Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Road to Revolution 1763-1776 Victory in what war would enlarge the British imperial domain in North America? French and Indian War This war would cause the British to built additional forts and the housing of thousands of troops. Would this be a problem? If so why? Housing and building of forts would be very

costly and the British struggled after the French and Indian with the American colonists footing some of the bill. This would be only one issue that would be a cause to the American Revolution. The Deep Root of Revolution America was a revolutionary force from the day of its discovery. Why is this a true statement? New findings allowed it to be a New World of nurturing of new ideas about society, citizenship and government.

Two ideas in particular had taken root in minds of the American colonists by the mid-eighteenth century. 1. Republicanism- a just society as one in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good. It also opposes authoritarian institutions like those of a monarchy. 2. Radical Whigs- feared the threat to their liberty posed by the monarch. The Whigs mounted attacks on the king and his

ministers. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances Not one of the thirteen colonies expect for Georgia was formally planted by the British government. All the other colonies were founded by trading companies, religious groups, land speculators and individuals. The British authorities nevertheless embraced a theory called mercantilism that justified their control over the colonies.

What is mercantilism? Mercantilismbelief that wealth was power and that a countrys economic wealth (and its military and political power) could be measured by the amount of gold or silver in its treasury. To amass gold or silver, a country needed to export more than it imported. Processing colonies thus conferred distinct advantages, since the colonies could both supply raw materials to the mother country (thereby reducing the need for foreign imports) and provide a guaranteed

market for exports. The British government looked on the American colonies more or less as what? Tenants They were expected to furnish products needed by the mother country such as tobacco, sugar, and ship masts. The colonists were expected to refain from making for export certain products such as woolen cloth or beaver hats. The British expected the colonist to purchase certain

imported goods from the British only. From time to time Parliament passed laws to regulate the mercantilist system: Navigation Act (1650)aimed at Dutch shippers, all commerce flowing to and from the colonies could be transported only in British (including colonial) vessels. Three-fourths of crew must be English or colonial. European goods destined for America first had to be landed in Britain, where tariff duties could be collected and British middlemen got profits.

Other laws stipulated that American merchants must ship certain enumerated products, notably tobacco, exclusively to Britain, even though prices might be better elsewhere. British policy inflicted a currency shortage on the colonies. Since the colonist bought more from the British than they sold there the difference had to be made up in hard cash. Every year gold and silver coins earned in trade with the Spanish and French would be drained out of

colonist creating a money shortage. In making everyday trade within the colonies they would use nails, butter and feathers as money. This caused the colonists to issue paper money which caused the money to depreciate. The British merchants protested the paper money to Parliament that it resulted in them passing legislature prohibiting the printing of money. The Parliament also passed laws protecting the British merchants from bankruptcy. The colonist would complain that their welfare had

been sacrificed for the well-being of the British. The British crown reserved the right to nullify any legislation passed by the colonial assemblies if they would harm the mercantilist system. This royal veto as it was known was used 469 times in connection with some 8,563 laws. These were more examples of how principle could weigh more than practice in fueling colonial grievances.

Britain is symbolized as a lady of fashion; her rebellious daughter, America as an Indian princess. Their shield of Obedience and Liberty mutually exclusive standards. What does this picture depict? Who is it?

This is famed silversmith and horseman Paul Revere- Reflects the new democratic spirit of the age- by portraying an artisan in working clothes. It also shows the serene confidence of the master craftsman and quiet pride in his work. The Merits and Menace of

Mercantilism In theory the British mercantile system seemed thoroughly and deliberately oppressive. Was it? It wasnt until 1763, the various Navigation Laws imposed no intolerable burden because they were loosely enforced. Enterprising merchants like John Hancock learned how to evade the restrictions. How did they evade the British?

Smuggling Did colonist reap from the direct benefits from the mercantile system? If the colonist existed for the benefit of the mother country, it was hardly less true that Britain existed for the benefit of the colonies. England paid liberal bounties to colonial producers of ship parts, over the protests of British competitors. Virginia tobacco planters enjoyed a monopoly in the British market, snuffing out the tiny British tobacco industry.

The colonist also benefited from the protection of the worlds strongest navy and a seasoned army-without any cost. How did the mercantile system burden the colonist? It stifled economic initiative and imposed a rankling dependency on British agents and creditors. Most grievously found the system debasing. They felt used kept in a state of perpetual economic adolescence, and never allowed to come of age. What did Benjamin Franklin mean when he wrote; We have and old mother that peevish in grown;

She snubs us like children that scarce walk alone; She forget were grown up have sense of our own. The Stamp Tax Uproar After the French and Indian War (Seven Years War) Britain now one of the biggest empires in the world as well as one of the biggest debt of some 140 million pounds half of which was incurred in defending the American colonies. To justify the debt what would the British have to do? The had to look at redefining their relationship with the American colonies. How would this be done?

