Chapter 9 - Developing and Acquiring Information Systems

Chapter 9 - Developing and Acquiring Information Systems

Chapter 9: Developing and Acquiring Information Systems No matter what area of an organization you are in, you will be involved in systems development or technology acquisition processes Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9 Learning Objectives Making the Business Case Describe how to formulate and present the business case for technology

investments. The Systems Development Process Describe the systems development life cycle and its various phases. Acquiring Information Systems Explain how organizations acquire systems via external acquisition and outsourcing. Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Making the Business Case

Making the Business Case Describe how to formulate and present the business case for technology investments. The Systems Development Process Describe the systems development life cycle and its various phases. Acquiring Information Systems Explain how organizations acquire systems via external acquisition and outsourcing. Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Business Case Objectives

The business case sells an investment Build a strong, integrated set of arguments Show how an IS adds value to the organization Lays out the costs and benefits Used to make a go or no-go decision May be used to justify continued funding Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Productivity Paradox Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Making a Successful Business Case: Types of Business Cases Type of Argument Description Faith Arguments based on beliefs about organizational strategy, competitive advantage, industry forces, customer perceptions, market share, and so on

Arguments based on the notion that if the system is not implemented, the firm will lose out to the competition, or worse, go out of business Arguments based on data, quantitative analysis, and/or indisputable factors Fear Fact Based on Wheeler and Marakas, 1999

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Making a Successful Business Case: Identifying Costs and Benefits Identifying Costs Tangible coststotal cost of ownership (TCO) Non-recurring costs (acquisition) Recurring costs (use and maintenance) Intangible costs (e.g., loss of customers) Identifying Benefits Tangible benefits (e.g., estimated sales gains)

Intangible benefits (e.g., improved customer service) Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Making a Successful Business Case: Performing Cost-Benefit Analyses Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Making a Successful Business Case: Comparing Competing Investments Weighted Multicriteria Analysis

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Presenting the Business Case Know the Audience Know who you are presenting to, what their background is, and what they care about Convert Benefits to Monetary Terms Show benefits as $ per time period, often annual Devise Proxy Variables Measure What Is Important to Management Know management hot-button issues

Describe how the system impacts them Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Making a Successful Business Case: Stakeholders and Factors Stakeholder Focus and Project Characteristics Management Greater strategic focus; largest project sizes; longest project durations

Steering Committee Cross-functional focus; greater organizational change; formal costbenefit analysis; larger and riskier projects Narrow, non-strategic focus; faster development User department IS Executive

Focus on integration with existing systems; fewer development delays; less concern with cost-benefit analysis Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Systems Development Process Making the Business Case Describe how to formulate and present the business case for technology investments. The Systems Development Process Describe the systems development life cycle and

its various phases. Acquiring Information Systems Explain how organizations acquire systems via external acquisition and outsourcing. Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Customized Versus Off-the-Shelf Software Customized Software Customizabilitytailored to unique needs Problem specificitypay only for what is needed Off-the-Shelf Software (Packaged Software)

Less costly than customized systems Faster to procure than customized systems Of higher quality than customized systems Less risky than customized systems Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Off-the-Shelf Software: Examples Category Business information systems

Application Payroll Inventory Office automation Personal productivity Description Automation of payroll services, from the optical reading of time sheets to

generating paychecks Automation of inventory tracking, order processing, billing, and shipping Support for a wide range of tasks from word processing to graphics to e-mail Examples ZPAY Intuit Payroll Intuit QuickBooks InventoryPower 5

OpenOffice Corel Microsoft Office Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) softwaretypically developed by software companies that spread the development costs over a large number of customers Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Open Source Software Programs source code is freely available for use and/or modification Linux and MySQL are prevalent example

