Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Chapter 8 Employee Behavior and Motivation Prepared By Mostafa Kamel What motivates you to do well at your job? Is it money? Respect? Recognition? Every employee in an organization has his or her own set of motivating factors.

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Chapter Overview This chapter discusses the basic forms of behaviors that employees exhibit in organizations, as well as the nature and importance of individual differences among employees. It also explains the meaning and importance of psychological contracts and the person-job fit in the workplace. Finally, the chapter presents some time-tested models and concepts of employee motivation, and some strategies and techniques used by organizations to improve employee motivation.

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Learning Objectives Identify and discuss the basic forms of behaviors that employees exhibit in organizations. Describe the nature and importance of individual differences among employees. Explain the meaning and importance of psychological contracts and the person-job fit in the workplace. Identify and summarize the most important models and concepts of

employee motivation. Describe some of the strategies and techniques used by organizations to improve employee motivation. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Chapter Outline Forms of Employee Behavior Basic Motivation Concepts and Theories PERFORMANCE BEHAVIORS

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP COUNTERPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS Classical Theory Early Behavioral Theory Contemporary Motivation Theory Individual Differences Among Employees Personality at Work Attitudes at Work

Matching People and Jobs Psychological Contracts The Person-Job Fit Strategies and Techniques for Enhancing Motivation Reinforcement/Behavior Modification Using Goals to Motivate Behavior Participative Management and Empowerment

Team Structures Job Enrichment and Job Redesign Modified Work Schedules Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Forms of Employee Behavior Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

What is Employee Behavior Employee behavior is the pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences the organizations effectiveness. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Forms of Employee Behavior 1- Performance Behaviors: The total set of work- related behaviors that the organization expects employees to display. These are the behaviors directly targeted at performing a job.

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Forms of Employee Behavior (Contd) 2- Organizational Citizenship: Positive behaviors that do not directly contribute to the Bottom line. It refers to the behavior of individuals who make a positive overall contribution to the organization

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Forms of Employee Behavior (Contd) 3- Counterproductive Behaviors: Behaviors that detract from organizational performance. Such behaviors include: Absenteeism, which occurs when an employee does not show up for work. Turnover: annual percentage of an organizations workforce that leaves

and must be replaced. Theft and sabotage, Sexual and racial harassment, and Workplace aggression and violence. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Individual Differences Among Employees What causes some employees to be more productive than others, to be better citizens than others, or to be more counterproductive than others? Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

What is Individual Differences? Individual differences are personal attributes that vary from one person to another. Individual differences may be physical, psychological, and emotional. Basic categories of individual differences include personality and attitudes. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

Personality at Work Personality: Is the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another. There are five fundamental traits that are especially relevant to organizations. These are commonly called the big five personality traits. Emotional intelligence, while not part of the big five, also plays a large role in employee personality. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

Big five personality traits Prepared By Mostafa Kamel 1. Agreeableness Agreeableness is a persons ability to get along with others. A person with a high level of agreeableness is gentle, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and good natured in their dealings with others.

A person with a low level of agreeableness is often irritable, short-tempered, uncooperative, and generally antagonistic toward other people. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel 2. Conscientiousness Conscientiousness in this context is a reflection of the number of things a person tries to accomplish. Highly conscientious people tend to focus on relatively few tasks at one time; as a result, they are likely to be organized, systematic, careful, thorough, responsible, and self-disciplined.

Less conscientious people tend to pursue a wider array of tasks; as a result, they are often more disorganized and irresponsible, as well as less thorough and self-disciplined Prepared By Mostafa Kamel 3. Emotionality Emotionality refers to the degree to which people tend to be positive or negative in their outlook and behaviors toward others. People with positive emotionality are relatively poised, calm, resilient, and secure.

people with negative emotionality are more excitable, insecure, reactive, and subject to mood swings. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel 4. Extraversion Extraversion refers to a persons comfort level with relationships. Extroverts are sociable, talkative, assertive, and open to establishing new relationships. Introverts are much less sociable, talkative, and

assertive, and more reluctant to begin new relationships. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel 5. Openness Openness reflects how open or rigid a person is in terms of his or her beliefs. People with high levels of openness are curious and willing to listen to new ideas and to change their own ideas, beliefs, and attitudes in response to new

information. People with low levels of openness tend to be less receptive to new ideas and less willing to change their minds. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Emotional Intelligence (IE) IE is the extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills. Preliminary research suggests that people with high EI may perform

better than others, especially in jobs that require a high degree of interpersonal interaction and that involve influencing or directing the work of others. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Attitudes at work Attitude is a persons beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or people. Important attitudes are: Job satisfaction: degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing

their jobs. Reflects the extent to which people have positive attitudes toward their jobs. Organizational commitment: an individuals identification with the organization and its mission. A highly committed person will probably see herself as a true member of the firm (for example, referring to the organization in personal terms, such as we make high-quality products Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Matching People and Jobs

