Chapter Nineteen Factor Analysis 19-2 Chapter Outline 1) Overview 2) Basic Concept 3) Factor Analysis Model 4) Statistics Associated with Factor Analysis 19-3 Chapter Outline 5) Conducting Factor Analysis i. Problem Formulation ii. Construction of the Correlation Matrix iii. Method of Factor Analysis iv. Number of of Factors v. Rotation of Factors vi. Interpretation of Factors

vii. Factor Scores viii. Selection of Surrogate Variables ix. Model Fit 19-4 Chapter Outline 6) Applications of Common Factor Analysis 7) Internet and Computer Applications 8) Focus on Burke 9) Summary 10) Key Terms and Concepts 19-5 Factor Analysis Factor analysis is a general name denoting a class of procedures primarily used for data reduction and summarization. Factor analysis is an interdependence technique in that an entire set of interdependent relationships is examined without making the distinction between dependent and independent variables.

Factor analysis is used in the following circumstances: To identify underlying dimensions, or factors, that explain the correlations among a set of variables. To identify a new, smaller, set of uncorrelated variables to replace the original set of correlated variables in subsequent multivariate analysis (regression or discriminant analysis). To identify a smaller set of salient variables from a larger set for use in subsequent multivariate analysis. 19-6 Factor Analysis Model Mathematically, each variable is expressed as a linear combination of underlying factors. The covariation among the variables is described in terms of a small number of common factors plus a unique factor for each variable. If the variables are standardized, the factor model may be represented as: Xi = Ai 1F1 + Ai 2F2 + Ai 3F3 + . . . + AimFm + ViUi where Xi = i th standardized variable Aij = standardized multiple regression coefficient of variable i on common factor j F = common factor Vi = standardized regression coefficient of variable i on unique factor i Ui = the unique factor for variable i

m = number of common factors 19-7 Factor Analysis Model The unique factors are uncorrelated with each other and with the common factors. The common factors themselves can be expressed as linear combinations of the observed variables. Fi = Wi1X1 + Wi2X2 + Wi3X3 + . . . + WikXk where Fi = estimate of i th factor Wi = weight or factor score coefficient k = number of variables 19-8 Factor Analysis Model

It is possible to select weights or factor score coefficients so that the first factor explains the largest portion of the total variance. Then a second set of weights can be selected, so that the second factor accounts for most of the residual variance, subject to being uncorrelated with the first factor. This same principle could be applied to selecting additional weights for the additional factors. Statistics Associated with Factor Analysis 19-9 Bartlett's test of sphericity. Bartlett's test of sphericity is a test statistic used to examine the hypothesis that the variables are uncorrelated in the population. In other words, the population correlation matrix is an identity matrix; each variable correlates perfectly with itself (r = 1) but has no correlation with the other variables (r = 0). Correlation matrix. A correlation matrix is a lower triangle matrix showing the simple correlations, r, between all possible pairs of variables included in the analysis. The diagonal elements, which are all 1, are usually omitted. Statistics Associated with Factor Analysis

19-10 Communality. Communality is the amount of variance a variable shares with all the other variables being considered. This is also the proportion of variance explained by the common factors. Eigenvalue. The eigenvalue represents the total variance explained by each factor. Factor loadings. Factor loadings are simple correlations between the variables and the factors. Factor loading plot. A factor loading plot is a plot of the original variables using the factor loadings as coordinates. Factor matrix. A factor matrix contains the factor loadings of all the variables on all the factors extracted. Statistics Associated with Factor Analysis

19-11 Factor scores. Factor scores are composite scores estimated for each respondent on the derived factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy is an index used to examine the appropriateness of factor analysis. High values (between 0.5 and 1.0) indicate factor analysis is appropriate. Values below 0.5 imply that factor analysis may not be appropriate. Percentage of variance. The percentage of the total variance attributed to each factor. Residuals are the differences between the observed correlations, as given in the input correlation matrix, and the reproduced correlations, as estimated from the factor matrix. Scree plot. A scree plot is a plot of the Eigenvalues against the number of factors in order of extraction. 19-12 Conducting Factor Analysis Table 19.1 RESPONDENT NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 V1 7.00 1.00 6.00 4.00 1.00 6.00 5.00 6.00 3.00 2.00 6.00 2.00 7.00 4.00