By taxes George Greenville In 1763 Prime Minister George Greenville would take the first step in creating tension between colonies and Great Britain. What did he do? He ordered the Navy to begin strictly enforcing the Navigation Laws. He also persuaded Parliament to pass the Sugar Act of 1764 the first

law ever passed for the raising of taxes on the colonies. The Sugar Act did three things: 1. It halved the duty on foreign-made molasses(in hopes that colonist would pay lower tax rather than risk arrest by smuggling). 2. It placed duties on certain imports. 3. It strengthened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court rather than in a more sympathetic colonial court.

By the end of 1764, the colonies and Great Britain were disagreeing more and more about how the colonies should be taxed and governed. The feelings of rebellion would even swell more when in 1765 the Quartering Act was introduced. What did this

act require of the colonies? In 1765 Greenville would impose outrageous tax according to the colonist what tax was it? Stamp Tax was imposed to help raise revenue to support the new military force that had been deployed to the colonies. What did the Stamp Act mandate? The use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of the tax. Stamps were required on what?

Stamps were required on: bill of sales, on certain commercial and legal documents, playing cards, pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, bills of lading, and marriage licenses. Greenville regarded all these measures as reasonable and just. If so why? If not why? He was simply asking the colonists to pay a fair share of the costs for their defense, through taxes that were already familiar in Britain. The British people had been enduring the same tax for over two generations and at a higher

price than the colonist. Americans were angered over Greenvilles aggression to hurt them both finically and taking away their local liberties which the colonist had come to assume as a right. Colonists thought Greenville was also jeopardizing their basic rights of Englishmen. Both the Sugar and Stamp Acts provided trying offenders in hated admiralty courts. What are admiralty courts? They were considered guilty and had to prove

their innocent. Colonists also resented the stationing of British Army after the French and Indian War why? Many Americans thought became suspicious of all the authority being placed upon them and thought it might be a conspiracy to strip them of their liberties. Was it? The Stamp Act would became the target of the colonist. They would cry out NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESETATION. What does this mean? The Americans made a distinction between legislation and taxation.

The colonist conceded the right of Parliament to legislate about matters that affected the entire empire, including the regulation of trade. The colonist resented any decision concerning taxes made by Parliament when no Americans were seated in Parliament. The colonists saw the taxes imposed on them as robbery and an assault on their sacred rights of property. Greenville dismissed these American protests as hairsplitting absurdities. The power of Parliament was supreme and undivided ,

Greenville asserted and in case the Americans were represented in Parliament. Greenville claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects even those in Americas in Boston and Charleston who had never voted for a member of Parliament. The Colonies Organize to Resist Britain The uprising a the Customs House illustrated the rising tension between Britain and the colonists. In order to finance debts from the French and Indian War, as well as from European wars, Parliament had

turned their attention on the colonies resources. The seeds of increased tension were sown in March 1765 when Parliament persuaded by Greenville to pass the Stamp Act. What was the requirements of the Stamp Act? Colonist who disobeyed the stamp act were to be tried in the vice-admiralty courts where convictions were probable. Colonial outcries against the hated stamp tax took various forms. The most conspicuous assemblage was the Stamp

Act Congress of 1765, which brought together in New York City 27 distinguished delegates from nine colonies. The members after debating the members drew up a statement of their rights and grievances for the king an Parliament to repeal the stamp act. The Stamp Act Congress would be the first step in intercolonial unity. More effective than the congress was the wide-spread adoption of nonimportation agreements. What is this? A series of commercial restrictions adopted by American

colonists to protest British revenue policies prior to the American Revolution. To protest taxation without representation, New York merchants agreed collectively to embargo British imports until Parliament repealed the stamp tax, and they persuaded the merchants of Boston and Philadelphia to do likewise. Mobilizing in support of nonimportation gave ordinary American men and women new opportunities to participate in colonial protests. Groups like the Sons of Liberty and Daughters of

