Ch­¬ng 2. CÊu tróc vµ thµnh phÇn khÝ quyÓn

Ch­¬ng 2. CÊu tróc vµ thµnh phÇn khÝ quyÓn

Chng2.Cutrcvthnhphnkhquyn 1.Cutrckhquyn Tngtrnglngcakhquyn:5,136.1015tn Tngtrnglngcaaquyn:5,96.1021tn Tngtrnglngcathuquyn:1,4.10 18tn Trnglngkhquyntngngvitrnglngca76 cmHgphutrnbmtacu(1AT=760mmHg) Mtkhngkh()k00C,P=760mmHgl1,293 kg/m3 Thtchringcakhngkhlilngnghcho camtkhngkh: V=1/(1) CngthcClaypayron:PV=RT(2) Tac:=P/RT(3) R:hngschtkh(1/0,4845);P:psutkhquyn;T: nhittuytikhngkh 2.1.Tngilu(Troposphere) Lpkhquynstmttdy10-12km (xcho:16km,2cc:8km) Tptrunghuhtkhngkhcakhquyn: Ticao5kmchim50%khngkh Ticao10kmchim75%khngkh Ticao12kmchim80%khngkh Ticao20kmchim95%khngkh

Nhitgimdntheocao: Trungbnhclncao100mnhitgim0,650C Thngonnhitkh,clncao100mnhitgim 0,8-10C Thngonnhitm,clncao100mnhitgim 0,50C 2.1.Tngilu(Troposphere) Bng 2.1. Nhit kho st lc 7h (0h GMT) cc cao ti H Ni Mc (mt) (S liu 30 nm 1961 -1990) Thng VII Thng I 0 Ttb Tmax Tmin Ttb Tmax Tmin

0 14,6 23,0 5,5 27,3 31,4 21,6 200 13,8 21,7 3,5 26,2 31,9 20,3 500 12,5

24,7 0,9 25,2 30,0 19,1 1000 10,6 21,4 0,6 22,8 27,7 16,0 1500 9,3 19,1 -1,5

20,0 24,8 15,3 2100 7,9 18,1 -1,7 16,6 20,8 2,0 3100 5,0 14,2 -3,7 11,1 15,7

7,9 Ngun: TS. Hong Th Phng Hng (i kh tng cao khng) 2.1.Tngilu(Troposphere) Kh pcnggimdntheocao: cao(km) Kh p(mmHg) 0 2,0 4,0 6,0 760 598 465 358 Khngkhchanhiuhin c:mt ngithayit5-100%. Khngkhth ngph ttrinc cdngth ng,dnggi ng(il u). Ltngkhquyncnhiubinivtlhtscphct pt o nnc chint ngthitit.

2.2.TngbnhluU(STratosphere) Gi ih nt12n50km yltngkhquyntbinng,ynt nh.Khngkhrtth a lo ngvhunh khngchin c. Khngkhvnchuyntheo1h ngttysangngrtnnh nngilB nhl u(giTy) cphnlm2l ptheocimnhitnh sau: +/L p12-25km:Khngkhcnhitkhngi(khong55n-760C),ynt nh,tcbini. +/L p25n50km:nhitt ngdntheocaodokhng khchanhiukhzn(o3)hpthubcx tngo ivtiav tr.Nhitcc ictht i+100C. Tia t ngoi phn hu tng zn nh th no: zn tng bnh lu tn ti 1 cn bng ng, khi hp th bc x t ngoi n c th b phn hu: O3 + bc x t ngoi = O2 + O

O2 + bc x t ngoi = O + O V zn cng c ti to tr li: O + O2 = O3 Cc cht Clorofluorocacbon (CFC), (CH4), (N2O), (NO) c kh nng thc y phn hy tng zn. Trong t nhin CFC xm nhp mt cch chm chp vo tng zn ca kh quyn, khi tip xc vi cc tia t ngoi, CFC gii phng Cl t do. Clo kt hp vi O nguyn t theo phn ng: Cl + O = ClO Quan st cho thy, Cl tng bnh lu thng tn ti di dng bn vng nh HCl, ClONO2. Vo ma ng, Vng Nam cc lnh hn nn tng bnh lu xut hin cc m my bng, to c hi cho Cl gii phng khi cc dng bn vng. Ma xun n, gp nh sng MT, Cl phn hy O 3. v th l thng zn nam cc ln hn. Mt CFC c th ph hu hng nghn phn t zn. Hot ng tng t trong qu trnh phn hu zn cn c Brm, NO v OH -. L thng zn dng ch s suy gim zn nht thi hng nm hai cc Tri t. Kch thc l thng tng zn: Nm 2007 25 triu km2 Nm 2008 27 triu km2 6/9/2009 24 triu km2