Free to use, but hidden support costs Typically no support for the free version Commercial vendors may offer commercial-grade support to industry users for a fee MySQL database is used by Yahoo!, Facebook, and Associated Press Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Combining Customized, Open Source, and Offthe-Shelf Systems Off-the-shelf systems can often be customized Off-the-shelf systems may interact with opensource systems (e.g., the MySQL open source database can be used to store data for a small

business ERP system) Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. IS Development in Action Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. IS Development in Action Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The Role of Users in the Systems Development

Process System analysts design the system System users know what is needed System analysts depend on system users System users are key throughout the process

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Steps in the Systems Development Process 1. Systems planning and selection 2. Systems analysis 3. Systems design 4. Systems implementation and operation Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Phase 1: Systems Planning and Selection Resources are limited so projects must be limited Analyst gathers information and builds the case Multiple approaches to selecting projects Formal IS planning process Ad-hoc planning process The business case role Business cases for different projects compared Multiple selection criteria Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Phase 2: Systems Analysis

Collecting Requirements May be the most important part of systems development Dictates how the proposed system should function Modeling Data What data are needed Modeled using entity-relationship diagrams Modeling Processes and Logic Model the data flow Model the processing logic Develop System Designs and Evaluate, Selecting One

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Phase 3: Systems Design The system design chosen from Phase 2 is now elaborated to where it could be built Humancomputer interface Point of contact between the user and the system Data entry and management forms Databases and files Processing and logic Modeled using one of many techniques Models converted into code in Phase 4

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Phase 4: Systems Implementation and Operation Convert design into a working system Software programming and software testing System conversion, documentation, training, and support User and reference guides User training manuals and tutorials Installation procedures and troubleshooting suggestions

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Phase 4: Systems Implementation and Operation: Conversion Strategies Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Repeating the SDLC: Systems Maintenance Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Repeating the SDLC: Systems Maintenance: Activity Mapping

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Other Approaches to Designing and Building Systems Prototyping Trial-and-error Works even when the desired endpoint isnt known, if there is a basis for determining when one prototype is better than another RAD & Extreme Programming

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Acquiring Information Systems Making the Business Case Describe how to formulate and present the business case for technology investments. The Systems Development Process Describe the systems development life cycle and its various phases. Acquiring Information Systems Explain how organizations acquire systems via external acquisition and outsourcing.

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. External Acquisition: Reasons for External Acquisition Possible situations: Situation 1: Limited IS staff Situation 2: IS staff has limited skill set Situation 3: IS staff is overworked Situation 4: Problems with performance of IS staff When this is the case, there are two options: External acquisition of a prepackaged system Outsourcing systems development

Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. External Acquisition: Steps 1. Systems planning and selection 2. Systems analysis 3. Development of a request for proposal 4. Proposal evaluation 5. Vendor selection Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

External Acquisition: Steps: Development of a Request for Proposal A summary of existing systems and applications Requirements for system performance and features Reliability, backup, and service requirements The criteria that will be used to evaluate proposals Timetable and budget constraints (how much you can spend) Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

External Acquisition: Steps: Proposal Evaluation Evaluation may include: Viewing system demonstrations Evaluating system performance Judging how system stacks up to important criteria Use of system benchmarks

Response time given a specified number of users Time to sort records Time to retrieve a set of records Time to produce a given report Time to read in a set of data Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. External Acquisition: Commonly Used Evaluation Criteria Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

External Acquisition: StepsVendor Selection Typically multiple feasible solutions Prioritize or rank competing proposals Weighted scoring system works well for this Other approaches include Simple checklists Subjective processes

Once vendor is selected, external acquisition is complete Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. External Acquisition: Managing the Software License Varying degrees of restrictiveness or freedom Types of licenses Shrink-wrap or click-wrap licenses Typical for off-the-shelf and system software Enterprise or volume licenses

