Rome and Christianity Roman Outline Rome-began as a small agricultural city- state Then a republic An Empire Eventually Dominated the Mediterranean
The Etruscans The Etruscans were Ionian Greeks who migrated to the Italian Peninsula around 1000BCE. They most likely
founded the city of Rome The last Etruscan king was overthrown in 509BCE Roman Mythology Why are we called The Trojans? The Aneid: Virgil. Official Epic of Rome
Aneas escaped Troy and traveled the Mediterranean searching for a new home for the Trojans Settled in Latium fought the people there Married the daughter of the king and founded what later became Rome. Geography Alps to the north protected invasion from land Sea surrounded the peninsula limited a naval attack unless by a large armada
Although World Access Rome was isolated, it was also a crossroad. It had easy access to northern Africa, Palestine, Greece, and Iberian Peninsula(Modern day Spain and Portugal). This meant easy access to the rest of the world. Roman Republic They
avoided destructive class struggles A republican form of govt-voice in govt for the wealthy aristocrats patricians Later a voice for the common Roman citizens plebeians 2 executives known as consuls Senate-dominated by aristocrats 2 assemblies-one for plebeians and one for patricians
Tribune-10 men to speak for plebeians Dictator-executive decisions in times of a crisis Roman/Greek Govt vs. U.S. constitution Roman republic was much more stable than the Greek democracy. In the Greek direct democracy every citizen was expected to vote on every issue. In a republic, you have representatives so you dont have to vote on every issue. This is very similar to our democracy. We have representatives in Congress vote on all the
major issues, so it is very much like a Republic. Roman Law was also a combination of its own principles with foreign laws. Civil Laws Rome developed civil laws to protect individual rights called the: Tables of Rome-innocent until proven guilty Similar to our
Constitution and Bill of Rights TABLE I Procedure: for courts and trials TABLE II Trials, continued. TABLE III Debt
TABLE IV Rights of fathers (paterfamilias) over the family TABLE V Legal guardianship and inheritance laws TABLE VI
Acquisition and possession TABLE VII Land rights TABLE VIII Torts and delicts (Laws of injury) TABLE IX Public law
TABLE X Sacred law TABLE XI Supplement I TABLE XII Supplement II Twelve
Ladder of Political Advancement. Roman Expansion How were they able to control such a vast empire? As they conquered people outside of Italy, they
allowed them to trade with the republic Were able to govern their own affairs-if they paid taxes and remained loyal militarily speaking to Rome. Were also encouraged to intermarry with Romans Were even able to gain Roman citizenship Adopted the idea of standardized coinage: How would this help? Roman expansion After defeating the Greeks, Gauls, Carthaginians, Macedonians, and
Spaniards- they built an extensive road network and aqueducts to maintain their vast empire. concrete Silk Roads Brought long distance trade, cultures, religions, ideas, disease and invading tribes in constant contact.
Most dangerous spot along silk roads was Taklamakan desert. He who enters does not come back out! The stage is now set for new developments and massive change! Silk Roads They linked the extreme ends of the Eurasian landmasses and these civilizations: From Han capital Changan to Mediterranean port Antioch
Han empire- China Sinicization-spread of the Chinese culture Parthian empire- Persia and Mesopotamia Romans- Mediterranean world Kushan empire- northern India
Also had water routes of a series of ports which connected Asia with Africa and the South China Sea with the Red Sea. Most prominent religion on these routes: Buddhism Rome and its Neighbors The Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage Battle for control of Mediterranean Trade and Sicily 1st Punic War: Hamilcar Barca vs. Rome
Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage 2nd 219-202 BCE: Hannibal Greatest general in history? Father of Strategy Invaded Rome through EuropeElephants over the Alps Battle of Canae: Worst defeat in Roman History. 80,000 dead. Scipio Africanus invaded Carthage by sea. Hannibal had to go home. Defeated at the Battle of Zama. 3rd: Carthage Defeated again. Salt plowed into the fields
Punic Wars, 3 phases Gladiator Games Spartacus & Slave Rebellion 73-71 BCE Born a free man, served in the Roman Army, but deserted Caught and sold into slavery He escapes and his legend grew as he defeated smaller Roman legions He eventually has an
estimated 50,000-100,000 slave army The First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar Pompey and Crassus were given their armies to capture the slaves Crassus eventually defeats them, although Spartacuss body was never found
Crassus crucified the 6,000 remaining slaves along the Apian Way Crassus Richest man in Roman History Wanted to be known for his military victories Financial supporter of Julius Caesar His defeat at the Battle of
Carrhae vs. Persian Pompey the Great Wealthy Political and Military Leader Married Julius Caesars Daughter Crassus is defeated, its now just Pompey and Julius Caesar. She dies and paranoia sets in on Roman control. Pompey is in Rome and Caesar is in Gaul with his army The Senate will back Pompey
Julius Caesar Caesar is ordered to disband his army and give up his province of Gaul. Instead of giving up, Caesar crossed the Rubicon river setting off a civil war. After a five year struggle across many battlefields, Caesar defeated his enemies and was sole ruler of Rome. -Pompey fled to Egypt were he was assassinated -Caesar Declares himself Dictator for Life Julius Caesar & The Empire
General who conquered Egypt, Greece, and Gaul. Crossing the Rubicon Used this wealth to promote building and entertainment in Rome. Pleased the public. Bread and Circuses
Seized lands from opponents and gave to his troops. Let conquered people gain citizenship Named dictator for life by the Senate His actions frightened the Roman elite class. Was murdered in 44BCE. The Second Triumvirate Octavius-Julius Caesar adopted him as a nephew Marc Antony-General and one of the
closest friends to Julius Caesar Lepidus-politician/governor of Africa Octavius took the name of Augustus Caesar The Majestic One and became emperor. Antony and Cleopatra Defeated Antony flees to Egypt By Augustus Caesar 31BCE They both commit suicide August is now Supreme He controls Egypts grain
The End of the Republic Imperial Expansion & Domestic Problems Land distribution issues- Lands conquered by Rome often fell into the hands of the wealthy families. Enormous plantations started using conquered slave labor which produced products much cheaper than smaller landowners. This displaced many small farmers into urban areas became very over crowded. There were not enough jobs, currency became devalued high inflation. Political leaders began fighting amongst
themselves. Senate was weakened Religion in Rome Paganism- Rome had always been a pagan state. Citizens were required to make sacrifices to traditional Roman Gods. Christianity- After the reign of Augustus a new religion arose. III. Christianity A.