1.00 6.00 5.00 7.00 2.00 3.00 1.00 5.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 2.00 V2 3.00 3.00 2.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 6.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 6.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 5.00

3.00 4.00 2.00 6.00 5.00 5.00 4.00 7.00 6.00 3.00 V3 6.00 2.00 7.00 4.00 2.00 6.00 6.00 7.00 2.00 2.00 7.00 1.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 6.00 6.00 7.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 5.00 1.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

7.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 V4 4.00 4.00 4.00 6.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 2.00 6.00 2.00 6.00 7.00 4.00 V5

2.00 5.00 1.00 2.00 6.00 2.00 4.00 1.00 6.00 7.00 2.00 5.00 1.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 1.00 6.00 4.00 5.00 2.00 4.00 4.00 1.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 2.00 7.00 V6 4.00 4.00 3.00 5.00 2.00 4.00

3.00 4.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 6.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 7.00 4.00 7.00 5.00 3.00 7.00 2.00 19-13 Conducting Factor Analysis Fig 19.1 Problem formulation Construction of the Correlation Matrix Method of Factor Analysis Determination of Number of Factors Rotation of Factors Interpretation of Factors Calculation of

Factor Scores Selection of Surrogate Variables Determination of Model Fit Conducting Factor Analysis Formulate the Problem 19-14 The objectives of factor analysis should be identified. The variables to be included in the factor analysis should be specified based on past research, theory, and judgment of the researcher. It is important that the variables be appropriately measured on an interval or ratio scale. An appropriate sample size should be used. As a rough guideline, there should be at least four or five times as many observations (sample size) as there are variables. 19-15 Correlation Matrix Table 19.2 Variables V1 V2 V3

V4 V5 V6 V1 1.000 -0.530 0.873 -0.086 -0.858 0.004 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 1.000 -0.155 0.572 0.020 0.640 1.000 -0.248 -0.778 -0.018 1.000 -0.007 0.640 1.000

-0.136 1.000 Conducting Factor Analysis Construct the Correlation Matrix 19-16 The analytical process is based on a matrix of correlations between the variables. Bartlett's test of sphericity can be used to test the null hypothesis that the variables are uncorrelated in the population: in other words, the population correlation matrix is an identity matrix. If this hypothesis cannot be rejected, then the appropriateness of factor analysis should be questioned. Another useful statistic is the Kaiser-MeyerOlkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy. Small values of the KMO statistic indicate that the correlations between pairs of variables cannot be explained by other variables and that factor analysis may not be appropriate. 19-17 Conducting Factor Analysis Determine the Method of Factor Analysis In principal components analysis, the total variance in the data is considered. The diagonal of the correlation matrix consists of unities, and full

variance is brought into the factor matrix. Principal components analysis is recommended when the primary concern is to determine the minimum number of factors that will account for maximum variance in the data for use in subsequent multivariate analysis. The factors are called principal components. In common factor analysis, the factors are estimated based only on the common variance. Communalities are inserted in the diagonal of the correlation matrix. This method is appropriate when the primary concern is to identify the underlying dimensions and the common variance is of interest. This method is also known as principal axis factoring. Results of Principal Components Analysis Table 19.3 Communalities Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 I nitial 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

Extraction 0.926 0.723 0.894 0.739 0.878 0.790 I nitial Eigen values Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 Eigen value % of variance Cumulat. % 2.731 45.520 45.520 2.218 36.969 82.488 0.442 7.360 89.848 0.341 5.688 95.536 0.183 3.044 98.580 0.085 1.420 100.000 19-18

Results of Principal Components Analysis Table 19.3 cont. Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Factor 1 2 Eigen value 2.731 2.218 % of variance 45.520 36.969 Cumulat. % 45.520 82.488 Factor Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.928 -0.301 0.936 -0.342 -0.869

