Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Chapter 14 Early Medieval Art In Europe The term Middle Ages refers mainly to the history of Christian and Jewish Europe between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance, around 400-1500 AD. Historians usually divide this into three smaller periods, the Early Middle Ages,

the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages. The Visigoths Also known as the Goths, were a barbaric tribe. Living on the delta of the Danube River, their kingdom was inherited by Alaric I.

Eagle Brooch Spain 6th Century. Gilt, Bronze, crystal, garnets, and other gems. 5 1/2 The Norse The last great waves of European migrations began in the eighth century and picked up dramatically in the ninth

and tenth centuries. This time it was a group of relatively sedentary Germanic tribes in the northernmost reaches of Europe, the Norsemen. These were really not one ethnic group, but an entire spectrum of peoples speaking many different languages. For all that, the principal Norsemen that raided and emigrated out of Northern Europe were Norwegians and Danish. Again, however, these are not single ethnic groupsthe Danes, for instance, were an entire set of different peoples.

The Celts and Anglo-Saxons Europe throughout most of the historical period was dominated by a single cultural group, a powerful, culturally diverse group of peoples, the Celts. By the start of the Middle Ages, the Celts had been struck on two fronts by two very powerful cultures, Rome in the south, and the Germans, who were derived from Celtic culture, from the north.

This monolithic culture spread from Ireland to Asia Minor (the Galatians of the New Testament). The Celts even sacked Rome in 390 BC and successfully invaded and sacked several Greek cities in 280 BC. Though the Celts were preliterate during most of the classical period, the Greeks and Romans discuss them with disdain. The Angle, Saxon, and Jute tribes who invaded Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries

are known as the Anglo-Saxons. They left their homelands in northern Germany, Denmark and northern Holland and rowed across the North Sea in wooden boats. Gummersmark brooch, Denmark. 6th century. Silver gilt, height 5" (14.6

cm). Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo burial ship, Suffolk, England. c. 615 - 30. Cloisonn plaques of gold, garnet, and checked enamel, length 8" (20.3 cm). The British Museum, London.

Man (symbol of St Matthew), from Book of Durrow. c. 660-680 Chi Rho Iota page, Book of Matthew, Book of Kells. Tempera on velum, late 8th or early 9th

century Probably the earliest group of ringed high crosses, the Ossory group includes these two fine high crosses, the North and South Cross at Ahenny in Co Tipperary. Found at the monastic site of Kilclispeen

these two crosses imitate the earlier wooden crosses which were encased with a metal binding, the stone bosses imitate the studs which would have covered the rivets that held the metal and wooden crosses together.

Left: Began by Maius of Escalade, finished by Emeterius, Emeterius and Senior next to the Tower of Tabara, Tabara Apocalypse, 970 Right: Heavenly Jerusalem from the Morgan Beatus, ca. 940-945 Battle of the Bird and the Serpent, Commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus and Commentary on Daniel by Jerome.

Monastery of San Salvador at Tabara, Leon, Spain July 6, 975 Tempera on Parchment 15 x 10 Charlemagnes Palace

The creation of a "New Rome" was Charlemagne's guiding vision when he began the construction of the Palace Chapel in the former Roman spa resort Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in ca. 786 - laying the foundation stone for one of Europe's oldest Northern stone buildings. The cathedral obtained its present shape in the course of more than a millennium. The core of the Aachen cathedral is the formerly mentioned Palace Chapel - at the time of its construction it was the largest church north of the Alps. Its fascinating architecture with Classical, Byzantine and Germanic-Franconian elements is the

essence of a monumental building of greatest importance. It was modeled after the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna. For 600 years, from 936 to 1531, Aachen cathedral was the church of coronation for 30 German kings. In order to bear the enormous flow of pilgrims in the Gothic period a choir hall was built: a two-part Capella vitrea (glass chapel) which was consecrated on the 600th day of Charlemagne's death. Interior of the

Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany. 792-805 In 786-787 A.D. Pope Hadrian authorized Charlemagne to transport marble from Italy to Aachen. In 798,

the precious ancient columns were erected in the church. The delivery of the relics in 799 / 800 assured the completion of the building. Cutaway view of the Palatine Chapel of

Charlemagne, Aachen Monastery church of St Riquier, Centula, France. c. 800 Schematic plan for monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland. c. 819