Jewish Background 1. 2. B. Messiah Prophecy: 1st century BCE Messiah Cults and Revolts against Rome Jesus of Nazareth: 6BCE-29CE 1. 2. 3. 4.
Inner Transformation Simplicity of Law Crucifixion and Resurrection Paul of Tarsus a. b. Son of God Savior III. Christianity C. Rise of Christianity 1. Pre-200: Eucharist 2. Persecution by Romans 3. Late 200s
4. ConstantineEdict of Milan 313 5. Theodosius the Great III. Christianity D. Creating the New Testament 1. Letters from Paul 2. The Gospel a. Dozens originally b. Gnostic GospelsThomas c. Canonic Gospels Christianity Grew from Judaism
Both were tolerated by Romans until Jesus became the king of Jews Christ Christo anointed one Messianic secret Death/Resurrection/Disciples Nero and persecution Christianity Expanded into the non-Jewish community of Rome. Gave hope that anyone could reach salvation (lower class
and women) Was spread by disciples Christianity would merge with empire and eventually affect developments in a large segments of the world! Roman Timeline 44BCE Julius Caesar is murdered 27BCE Octavian = Augustus Caesar 1CE Jesus is born 14CEAugustus dies 33CEJesus is crucified
37CECaligula becomes Emperor 54CEClaudius is murdered/Nero Emperor 64CEFire destroys much of Rome 305CE Constantine1st Christian Emperor 476CE Western Roman Empire falls The Roman Peace Pax Romana Under Augustus, Rome became the capital of the Western world, established: Rule
of law Common coinage Civil service Secure travel for merchants Pax Romana-200 year period of peace and prosperity; arts and sciences flourished! Ended with Marcus Aurelius Comparisons Pax Romana vs. Golden Ages of Greece, Gupta India, & Han China
See the pattern: When a major empire greatly expands its territory, it becomes the center of artistic and scientific energy. This is because it has a tremendous amount of wealth flowing into its capital from its conquered regions, trade expands, and the people have the freedom and confidence to pursue goals other than military protection. A Divided Empire/New Official Religion
Diocleatian divides the Empire into 2 parts Constantine- his official conversion He moves capital to Byzantium and builds Constantinople Strategic site, linked West with Eastern trade and wealth In 325CE Council of Nicaea (human & divine) Edict of Milan- 380CE gave legal protections to Christians
Gave reparation of previously incurred losses. Banished men who worked on the galleys or in the mines were recalled, confiscated estates were restored. Jews were forbidden to keep Christian slaves The Bible But was it one of political stability or faith? An Empire Divided Comparing and Contrasting
2 Major causes of the decline of any empire: InternalEconomic depression Natural catastrophes Social unrest ExternalInvading armies Collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Over extension of resources Roman army could not maintain borders Slavery (1/3 of the population!) Lead in water from pipes Series of epidemics (trade & overcrowding) Diseases killed off of the population in China and the Mediterranean Economy (inflation and hoarding)
Barbarian invasion (Germanic) Final Series defeat fell to Odovacer of BAD emperors Christianity Barbarian Invasions Taxes were unfairly favoring the rich and the military lost much of its funding
The Huns invaded Europe in the mid 300s and caused many groups to migrate away from them. The Visigoths were allowed to live in the Empire but were mistreated and rebelled. The Battle of Adrianople in 378 followed by the Frist Sack of Rome in 410 showed that Rome had lost much of its power. Barbarian Invasions Barbarian Invasions The Vandals crossed into Rome in the early
400s. The Vandals took out the outer regions of the Empire in Gaul, Spain, and North Africa. Rome tried but lost every time. The Ostrogoths arrived in the mid 400s and sought to take over Rome. In 476 Rome fell again to Odoacer who claimed to inherit the leadership of Rome. Legacy The Western Empire Limped on under the Ostrogoths but was never a major power again. The Byzantine Empire became the major power
in Europe, lasting until 1453. The Christian world became divided. In the West, the absence of a major unifying force led to the Dark Ages. Summary Han fell because of internal pressures Gupta fell because of external pressures Rome fell the hardest, a victim of both internal and external pressures Results: China
would again return to greatness Rome would never reach this height again. What youve learned so far Most common developments to civilizations are agriculture, written language, and the use of metals which contributed to their growth. Remember when people are less concerned about finding their next meal, they can accomplish great things. Be able to describe how when civilizations become so dominate that they have no rivals A period
of peace and prosperity, golden age of devoting time and $ to the arts or. They get too big, own people get restless, foreign threats gain confidence and power, and if falls. Change Over Time Change occurs in civilizations through cultural diffusion Trade Conquest Religious
beliefs Inventions and innovations Some were more innovative while other more adaptive. Most were both! Humans vs. Nature Humans changing their surroundings for their own use and purpose Irrigation Stone-cutting Plowing Terraces
Metal-working Calendars Concrete As civilizations developed, they were less subject to natural events causing their demise, and more likely that an other civilization would do so
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