Chapter 26 Microbial Growth Control

Chapter 26 Microbial Growth Control

Chapter 26 Microbial Growth Control Physical Antimicrobial Control Clicker Question:

Clicker Question: Physical Antimicrobial Control Clicker Question: Clicker Question:

Thermal Death Curve: Mesophilic Bacterium Clicker Question:

Thermal Death Curve: Mesophilic Bacterium Clicker Question: Thermal Death Curve: Mesophilic Bacterium

Clicker Question: Thermal Death Curve: Mesophilic Bacterium

Clicker Question: Decimal Reduction Time vs Temperature Clicker Question:

Pasteurization Times and Temperatures: Pasteurs original: half hour at 63oC-66oC as a Batch. Originally designed to prevent spoilage of wine.

Later applied to milk to prevent Mycobacterium bovis transmission of TB. Milk current standard based on killing Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter sps, Salmonella Escherichia coli O157:H7, Coxiella burnetti.

HEAT EXCHANGER: 72oC for 15 sec. Clicker Question: and

HTST Pasteurization Continuous Counter Current Flow Clicker Question: Countercurrent Heat

Exchanger Small Heat Exchanger Small Heat

Exchange r Heat Exchanger Diagram

Ultrapasteurization Heat Exchanger : heats milk to 138oC for 3 sec (2 to 4 sec). Ultrapasteruized milk is supposed to last 6 months at room temperature without spoilage.

Milk is packaged in plasticized cardboard containers. Theres a Story Here. The Autoclave

and water ! Ultra Violet Lights Are ON The mesh work

at the back holds behind it a HEPA Filter so that sterile air moves

outward as a laminar flow. Clicker Question:

Radiation Kills Just Like Heat 1 Gray (Gy) = 100 rads 1 rad = 100 ergs/g

Decimal Reduction Doses of Ionizing Radiation

Check out the D10 for humans Clicker Question: It Works Beautifully with Food

Filtration Depth Filters

Membrane Filters Nucleopore Filters. Bacteria stuck on

membrane filters. Clicker Question: Membrane Filtration

Clicker Question: Antimicrobial Chemical Effects

Minimal Inhibitory Concentration Lowest Concentrations Highest Concentrations We did these with microtiter plates in Chapter 31 (Fig 31.8)

Antiseptics Antimicrobial Agents Used In Vivo Clicker Question:

Antimicrobial Spectra Clicker Question:

Antibiotic Production Today Salvarsan and Paul Ehrlich Clicker Question:

Sulfa Drugs: Gerhard Domagk, 1930s First Chemosynthetic Antibiotics Nucleoside Analogs

First ones were simple, more complex one developed in response the AIDs epidemic. Quinolones

Ciprofloxacin Clicker Question:

Moxifloxacin Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials: The Antibiotics

-lactamase Resistant Ceftriaxone A Cephalosporin The Amino Glycosides: Target 30S ribosome

The Macrolides : Eythromycin Targets the 50S ribosome The Tetracyclines : Targets 30 S ribosome

Daptomycin and Platensimycin Inhibits Fatty Acid biosynthesis

Cyclic Lipopeptide: alters Cell Membranes Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms 1. Lacks structure antibiotic inhibits.

2. Impermeability. 3. Enzyme that alters structure of antibiotic. 4. Makes modification of antibiotic target. 5. Develops a resistant, alternate pathway. 6. Efflux Pump.

The Classics ! Epidemiological Patterns of

Antibiotic Resistance Appearance of Drug Resistance

Resistance to Vancomycin over come by converting the carbonyl to a

methyl. Computer Aided Drug Design Other Antimicrobial Strategies

Natural Products searches for fit into prokaryotic essential enzymes from databases of plant or other organisms secondary products. This is how Platensimycin was discovered by a screen of 250,000 known bio-products.

Drug Combinations Augmentin is a combo drug containing amoxicillin and the -lactamase inhibitor Clavulanic acid. See next slide. Textbook Combo: Sulbactam and Ampicillin

Clicker Question: Augmentin = Clavamox = Tyclav

Amoxicillin Clavunlanic Acid

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