Din tch Nam cc 14 triu km2 Din tch Bc M 24,7 triu km2 Hi ngh Motrean (1987) v cm CFC 2.3.TngTrungquyn(Mesosphere): Gii hn t 50 -85 km. nhit khng khi h xung v gim dn theo cao (-70 n -800C). Khng kh pht trin cc dng i lu yu. 2.4.Tnginly(Thermosphere) Cn gi l tng nhit quyn hay tng ion Gii hn t 85 n 1000 km Cc phn t khng kh b phn tch thnh cc ion mang in (O++, O--, NO+...) Mt ion ho cao nht 2 cao: 100 v 180 km Nhit khng kh rt cao do thng xuyn c s phng in (nhit t 200 n hng nghn0C) 2.5.Tngngoi(ngoiquyn-exosphere) Gii hn cao t 1000 km n khong 3000 km. Vt ra ngoi l khong chn khng v tr (out space)

Khng kh v cng tha long, tn ti dng cc ti kh, thnh phn ch yu l Hydro v Heli Bng2.thnhphnkhngkhkh,khngb nhim Tncht Nit Oxy Argon Cacbonic Neon Heli Metan Kripton Hydro Nit xit Cacbonmonoxit zon Sulfurdioxit Nitdioxit Cngthc N2 O2 Ar CO2 Ne He CH4 Kr H2 N2O

CO O3 SO2 NO2 T l Khil ng trongKQ(tn) 78,09% 3850.1012 20,94% 1180.1012 0,93% 65.1012 0,032% 2,5.1012 18ppm 64.109 5,2ppm 3,7.109 1,3ppm 3,7.109 1,0ppm 15.109 0,5ppm 0,18.109 0,25ppm 1,9.109 0,10ppm 0,5.109

0,02ppm 0,2.109 0,001ppm 11.106 0,001ppm 8.106 3.Thnhphnkhngkh 3.1.Thnhphnkhngkhl ps tmtt 3.1.1.Nit C cd ngtnt itrongkhngkh:N2,N2O,NO2,NH3... Ngunbsunglqu tr nhphnnitratho Vaitriv iisngsinhvt:thamgiavothnhphn cut octh(protein,axitamin,vitamine,ADN,ARN,dip lc,Hemoglobine...) Sinhvtch sdngNitc cd ngh pcht: ngvtsdngNhuc(protein,a.amin,vitamine...) ThcvtsdngNd ngion(NH4+,NO3-)hocc c phntnhnh CO(NH2)2,Alanine...) 3.Thnhphnkhngkh 3.1.Thnhphnkhngkhl ps tmtt MtsvisinhvtsdngNitphnt:(vikhunhokh Azotobacter,VKymkh

ClostridiumPasterianum,VKcng sinhRhizobium,,tolcAnabaena. ph ngph pkhaith cnguntinguynN2: Ph ng ph p cng nghip: trong c c nh m y sn xut phn m, d ng c c ph ng ph p cng ph Nit (phng in hoc d ng ho cht), sau c nh N d i d ng c c h p cht nh NH4NO3, (NH4)2 SO4,NH3,ureaCO(NH2)2. Ph ngph pnnghc:trngc yphnxanhhu, thb ohoadu. Ph ngph pvisinhvt:D ngc clo iph nvisinh vt(EM,VisinhSngGianh,VisinhThinnng...) 3.1.2.Cacbonic(CO2): NgunbsungCO2chokhquynnhc cqu tr nhh hp,tch yvphngiih pchthuc. Lthnhphnbinngrtl n CytrngsdngCO2nh ngunnguynliuchoqu tr nh quangh p 6CO2+6H2OC 6H12O6+6O2 C c ging,chnglo icykh cnhauyucuhml ng CO2kh cnhaututhucvoimb vimb oho CO2cachng. imb CO2t0,01-0,03%,imb o hoCO2t0,05n0,4%. Mtscytrngcc ngquangh pt ngkhiCO2 t ngln,nh ngmtscycimb ohothpth hm

l ngCO2t ngnhh ngxut isinhtr ng,ph ttrin. NngCO2gi ih nchophpcssnxutiv i ng ivngvtl0,1% Iqh 15 10 5 0 Bu Bao hoa C O2 3.1.3.Oxy(O2) ttrng1,1025 ccoild ngkh:Oxyrtcnthitiv issng,n thamgiavoqu tr nhhhp,qu tr nhphngiichthu cvqu tr nhch y. Oxy cbsungchokhquynnhqu tr nhquangh p 3.1.4.Bi Ltph pnhiuh tvtchtvchayhucckch th cnhbtnt itrongkhngkhd id ngbibay,bi lng,hi,khihocm . bibayckchth c0,001-10m(tro,mui,khivc c h tchtrnnhchuynngBraonhocritheonh lutStok.Gytnth ngcquanhhp,bnhnhimbi th chanh(silicose)