Usually negotiated Software asset management Performing a software inventory Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Outsourcing Systems Development: Why Outsourcing? Outsourcing Reasons Cost and Quality Concerns Problems in IS Performance Supplier Pressures Simplifying, Downsizing,

and Reengineering Financial Factors Organizational Culture Internal Irritants Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Description Vendors have economies of scale, and can develop better systems at a lower cost Outsourced vendors are more reliable and consistent Aggressive sales forces Companies retreating to core competencies,

outsourcing functions not core to value creation An arms-length relationship with vendors can create more efficient use, IT assets can be liquidated Internal politics may block IT from moving forward If the IS staff and users are not interacting well together, removing that source of tension can be a relief Outsourcing Systems Development: Managing the IS Outsourcing Relationship Outsourced relationships take continuous management Realistic, tangible measures of performance should be developed and tracked

Multiple levels of interaction based on the type of interaction Operational and tactical Policy and relationship Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. END OF CHAPTER CONTENT Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Managing in the Digital World: Microsoft Is Kinecting Its Ecosystem Apple, Google, Microsoft, and Amazon are building app

ecosystems System development is a cooperation between large companies and small independent app developers Microsoft released the Kinect in 2010, a motion capture device for the Xbox with a USB interface Programmers saw the potential to use the Kinect in new and novel ways Microsoft resisted at first, but now includes an SDK In 2013, Microsoft released an improved version with the help of independent app developers Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Brief Case:

Software Patent Wars In the mobile space Apple patented slide-to-unlock features Samsung patented 4G data transmission Microsoft sued Motorola for video encoding Motorola sued Microsoft for email, IM, and Wi-Fi Oracle sued Google for basing Android on Java Samsung and Apple battle over their patents Are patent wars preventing productivity? Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Coming Attractions:

IBMs 5 in 5 5 innovations that will transform our lives in 5 years Based on Big Data and machine learning 1. Offline retail stores will learn about customers 2. Doctors will learn about your DNA 3. Digital guardians will protect you from cybercriminals 4. The classroom will learn about its students 5. Smart cities will improve their citizens lives Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Ethical Dilemma:

Ethical App Development Nowadays anyone can build an app, not just major software companies Mobile apps are especially prevalent, with opportunities to build the next killer app This leads to possible ethical issues, especially related to privacy concerns Facebook privacy policies always changing, often violating privacy preferences of users iOS social media Path app secretly sends users complete address list to Paths servers Apps can easily retrieve user data, but can does not imply

ought Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Whos Going Mobile Creating Mobile Apps Smartphone apps are being rapidly developed and deployed In 2013, Google and Apple announced more than 1 million apps in their app stores Only a relatively few are highly successful Flappy Bird took only three days to complete, but netted $50K per day Game templates are available for as low as $199 for developers, not even needing code

Other app possibilities Productivity tools for students Managing your passwords Plenty of other ideas Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Players: Game Development Studios Some tech companies (IBM, Apple) receive only a small amount of their total revenue from software Others (e.g., Microsoft) are primarily software vendors All software involves SDLC, but game software SDLC has unique characteristics

Begin with general project goal After that, its more like movie production than normal software production Leading games sometimes cost more than $100 million to develop Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. When Things Go Wrong: Conquering Computer Contagion Blue Frog had a new solution to combat spam For every e-mail received, sent a response e-mail Six of the top 10 spammers dropped Blue Frogs clients from their lists

One spammer fought back, inundating Blue Frogs clients with so much spam that ISP servers crashed Blue Frog decided to fold instead of creating a new cyberwar 2014 top malware issues: growth in botnets, Android-based malware, Linux and Mac OS vulnerabilities, Web-based malware, attacks on financial accounts, Windows XP, spam evolving to overcome blocking Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Industry Analysis: Broadcasting Broadcasters of radio and television are facing dwindling viewership

The Internet has opened new entertainment sources and competition to viewers Advertisers are willing to pay less for smaller audiences Broadcasters now use the Internet as another distribution channel, and can charge for online show advertising Some formats are requiring shorter broadcast formats to cater to online audiences Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

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