http://www.explorebiology.com Images from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif http://contanatura.weblog.com.pt/arquivo/2005/09/imortalidade_pr.html http://www.explorebiology.com EX: jellyfish, hydra, planaria

ONE OPENING combined digestive/circulatory space = GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif TWO OPENINGS: FOOD IN at one end (mouth) WASTE OUT at other end (ANUS) Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif

Two openings: Most efficient If food flows only one direction it allows for organ specialization (Different parts can start to do different jobs) Body Systems : __________________

CIRCULATORY Transports nutrients/oxygen to body cells Carries carbon dioxide/nitrogen waste away from cells Circulatory fluid can be: CLOSED inside blood vessels = _________ loose inside body spaces OPEN = _______ Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147a.gif

IMMUNE SYSTEM Protection against foreign invaders http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255ion/fig14X28.jpg http://www.biology.arizona.edu/IMMUNOLOGY/tutorials/antibody/structure.html Body Systems : ___________________ RESPIRATORY Exchange gases with

the environment take in oxygen remove waste gases (CO2 &/or Image from: http://www.umm.edu/respiratory/images/respiratory_anatomy.gif ammonia) GAS EXCHANGE THROUGH SKIN BOOK LUNGS

TRACHEA & SPIRACLES http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/LecArthropod/SpiderX.jpg GILLS LUNGS trachea lung

anterior air sacs posterior air sacs http://www.ciggyfree.com/cigblog/wp-content/uploads/2007/02/lungs.gif BREATHING WITH LUNGS Positive pressure Air pushed into lungs

Negative pressure Air pulled into lungs (diaphragm) UNIQUE BIRD LUNGS AIRS SACS ATTACHEDTO LUNGS ALLOW OXYGEN IN LUNGS on the INHALE and on the EXHALE Animation from:

http://www.sk.lung.ca/content.cfm/birds Body Systems : EXCRETORY ___________________ Collect and remove nitrogen waste made by cells Help with HOMEOSTASIS by maintaining water/ion balance OSMOREGULATION

(_________________________) NITROGEN WASTE : AMMONIA Most TOXIC ________________ Must be removed QUICKLY Needs MOST water to dilute UREA Made from ammonia by liver

______________ Less toxic than ammonia Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs less water to dilute than ammonia) URIC ACID ______________ LEAST TOXIC Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs LEAST amount of water to dilute) http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

NITROGEN WASTE ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME! DIGESTIVE WASTE WHERE ITS MADE? NITROGEN WASTE

made by cells left over from from break down of proteins undigested food & nucleic acids Body system used? Handled by Handled by digestive system excretory system In what form?

Feces (poop) ammonia, urea, or uric acid (waste + water = urine

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/Faculty/Farabee/BIOBK/insectexcret_1.gif NEPHRIDIA MALPIGHIAN TUBULES FLAME CELLS KIDNEYS http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/LecArthropod/SpiderX.jpg http://www.pleasanton.k12.ca.us/avhsweb/thiel/apbio/review/excretory.html

Body Systems : SKELETAL ___________________ Framework to support body/protection Skeleton on inside ENDOSKELETON = _______________ Skeleton on outsideEXOSKELETON = _______________ Walking skeleton image from: http://virtualastronaut.jsc.nasa.gov/textonly/act15/text-skeletonpuz.html

Insect lefg image from:http://www.zoobooks.com/newFrontPage/animals/virtualZoo/animals/i/insects/images/exoskeleton Image from: http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/muscles_noSW.html Body Systems : MUSCULAR _______________ Locomotion- move body itself OR move substances through body (EX: food through digestive system;

blood through vessels) http://www.angliacampus.com/public/sec/science/nutriton/images/peristal.gif Body Systems : _____________________ REPRODUCTIVE Produce offspring by combining genetic material from 2 parents SEXUAL = __________________________ REPRODUCTION

Produce offspring using genetic ASEXUAL material from only 1 parent REPRODUCTION =_______________________ Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm

REPRODUCTIVE INDIRECT DEVELOPMENT ______________ immature LARVA looks different than adult Metamorphosis image from: http://www.lincoln.midcoast.com/~del/butterfly Frog image from: http://www.animationlibrary.co DIREC __________ DEVELOPMENT T

young are smaller versions on adults Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG Sperm and egg join External fertilization outside females body = ___________________ Sperm and egg join Internal

fertilization inside females body = ____________________ Animation from: http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/fertilization/support.gif ___________________ NERVOUS Receive sensory info about environment & send response signals

http://www.roadhunter.com/~ceph/gallery/anatomy07.jpg ENDOCRINE __________________ Make hormones that regulate other body systems Image from: http://www.cushings-help.com/images/endocrine.jpg Kinds of Symmetry

Asymmetry Radial Images from: http://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/animals/sponges.htm http://biodidac.bio.uottawa.ca/ http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Animals/Symmetry.htm Bilateral