Bilngckchth cl nhn10m,ritheonhlut Niutn,gybnhchomt,nhimtr ng,dngda... Phnlo ibi: +/Theongungc:bihuc(phnhoa,phncn tr ng);bivc(bikho ng,bikimlo i,hnh p);bi tnhin;binhnt o;bivtr;binila,b oc t. +/theokchth c:bi:>10m;m :o,1-10m;khi:< 0,1m. +/Theotnhxmnhpvo nghhp:bikhng l iphnang:<0,1m;l iphnang80-90%:0,1-5,0 m;vophinh ng cothira:5-10m;ngl i ngoimi:>10m +/phnlo itheoc ccimkh c:theot ch i (nhimc,gyungth ,xphi,nhimtr ng) Bng 4. Tc dng bnh l ca mt s kh c i vi con ngi Tc nhn Anhit Ngun pht sinh Qu trnh nhit phn du, Gy bun phin, cu gt, nh m, v glixerin Amniac Tc dng bnh l hng n b my h hp Qu trnh sn xut phn Gy vim ty ng h hp

m, sn hay thuc n Asin (AsH3) Hn st, thp hoc sn xut Lm gim hng cu trong mu, que hn c cha asen Cacbon ng x t, xe my, ng Gim bt kh nng lu chuyn khi t than Clo tc hi thn, gy bnh vng da oxy trong mu Ty vi si v cc qu trnh Gy nguy hi i vi ton b ho hc tng t ng h hp v mt Bng 4. Tc dng bnh l ca mt s kh c i vi con ngi Tc nhn Ngun pht sinh Tc dng bnh l Hydro

Khi cc l ch bin ho Gy tc hi i vi t bo xyanit cht, m kim loi thn kinh, au u, lm kh hng, m mt Hydro Tinh luyn du kh, khc Gy mt mi ton thn florua knh bng axit, sn xut nhm, phn bn Hydro Cng nghip ho cht Ging mi trng thi, gy Sunfit v tinh luyn nhin liu bun nn, kch thch mt c nha ng v hng Tro, mui, T l t ca cc ngnh au mt v c th gy khi

cng nghip bnh ung th Bng 2. S lng cc tc nhn nhim trn ton th gii nm 1992 n v: Triu tn Tc nhn nhim chnh Ngun gy nhim 1. Giao thng vn ti - t chy xng - t chy du diezel - My bay - Tu ho v cc loi khc 2. t nhin liu - Than - Du, xng - Kh t t nhin - G, ci 3. Sn xut cng nghip 4. X l cht thi rn 5. Hot ng khc - Chy rng - t cc sn phm nn - t rc thi bng than - Hn t xy dng COx Bi SOx

Cacbon Hydrat 58.1 53.5 0.2 2.4 2.0 1.7 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.9 8.8 7.1 15.3 6.5 7.5 1.1 0.2 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.4 8.1 7.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 6.8

1.0 8.8 6.1 2.2 0.4 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.5 22.2 18.3 3.9 0.0 0.0 6.6 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 15.1 13.8 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.4 4.2 1.5 3.8 2.0 1.5 0.2 0.1 NOx 7.3 6.0 0.5 0.0 0.8 8.8 3.6 0.9 4.1 0.2 0.2 0.5 1.6 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.0 Country

Total Emissions (Million metric tons of CO2) Per Capita Emissions (Tons/capita) 1. China 6017.69 4.58 2. United States 5902.75 19.78 3. Russia 1704.36 12.00 4.

India 1293.17 1.16 5. Japan 1246.76 9.78 6. Germany 857.60 10.40 7. Canada 614.33 18.81 8.

United Kingdom 585.71 9.66 9. South Korea 514.53 10.53 10. Iran 471.48 7.25 11. Italy 468.19 8.05 12.

South Africa 443.58 10.04 13. Mexico 435.60 4.05 14. Saudi Arabia 424.08 15.70 15. France 417.75 6.60 16.

Australia 417.06 20.58 17. Brazil 377.24 2.01 18. Spain 372.61 9.22 19. Ukraine 328.72 7.05 20.

Poland 303.42 7.87 Top 20 nc c mc pht thi CO2 nhiu nht trn th gii (2009) Hiu ng nh knh Mt phn BXMT b mt t v kh quyn phn x tr li. Mt phn bc x sng di thot ra khi bu kh quyn, mt phn b cc cht kh nh knh hp th v pht x ngc tr li tri t. Hiu ng ny gip gi m cho b mt tri t v lp kh quyn pha bn di KH QUYN Bu kh quyn cho BXMT i qua. TRI T Mt t hp th BXMT v m ln

Mt t pht x bc x sng di

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