Liberty took the law into their own hands Crying out Liberty, Property and No Stamps, they enforced the nonimportation agreements against violators often with the prize of tar and feathers. Some of the patriots would ransack the houses of the stamp officials , confiscate their money , and hanged dummies of them on poles. The Stamp Act was repealed, eventually, based on appeals from merchants who lost money shipping goods to a land that would not receive them. Not incidentally, the customs offices in the colonies

could not collect taxes on goods that were either not allowed ashore at all, or were never sold. The first defining fact of the Declaratory Act of 1766 was that it followed hard on the heels of Parliament's repeal of the detested Stamp Act of 1765, England's first major retreat in the face of colonial American resistance. Declaratory Act The Declaratory Act, in mid-March, affirmed England's right "to bind the colonies in all cases," whether it be the right to tax, enforcement of all parliamentary laws, or

crown prerogatives over its colonies in general; all were subject always to British sovereignty. The British had basically drew a line in the sand. The colonists had already drawn their battle line by making it clear that they wanted a measure of sovereignty of their own and would undertake drastic action to secure it. Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre British ministry in control by the gifted and erratic Charles Champagne Charley Townshend

a man who could deliver brilliant speeches in Parliament even while drunk. In 1767 Townshend convinced Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. What did these acts do? Placed a light import duty on glass, lead, paper, paint and tea. The tax also imposed a three-penny tax on tea the most popular drank in the colonies. (Drank twice a day)

The colonist reacted with rage and well-organized resistance would occur. Educated Americans spoke out against the Townshend Acts once again protesting taxation without representation. Bostons Samuel Adams called for another boycott of British goods and women of every rank in society became involved in protest. Unlike the Stamp Act the Townshend Acts the duty would have to be paid at the American ports.

The colonist thought the duty on which item was outrageous? Tea- about 1 million drank the brew twice a day. The Townshend duties were earmarked to pay the salaries of the royal governors and judges in America. Writer Mercy Otis Warren urged women to lay their British Female ornaments aside, foregoing Feathers, furs, rich satins and

capes. Wealthy women stopped buying British luxuries and joined other women in spinning bees. All this would show determination to boycott British goods. Housewives boycotted British tea and exchanged recipes for tea made from birch bark and sage. Boston Massacre The Boston Massacre was the killing of five

civilians by British troops on March 5, 1770 and its legal aftermath, which helped spark the American Revolutionary War. Colonists were already resenting the Townshend Acts. Tensions caused by the heavy military presence in Boston led to brawls between soldiers and civilians, and eventually to troops shooting their muskets into a riotous crowd. The incident began on King Street when a young wigmaker's apprentice named Edward Garrick called

out to a British officer, Captain John Goldfinch, that he was late paying his barber's bill. Goldfinch had, in fact, settled his account that day but did not reply to the boy. When Garrick remained quite vocal in his complaints an hour later, the British sentry outside the customs house, Private Hugh White, called the boy over and clubbed him on the head. Garrick's companions yelled at the sentry, and a British sergeant chased them away. The apprentices returned with more locals, shouting insults at the sentry and throwing snowballs and litter.

White sent a messenger to the Main Guard for reinforcements. The Officer of the Day, Captain Thomas Preston, dispatched a corporal and six privates, all grenadiers of the 29th Regiment of Foot, and followed soon after. The mob grew in size and continued throwing stones, sticks, and chunks of ice. A group of sailors and dockworkers came carrying large sticks of firewood and pushed to the front of the crowd, directly confronting the soldiers.

As bells rang in the surrounding steeples, the crowd of Bostonians grew larger and more threatening. In the midst of the commotion, Private Hugh Montgomery was struck down onto the ground by a piece of ice. He fired his musket into the air andas he later admitted to one of his defense attorneys that someone had yelled "Fire!" All but one of the other soldiers shot their weapons into the crowd. Their uneven bursts hit eleven men; three died instantly, one a few hours later, and a fifth several days later.

Six wounded survived. Three Americans ropemaker Samuel Gray, mariner James Caldwell, and a multiracial sailor, Crispus Attucksdied instantly. Seventeenyear-old Samuel Maverick, struck by a ricocheting musket ball at the back of the crowd, died the next day. Thirty-year-old Irish immigrant Patrick Carr died two weeks later. To keep the peace, the next day royal authorities agreed to remove all troops from the center of town to a fort on Castle Island in Boston Harbor.

Committee of correspondenceWhat is this and what would it do for the colonies? 1. Unify 2. Shared public opinion 3. Helped colonial leaders in planning their strategies for resisting the British 4. The committee of correspondence was established to help colonies to communicate with each other about threats to colonial liberties.