St. Matthew from the Coronation Gospels, 795-819 A.D. St Matthew, from the Ebbo Gospels. c. 816-835 ink and tempera on vellum, 10

1/4 x 8 3/4" Illustrations to Psalms 43 and 44, from the Utrecht Psalter. c. 820 - 832 43:22 Because for thy sake we are killed all the day long: we are counted as sheep for the slaughter; 43:23: Arise, why sleepest thou, O Lord?; 43:25: For our soul is humbled down to the dust: our belly

cleaveth to the earth. Crucifixion, front cover of Lindau Gospels. c. 870 Early Medieval (Carolingian) Gold, precious stones, and pearls, 1' 1 3/8" x 10

3/8" Viking Era Nearly all Viking Age art is applied art, that is, the decoration of a wide variety of objects used in daily life. However, woodcarvers, sculptors and metalworkers brought a dynamism and inventiveness to their task which has left a rich legacy of

extravagant animal ornament. Most of the finest surviving examples of art from the early Viking Age have been found in graves, especially on jewelry and weapons, while later Viking art is best represented on objects from silver hoards, from the developing towns and on the Scandinavian runestones. There are also

small-scale carvings in other materials amber, jet, bone, walrus ivory and, where it survives, wood - which remind us both of the skills of the Scandinavian craftsmen and of how well suited Viking Age animal motifs were to their purpose. Oseberg ship of Oseberg ship-burial. 1st half 9th century Gripping Beasts,

Detail of Oseberg Ship c. 815 - 820 Royal Rune Stone, Ordered by King Harald Bluetooth Jelling, Denmark. 983 985. Granite height about 8 Carved as memorials to King

Gorm "the Old" and Queen Thyri, over a thousand years ago, these two stones stand in the yard of a Romanesque church in Jelling, Denmark, an old

Viking royal site. One of the stones, the smaller one, is considered to be the birth certificate of Denmark. Inscribed in Old Norse, Younger Futhark, a form of Germanic Celtic Ogham, the oldest of the Rune Stones was raised by the first King of all of Danmark,

King Gorm the Old, in memory of his wife Thyra (Thyrv) who he referred to as Denmark's Salvation. The largest of the Rune Stones was raised by the son of King Gorm and Queen Thyra, Harald Bluetooth, in their memory. It celebrates the union of Danmark and Norway; as well as, the offspring of their Sangreal Christ Lineage. The Danes were

followers of the true teachings of Christ under the auspices of Apostle Mary Magdalene, and the Gospel according to Mary; rather than, the teachings of Apostle Peter and the prevailing by brute force Christian doctrine of the times. Originally painted in bright colours, one side of the largest Rune Stone had a

figure of Christ. The other side of the Rune Stone had the image of a snake (DNA Spiral, Genetic Coded Bloodline) entwined about a lion (Symbol of Ra Royalty). A symbolic code left behind for the discerning that King Gorm and Queen Thyra were of Sangreal Lineage of the royal bloodline of Jesus The Christ and his companion wife Mary of

Magdalene. Viking History Seafaring bands of Norse seamen known as Vikings (Viken, people from the coves) descended on the rest of Europe. Frequently their targets were wealthy isolated Christian monasteries. The Viking Leif Eriksson reached North

America in 1000. In good weather a Viking ship could sail 200 miles in a day. There are 28 stave churches left standing in Norway, dating from c.1130 and onwards, with elements of older origin. What we see are

the structural consequences of the builders' actions The north portal of the Urnes stave church (11th cent.): "The intertwined snakes and

dragons represent the end of the world according to the Norse legend of Ragnark". BORGUND STAVE CHURCH Built just before 1150, and dedicated to the Apostle St.