-0.177 Factor 2 0.253 0.795 0.131 0.789 -0.351 0.871 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Factor Eigenvalue % of variance 1 2.688 44.802 2 2.261 37.687 Cumulat. % 44.802 82.488 19-19 Results of Principal Components Analysis Table 19.3 cont. Rotated Factor Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6

Factor 1 0.962 -0.057 0.934 -0.098 -0.933 0.083 Factor 2 -0.027 0.848 -0.146 0.845 -0.084 0.885 Factor Score Coeffi cient Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.358 -0.001 0.345 -0.017 -0.350 0.052 Factor 2 0.011 0.375 -0.043

0.377 -0.059 0.395 19-20 Results of Principal Components Analysis Table 19.3 cont. The lower left triangle contains the reproduced correlation matrix; the diagonal, the communalities; the upper right triangle, the residuals between the observed correlations and the reproduced correlations. Factor Score Coeffi cient Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 0.926 0.024 -0.029 0.031 0.038 -0.053 -0.078 0.723

0.022 -0.158 0.038 -0.105 0.902 -0.177 0.894 -0.031 0.081 0.033 -0.117 0.730 -0.217 0.739 -0.027 -0.107 -0.895 -0.018 -0.859 0.020 0.878 0.016 0.057 0.746 -0.051 0.748 -0.152 0.790 19-21 Conducting Factor Analysis Determine the Number of Factors 19-22 A Priori Determination. Sometimes, because of prior knowledge, the researcher knows how many factors to expect and thus can specify the number of factors to be extracted beforehand. Determination Based on Eigenvalues. In this approach, only factors with Eigenvalues greater than 1.0 are retained. An Eigenvalue represents the amount of variance associated

with the factor. Hence, only factors with a variance greater than 1.0 are included. Factors with variance less than 1.0 are no better than a single variable, since, due to standardization, each variable has a variance of 1.0. If the number of variables is less than 20, this approach will result in a conservative number of factors. Conducting Factor Analysis Determine the Number of Factors 19-23 Determination Based on Scree Plot. A scree plot is a plot of the Eigenvalues against the number of factors in order of extraction. Experimental evidence indicates that the point at which the scree begins denotes the true number of factors. Generally, the number of factors determined by a scree plot will be one or a few more than that determined by the Eigenvalue criterion. Determination Based on Percentage of Variance. In this approach the number of factors extracted is determined so that the cumulative percentage of variance extracted by the factors reaches a satisfactory level. It is recommended that the factors extracted should account for at least 60% of the variance. 19-24 Scree Plot

Fig 19.2 3.0 Eigenvalue 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1 2 4 5 6 3Component Number Conducting Factor Analysis Determine the Number of Factors 19-25 Determination Based on Split-Half Reliability. The sample is split in half and factor analysis is performed on each half. Only factors with high correspondence of factor loadings across the two subsamples are retained. Determination Based on Significance Tests. It is possible to determine the statistical

significance of the separate Eigenvalues and retain only those factors that are statistically significant. A drawback is that with large samples (size greater than 200), many factors are likely to be statistically significant, although from a practical viewpoint many of these account for only a small proportion of the total variance. Conducting Factor Analysis Rotate Factors 19-26 Although the initial or unrotated factor matrix indicates the relationship between the factors and individual variables, it seldom results in factors that can be interpreted, because the factors are correlated with many variables. Therefore, through rotation the factor matrix is transformed into a simpler one that is easier to interpret. In rotating the factors, we would like each factor to have nonzero, or significant, loadings or coefficients for only some of the variables. Likewise, we would like each variable to have nonzero or significant loadings with only a few factors, if possible with only one. The rotation is called orthogonal rotation if the axes are maintained at right angles. Conducting Factor Analysis Rotate Factors

19-27 The most commonly used method for rotation is the varimax procedure. This is an orthogonal method of rotation that minimizes the number of variables with high loadings on a factor, thereby enhancing the interpretability of the factors. Orthogonal rotation results in factors that are uncorrelated. The rotation is called oblique rotation when the axes are not maintained at right angles, and the factors are correlated. Sometimes, allowing for correlations among factors can simplify the factor pattern matrix. Oblique rotation should be used when factors in the population are likely to be strongly correlated. Conducting Factor Analysis Interpret Factors 19-28 A factor can then be interpreted in terms of the variables that load high on it. Another useful aid in interpretation is to plot the variables, using the factor loadings as coordinates. Variables at the end of an axis are those that have high loadings on only that factor, and hence describe the factor. 19-29