Tea Brewing in Boston In 1773 Lord Frederick North the British prime minister faced a new problem when the British East India Company held an monopoly on the tea imports had been hit hard by the colonial boycotts. To save the Company North devised the Tea Act which granted the company the right to sell to colonies free of taxes that colonial tea sellers had to pay. This action would cut the colonial merchants out of the tea trade this allowed the Company to sell

directly to the consumer for less. North hoped the colonist would buy the tea yet it prompt colonial protest. On December 16, 1773 a large group of Boston rebels (Sons of Liberty) disguised themselves as Native Americans and began to dump 342 chest of tea into the Boston harbor this would be

known as the Boston Tea Party. King George III was infuriated by the destruction of British property he pressed Parliament to act by passing a series of acts known as the Intolerable Acts. Intolerable Acts

With the Kings approval Prime Minister, Lord North, began passing a series of five laws, dubbed the Coercive or Intolerable Acts, the following spring to punish the Americans. 1. The Boston Port Act- The legislation dictated that the port of Boston was closed to all shipping until full restitution was made to the East India Company and the King for the lost tea and taxes. 2. Massachusetts Government Act- was designed to increase royal control over the colony's administration. 3. Administration of Justice Act- stated that royal officials could request a change of venue to another colony or Great Britain if charged with criminal acts in fulfilling their duties.

Intolerable Acts 4. Quartering Act- A revision of the 1765 Quartering Act, which was largely ignored by colonial assemblies, the 1774 Quartering Act expanded the types of buildings in which soldiers could be billeted and removed the requirement that they be provided with provisions. 5. Quebec Act- Though it did not have a direct effect on the thirteen colonies, the Quebec Act was considered part of the Intolerable Acts by the American colonists. Intended to ensure the loyalty of the king's Canadian subjects, the act greatly enlarged Quebec's borders and

allowed the free practice of the Catholic faith. Bloodshed The committees of correspondence quickly moved into action and assembled the First Continental Congress. In September 1774,56 delegates met in Philadelphia and drew up a declaration of colonial rights. They defended the colonies right to run their own affairs. The most significant action of the

Congress was the creation of The Association-it called for complete boycott of British goods. The British are Coming As General Thomas Gage and his troops moved toward Concord and Lexington the minutemen were watching. Who was Gage looking for? John Hancock and Samuel Adams and others of the Continental Congress.

Sometime on April 18, 1775 Dr. Joseph Warren had consulted with someone close to the British command who told him of the plans to capture members of the Continental Congress. Warren immediately sent for Paul Revere a member of the Sons of Liberty he was told to go and warn Adams, Hancock, and the searching for arms in Concord and Lexington. Paul Revere began to organize a network of riders to warn those of the British and their movement.

On the night of April 18, 1775 Paul Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott rode to spread the word that 700 British Regulars were headed to Concord. Revere would warn Adams, and Hancock he would continue to ride warn those of the coming of the British. Revere and Dawes would be detained by the British. As they were being questions shots rang out the British then realized there element

of surprise had been lost. The British officers ordered Revere and Dawes to be released since they would hinder their movement. What did Revere and Dawes do? What was important about the Battles of Lexington and Concord? The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. When were they fought?

April 19, 1775 The first shots were fired in a skirmish at Lexington during the British Army's advance. The Opposing Sides Advantages and Disadvantages Colonial Advantages Fighting on home ground Good generals Fighting for their rights and freedoms

French alliance: loans Disadvantages Untrained soldiers Food and ammunition shortages Weak and divided central government British Advantages Well-trained and supplied army and navy Wealth of resources Strong central government

Disadvantages Fighting in unfamiliar territory Fighting away from Britain and resources Troops indifferent; half heart support at home. Valley Forge Valley Forge was the site of the camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 17771778 in the American Revolutionary War. This was a time

of great suffering for George Washington's Army, but it was also a time of retraining and rejuvenation. The brutal condition at Valley Forge did not stop Washington from training his men. Marquis de Lafayette and Baron Friedrich von Steuben would help increase morale and improve discipline among

the American troops. Surrender at Saratoga With the British surrendering at Saratoga. The victory was a turning point why? Improved American morale and would convince the French to send troops to help the American cause.

Winning the War Strategic victories in the South at Yorktown enabled the Americans to defeat the British. The American defeat established the U.S. as an independent nation. In February 1778, transformation of the rag-tag Continental Army would occur when Prussian Captain Friedrich von Steuben and Frenchman-Marquis de Lafayette would transform the rag-tag Continental Army into a real Army.

A consolidation of good luck and well-trained decisions now favored the American cause. In 1780 a French Army of 6,000 had landed in Newport, R.I. The French Army and two French fleets joined with American forces they would attack the British at Yorktown. On October 17,1781 General Charles Cornwallis would surrendered at Yorktown. On September 1783, the delegates signed the Treaty of Paris firmed the U.S. independence and set the boundaries

for the new nation.

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