DORSAL POSTERIOR ANTERIOR VENTRAL Animation from: http://bestanimations.com CEPHALIZATION ________________ Concentration of nervous tissue and

sensory organs in anterior end of an organism (head area) First seen in Platyhelminthes (flat worms) Associated with bilateral symmetry Efficient response to stimulus Sense organs encounter environment first

EMBRYOLOGY Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml 1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up? 2. What do embryos look like as they divide? 3. When do cells decide what they will be? EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm

Become s digestiv e system 1.Where does BLASTOPORE end up? Images modified from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm What do embryos look like as they

divide? SPIRAL RADIAL CLEAVAGE CLEAVAGE Images from: http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so28_04.gif

When do cells decide what they will become? Image from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg Cells decide early Removing cell causes death DETERMINATE

Cells decide later Removing cell OK INDETERMINATE Images modified from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg THATS WHERE TWINS COME FROM ! ONLY Deuterostomes

can have identical twins! MONOZYGOTIC TWINS (Maternal twins) Identical DNA DIZYGOTIC TWINS (Fraternal twins) DIFFERENT DNA ANIMALS

(Triploblastic) PROTOSTOMES DEUTEROSTOMES Blastopore becomesBlastopore becomes ANUS MOUTH Decide later Decide very early (INDETERMINATE)

(DETERMINATE) RADIAL SPIRAL cleavage cleavage ALL VERTEBRATES MOST INVERTEBRATES (Fish, amphibians, except ECHINODERMS birds, reptiles, mammals) plus ECHINODERMS Image from: http://www.bsac21.freeserve.co.uk/images/Critters/Starfish%20Bloody%20Henry.JPG

Exception to the rule ECHINODERMS ARE THE ONLY INVERTEBRATE DEUTEROSTOMES http://my3boysandi.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/spongebob_1.jpg Porifera and Cnidarians have only TWO germ layers Not considered PROTOSTOMES

http://z.about.com/d/healing/1/0/Y/O/gtotem_jellyfish.jpg BODY PLAN INVERTEBRATES Dorsal heart Ventral nerve cord http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/biodidac/crus001and2b.gif/small.jpg VERTEBRATES Ventral heart Dorsal nerve

cord GASTRULATIONcells move inward overlip of blastopore THREE germ layers form Becomes digestive system Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm All animals have 3 germ layers

= TRIPLOBLASTIC Except: sponges, jellyfish, anemones = DIPLOBLASTIC Endoderm Digestive system, respiratory Muscle, excretory, bones Mesoderm circulatory EctodermOuter skin, brain,

nervous system Types of Coeloms (SeeLums) No cavity (space) around organs Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm ACOELOM = without space FLATWORMS are ACOELOMATES!

Types of Coeloms (SeeLums) Space around organs but only lined with mesoderm on one side (lines body wall BUT NOT around Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm gut) PSEUDOCOELOM ROUND WORMS are PSEUDOCOELOMATES!

Kinds of Coeloms (SeeLums) EUCOELOM: Body cavity (space) lined on BOTH sides by mesoderm Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm EUCOELOM = TRUE COELOM = COELOM EUCOELOMATES ALL

VERTEBRATES & MOST INVERTEBRATE S 3 Types of Coeloms ACOELOM ectoderm mesoderm endoderm

EUCOELOM PSEUDOCOELOM Image from: http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg FUNCTIONS of having a COELOM (body space): Provides space/cushion internal orga In animals without a skeletonFluid in coelom space can act as a HYDROSTATIC skeleton

n animals without blood vesselsFluid in coelom space can circulat nutrients and oxygen to cells ADVANTAGE OF a EUCOELOM? Digestive organ muscles and body wall muscles come from MESODERM in different places so organism can digest food and move at same time. Images from: http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg

http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Images/Animal_Images/coelomate.gif ECTOTHERMIC ADVANTAGES: Slow metabolism means you can survive on 1/10 the food as a same size endotherm DISADVANTAGES: Cant to live in extremely cold places (NO reptiles in Arctic) Cant keep up max activity level for long Endothermic warm-blooded

Create own body heat FAST metabolism allows for: high activity for extended time ability to live in variety of environments EX: Birds, Mammals SOURCES Anemone from: http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/children/animals/cnidaria.gif Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif Crab from: http://www.gifs.net

Clam from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm Ant from: http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk Millipede from: http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/key/images/invertebrates/millipede.jpg Starfish from: http://www.gifs.net Jellyfish from: http://www.aloha.com/~lifeguards/jellie75.jpg

Tree frog: http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg Turtle: http://www.50birds.com/images/endttboxturtle.jpg Bird: http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm Fish from: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif Orangutan: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php Earthworm : http://www.york.ac.uk/org/ciec/CaringfortheEnvironment.29.

4.03/Exxon/Food%20Chain%20images/ExxonPicsLarge/Earthworms.jpg Starfish from: http://www.gifs.net Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif Crab from: http://www.animation-station.com/fish/index.php?page=2 All images on this page from: http://www.seaworld.org/AnimalBytes/animal_bytes.html

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