Andrew. It is one of the best preserved stave churches and it has not been added or rebuilt since it was new. The pulpit is from the last period of the 1500s. The altar-piece is from 1620. On the church walls are found several runic inscriptions. Two

of them are dated back to the middle of the 1100s. They read: "Tor wrote these runes in the evening at the St. Olavs Mass" and "Ave Maria" Ottonian Europe Otto I or the Great is considered by many historians to be the founder of the Holy

Roman Empire. He was an effective military warrior who encouraged military expansion, colonization, and missionary activity eastward into the Slavic world. His campaign was to restore kingship on the Carolingian model. Succeeding his father Henry I as the Duke of Saxony in 936, his military genius was tested early. Otto I faced

the continuous raids and sieges of the dukes, the Ducal Rebellions, which were led by his brother Henry of Bavaria. The war was the result of him acquiring an increasing amount of power that others resented. It ended with Otto's victory in 941 in which he replaced the rebellious dukes with his own relatives, thus compelling them to accept royal over lordship. In 951, he commanded a successful invasion of Italy and declared himself King. Magyars invaded the empire in 954, and

this invasion forced the nobility to reunite with Otto in order to defend themselves. He was able to defeat the Magyars in the battle of Lechfield in 955 and this temporarily restored peace throughout his empire. In order to unify and control the major territories of Germany, he established the Church-State Alliance; this strengthened his power and decreased the power of the

duchies. He gave large grants of royal land to bishops and abbots, who became his royal vassals and were obligated to provide him with military and political services. It was successful for both the Church and the State because it had church officials ruling the land, but allowed Otto the power to appoint them.

Otto was crowned Roman Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII, the same office Charlemagne held in 800. Pope John XII eventually turned against Otto and his increasing power, so the papacy was taken away from him. Otto then imposed the rule that no pope could be elected without the approval of the emperor. This proclamation opened an era of German domination of the papacy and, in effect, made

him the head of the Christian community. Otto died in 973 and was succeeded by his son Otto II. His policies continued with success until 1056. Many people believe that Otto revived the Roman Empire and consider him one of the greatest Saxon rulers. Ottonian Architecture Near Quedlinburg in Gernrode stands the only

almost entirely preserved church from the early Ottonian period, the Collegiate Church of St. Cyriakus. The decorations that the master masons of the Romanesque created here are still unparalleled. Even though almost no right angles were used in the architecture of the church it has still survived for over thousand years.

Church of Saint Cyriakus Gernrode, Germany 961-973 Nave, Church of Saint Cyriakus Doors of Biship Bernward Made for the Abbey Church of

St. Michael, Hildesheim, Germany Bronze doors of St. Michaels Story of Adam and Eve and Life of Christ Ottonian Sculpture

The Gero Cross reintroduced into Western sculpture the modeled-in-the-round technique that had practically disappeared after the Classical period. The crucifix has a monumental scale of 62. It demonstrated the deep suffering of Christ. What is striking about this image is the note of emotionalism and naturalism that is seen in the forward bulge of the body that shows the physical strain on the arms and shoulders. The face expresses the agony that was felt before death, but is now left

lifeless. The horror of the martyrs tortured death is exposed. Archbishop Gero presented the crucifix to the Cathedral. It functions as both sculpture and a reliquary, where the Eucharist is held in a receptacle in the head. Gero Crucifix Cologne (Kln) Cathedral, Germany ca. 970

Painted and gilded wood Ottonian Sculpture Ottonian religious sculpture is monumental in scale and executed with clear, round forms and highly expressive facial features. The wooden Gero Crucifix (969-76; Cologne Cathedral) reflects a humanitarian concern for the sufferings of Jesus. Sophisticated relief bronzes

were cast for the cathedral doors at Hildesheim (1015). Ottonian manuscript illumination was superbly developed; produced at several flourishing artistic centers, including Regensburg and Fulda, it combined Carolingian and Byzantine influences. Manuscripts such as the Gospel Book of Otto II are two-dimensional, figural, and linear, incorporating much gold leaf. Page with Otto III enthroned,

Liuthar Gospels (Aachen Gospels) Germany, c. 997-1000. Ink, gold, and Tempera on vellum, 11" X 8 ". From the so-called Aachen Gospels made for Otto III about the year 996. Otto III was the heir to the Ottonian dynasty. The Ottonians were heirs to the Carolingians. In the tenth century the

Ottonians revived the disintegrated Holy Roman Empire. The dominion of the Ottonians was not as extensive as the Carolingians. Their territories included Germany and northern Italy. Like the image from the Codex Aureus, this image is based on the Book of Revelation. The central figure here is Otto who is in the guise of Christ. In a detail not shown in the Codex Aureus image, the Revelation passage

describes that the Lamb appeared surrounded by Four Beasts.

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