Factor Loading Plot Fig 19.3 Rotated Component Matrix Variable Component Plot in Rotated Space Component 1 V4 V6 1.0 V2 V2 V1 V3 V5 -0.5 Component 2 0.5 0.0 V1 02 -1.0 1.0 0.5

0.0 -0.5 -1.0 V3 Component 1 2 0.962 -5.72E-02 0.934 -2.66E0.848 -0.146 V4 -9.83E-02 0.854 V5 02 -0.933 -8.40E- V6 8.337E-02 0.885

Conducting Factor Analysis Calculate Factor Scores The factor scores for the ith factor may be estimated as follows: Fi = Wi1 X1 + Wi2 X2 + Wi3 X3 + . . . + Wik Xk 19-30 Conducting Factor Analysis Select Surrogate Variables 19-31 By examining the factor matrix, one could select for each factor the variable with the highest loading on that factor. That variable could then be used as a surrogate variable for the associated factor. However, the choice is not as easy if two or more variables have similarly high loadings. In such a case, the choice between these variables should be based on theoretical and measurement considerations. Conducting Factor Analysis Determine the Model Fit 19-32 The correlations between the variables can be deduced or reproduced from the estimated

correlations between the variables and the factors. The differences between the observed correlations (as given in the input correlation matrix) and the reproduced correlations (as estimated from the factor matrix) can be examined to determine model fit. These differences are called residuals. Results of Common Factor Analysis 19-33 Table 19.4 Communalities Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Barlett test of sphericity Approx. Chi-Square = 111.314 df = 15 Significance = 0.00000 Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy = 0.660 I nitial 0.859 0.480 0.814 0.543

0.763 0.587 Extraction 0.928 0.562 0.836 0.600 0.789 0.723 Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 Eigenvalue % of variance 2.731 45.520 2.218 36.969 0.442 7.360 0.341 5.688 0.183 3.044 0.085 1.420 I nitial Eigenvalues Cumulat. % 45.520 82.488

89.848 95.536 98.580 100.000 Results of Common Factor Analysis Table 19.4 cont. Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Factor 1 2 Eigenvalue 2.570 1.868 % of variance Cumulat. % 42.837 42.837 31.126 73.964 Factor Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.949 -0.206 0.914

-0.246 -0.850 -0.101 Factor 2 0.168 0.720 0.038 0.734 -0.259 0.844 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Factor 1 2 Eigenvalue % of variance 2.541 42.343 1.897 31.621 Cumulat. % 42.343 73.964 19-34 Results of Common Factor Analysis Table 19.4 cont. Rotated Factor Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3

V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.963 -0.054 0.902 -0.090 -0.885 0.075 Factor 2 -0.030 0.747 -0.150 0.769 -0.079 0.847 Factor Score Coeffi cient Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Factor 1 0.628 -0.024 0.217 -0.023 -0.166 0.083

Factor 2 0.101 0.253 -0.169 0.271 -0.059 0.500 19-35 Results of Common Factor Analysis Table 19.4 cont. The lower left triangle contains the reproduced correlation matrix; the diagonal, the communalities; the upper right triangle, the residuals between the observed correlations and the reproduced correlations. Factor Score Coeffi cient Matrix Variables V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 V2 0.928 0.022 -0.075 0.562 0.873 -0.161 -0.110 0.580 -0.850 -0.012 0.046 0.629

V3 V4 -0.000 0.024 0.006 -0.008 0.836 -0.005 -0.197 0.600 -0.786 0.019 -0.060 0.645 V5 V6 -0.008 -0.042 0.031 0.012 0.008 0.042 -0.025 -0.004 0.789 0.003 -0.133 0.723 19-36 19-37 SPSS Windows To select this procedures using SPSS for Windows click: Analyze>Data Reduction>Factor