Chapter 4 The Ancient Greeks Lesson 1 Poets and Heroes Lesson 2 - The Greek City-States Lesson 3 Classical Greece (500BCE-338BCE)
Lesson 4 Classical Greek Culture Lesson 5 Alexander and the Hellenistic Era GREEK CITY STATES Polis Greek term for city-state, We get the word Politics Like the city-states in Mesopotamia made up of a city and the surrounding area countryside
Metropolis: Mother city Neapolis (Naples) New City GREEK CITY STATES Acropolis the center of the city, usually high hill also fortress or religious center Agora - marketplace below the Acropolis
GREEK CITY STATES 1) City-states varied in size and population Athens = 300,000 most were smaller 200 2,000 2) People shared common identities and goals Women, children and men were citizens but only males had political rights
Foreigners, agricultural workers and slaves were considered non-citizens GREEK CITY STATES 3) Male citizens had to serve in the military as hoplites Hoplites were equipped with shield, sword and spear
GREEK CITY STATES Phalanx: tight military formation where soldiers are side-by-side and work as a unit GREEK CITY STATES 4) did not usually agree
with other city-states 5) a lot of division between the city-states GREEK EXPANSION 750BCE 500BCE Many Greeks left the mainland to form colonies
The most important was Byzantium GREEK EXPANSION EXPANSION: 1) Spread Greek culture and ideas 2) Increased trade and industry 3) Created a new group of wealthy
people who wanted political power, but could not wrestle it away from the *aristocrats CITY-STATE POLITICS TYRANTS Seized power from the aristocrats, with the support of the people
People gave tyrants their support because they were tired of the domination by aristocrats How did they seize power? Paid Soldiers Tyrants lost popularity which left room for more people to participate in government
CITY-STATE POLITICS Rule of Law: Everyone must obey the law, even the ruler Democracy: Government participation by the people One of the lasting legacies of ancient Greece to the United States and the West. Oligarchy: Government rule by the few
SPARTA (Sparta and Athens) TWO CITY-STATES THAT WERE RIVALS AND DID NOT SEE THINGS ALIKE Sparta: Captured other Greeks and made them helots (slaves of the state)
SPARTA Created a military state Ruled by an oligarchy (Two Kings and a council of ephors)
ATHENS ATHENS Athens: Tried many types of government before trying democracy Cleisthenes: Created a Council of 500 and
an Assembly males only (would lead to democracy) ATHENS Turn to your partner and answer the following question What was so special about the reforms
made by Cleisthenes? Laid the early foundations of democracy
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