Two key methods for helping to understand how this match can be better understood are psychological contracts and the person-job fit. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Matching people and jobs Two key methods for helping to understand how this match can be better understood are psychological contracts and the personjob fit. Psychological Contract: set of expectations held by an

employee concerning what he will contribute to an organization (contributions) and what the organization will in return provide the employee (inducements). Person-Job Fit: The extent to which a persons contributions and the organizations Inducements match one another Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Basic Motivation

Theories Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Three Basic Motivation theories (1) Classical theory and scientific management. (2) Early behavioral theory. (3) Contemporary motivational theories. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

(1) Classical theory and scientific management According to the so-called classical theory of motivation, workers are motivated solely by money. If workers are motivated by money, paying them more should prompt them to produce more. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel (2) Early Behavioral Theory Hawthorne studies Found: Productivity rose in response to almost

any management action that workers interpreted as special attention. This findingknown today as the Hawthorne effect. Motivation theorists became concerned with the ways in which management thinks about and treats employees. Good human relations motivate employee performance. The major motivation theories include the human resources model, the hierarchy of needs model, and two-factor theory. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Human Resources Model:

Theories X and Y Douglas McGregor concluded that managers had different beliefs about how best mangers can use the human resources. He classified these beliefs into two sets of assumptions: Theory X and Theory Y. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Model Is theory of motivation

describing five levels of human needs and.. Arguing that basic needs must be fulfilled before people work to satisfy higher-level needs Maslows Hierarchy of human needs model proposed that people have several different needs that they attempt to satisfy in their work. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

Two-Factor Theory Developed by Frederick Herzberg Two factor theory: Theory of motivation Holding that job satisfaction depends on two factors, hygiene and motivation Hygiene factors, such as working conditions. Motivation factors, such as recognition for a job well done.

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel How can we benefit from twofactor theory? Two-factor theory suggests that managers should follow a two-step approach to enhancing motivation. First, they must ensure that hygiene factorsworking conditions, for example, or clearly stated policiesare acceptable. This practice will result in an absence of dissatisfaction. Second, they must offer motivation factors recognition or added responsibilityas a way to improve satisfaction and motivation.

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel (3) Contemporary Motivation Theory More complex models of employee behavior and motivation have been developed. Two of the more interesting and useful ones are: Expectancy Theory Equity Theory.

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Expectancy theory Expectancy theory: A motivation theory suggests that people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and that they believe they have a reasonable chanceor expectancyof obtaining. A reward that seems out of reach is likely to be undesirable even if it is intrinsically positive Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

Equity Theory Equity Theory: Motivation theory holding that people evaluate their treatment by the organization relative to the treatment of others. When employee compare his own Input/output ratio with those of other employees, he asks whether his ratios are equal to, greater than, or less than those of the people with whom they are comparing themselves. Employees Inputs (E.g. Time ,Effort, Experience). Employees Output (e.g. salary, benefits, recognition). Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

Depending on their assessments, they experience feelings of equity or inequity and may take actions to resume fairness. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

Strategies and Techniques for Enhancing Motivation Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Techniques for Enhancing Motivation Experts have suggested a range of programs designed to make jobs more interesting and rewarding, to make the work environment more pleasant, and to motivate employees to work harder.

Reinforcement/Behavior Modification. Using Goals to Motivate Behavior. Participative Management and Empowerment. Team Structures.

Job Enrichment and Job Redesign. Modified Work Schedules. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Reinforcement/Behavior Modification First, Companies define forms of desired (working hard) and undesired (ignoring quality ) behaviors. Then, they try to shape employee behavior by linking positive reinforcement with desired behaviors and punishment with undesired behaviors.

Positive Reinforcement reward that follows desired behaviors. Punishment unpleasant consequences of an undesirable behavior. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Using Goals to Motivate Behavior Management by Objectives (MBO): set of procedures involving both managers and subordinates in setting goals and evaluating progress Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

Participative Management and Empowerment Method of increasing job satisfaction by giving employees a voice in the management of their jobs and the company. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Team Structures Teams are often less effective in traditional and rigidly structured bureaucratic organizations.

Teams often help smaller, more flexible organizations make decisions more quickly and effectively, enhance companywide communication, and encourage organizational members to feel more like a part of an organization. In turn, these attitudes usually lead to higher levels of both employee motivation and job satisfaction. Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Job Enrichment and Job Redesign

Job Enrichment: A method of increasing job satisfaction by adding one or more motivating factors to job activities. This could be achieved by: job rotation programs expand growth opportunities by rotating employees through various positions in the same firm. Giving more responsibility and authority. Job Redesign: A method of increasing job satisfaction by designing a more satisfactory fit between workers and their jobs. This could be implemented through: Combining Tasks: involves (enlarging jobs) and increasing their variety to make employees feel that their work is more meaningful.

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel Modified Work Schedules Work Sharing (Job Sharing) method of Increasing job satisfaction by allowing two or more people to share a single full-time job. Flextime Programs method of increasing job satisfaction by allowing workers to adjust work schedules on a daily or weekly basis. Telecommuting form of flextime that allows people to perform some or all of a job away from standard office settings.

Prepared By Mostafa Kamel

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