Ch 3

Ch 3

electron neutron Ch 3 proton Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter Bell Ringer What is the modern day idea of what an atom looks like? Draw your model and label the parts. Silent Bell work In the front of your Comp book write: Website for text book: my.hrw.com

Sign on: astudents643 Password: p2p6n Go to the above website and log in with your phone to check out the online text book. If you dont have a phone then just do it when you get to a computer. Have your foldable out so I can take a look at its splendid completeness : ) Get bags and Glue or staple foldable into your comp book and add it to the table of contents.(this is the beginning of unit 2 test) Within Your group you need to create a summary of your information. Organize your data so that it is easy to convey to others. Who Person(s) responsible.Whats were they? What A description of the discovery and an illustration of the model. Where Country, state, university, etc.

When Date(s). Why The prior knowledge at the time. How A summary of the technology or evidence used to develop the model. References two other helpful resources from the internet. Your Group will break apart and you will become the expert for other students. Building Block of all things? Atom-Greek meaning-indivisible Democritus-400 B.C. atom cannot be broken down into smaller parts Aristotle-did not believe in atoms. He believed in Alchemy. He led society astray for 2000

Years before we finally started to develop the atom we know today. Democritus Videos J.J. Thomson and Rutherford https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=thnDxFdkzZs Summary of History of the Atom Democritus-400 BC: Atom Aristotle: Alchemy

Dalton-1808: 5 Assumptions Bohr-1913: Electons travel in Fixed paths Only Worked for Hydrogen Didnt explain chemical reactions Rutherford-1911: + -electrons around nucleus -Dense Positive Nucleus -Lots of empty Space Thomson-1897:

-Electron 1886: Goldstien discovered Protons..kinda. 1932: Chadwick: Neutron Heisenburg Uncertainty Principal 1909: Millikan discovers the size of the charge of the electron.

Daltons Assumptions-1808 All matter is made of small particles called atoms. Atoms of the same element are identical in size, mass, and other properties. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. Atoms of different elements can combine to form compounds. In a chemical reaction, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged. 3 + 2 +2

Check for understanding-History of the atom 1. Which Philosopher was responsible for the term atomos? 2. Which scientist revived Democritus's ideas regarding matter? 3. Which scientist used the cathode ray tube to isolate the electron in 1897? 4. Which Philosopher replaced the correct theory of atoms and made his own using the earthly elements? 5. Give an example from the atomic history that shows how scientists build on each others knowledge. 6. How have scientists used indirect observation to learn about atoms? 7. How have scientists taken advantage of accidental or unexpected experimental results to create new knowledge? 8. How did the Gold Foil Experiment lead to the discovery of a Nucleus at the center of an atom? 9. Who is truly credited with the discovery of the proton? 10.Why did it take so long for the neutron to be discovered? 11.What made Chadwick pursue research of the neutron?

Silent Bellwork Grab a card from the table and pick an element from the periodic table (3-14).Fill out your card with that elements info. Grab a sheet from the table and cut off the edges so that it will fit in you comp book. Cut in between the words on the right to make flaps. Anatomy of the Atom: Using the Periodic Table Atomic Number-gives the number of protons. (whole number above each element) Protons are Positive (always smiling) +

The # of Protons is the soul or brain of the atom If you change this amount then you change which element the atom is. Protons are in the nucleus-center of the atom Anatomy of the Atom/Periodic Table Electrons: Small negative particles that surround the nucleus of the atom Elements on the Table are neutral On the periodic table atoms have the same # of electrons as it does protons protons and electrons cancel each other out + +1

_ + = + Or -1 = 0 Anatomy of the Atom/Periodic Table Each atom has a mass that is determined

by # of protons and neutrons size Charge Protons mass: 1.673 x 10-27kg Neutrons mass: 1.675 x 10-27 kg Electrons mass: 9.109 x 10-31 kg Amu- Atomic mass unit Protons are 1.007276 amu Neutrons are 1.008665 amu +

. _ Anatomy of the Atom/Periodic Table Average atomic mass (Atomic Mass, Atomic Weight)-weighted average of the atomic masses of the different isotopes of an element. Listed underneath each element on the table Mass Number-The number of protons plus neutrons.This is NOT on the periodic Table. But it can be calculated. Identify the anatomy of these Neutral Atoms Element Symbol

Element Name Atomic Number Electrons Average amount of Neutrons 12 2. 11 3.

34 4. 30.9738 5. 7. 8. Average Atomic Mass 16 1.

6. Mass Number of most common isotope 48 Kr 75 Bell work Element Symbol Element

Name Atomic Number Electrons Neutrons Mass Number Average Atomic Mass O 12

11 6.94 Anatomy of the Atom/Periodic Table Cont. An atom/element may NOT change protons but it CAN lose or gain electrons and neutrons. When an atom/element loses or gains electrons what do you think that will cause? Atoms that gain or lose electrons are called Ions. Ions have a + or charge. Identify the anatomy of these Atoms w/ a charge (Ions) Element Symbol w/ charge

Element Name Protons Electrons Neutrons Average Atomic Mass He+1 Strontium 36 5

4 6 Mg+3 35 Sulfur 18 83.80amu 37 Al+3 35 Isotopes

When an atom/element loses or gains neutrons what do you think that will cause? Make two columns on your paper to show a comparison between Lemonas and Isotopes. http://mmschemistryclass.weebly.com/chapter-3-and4-arrangement-of-electrons-in-atoms.html What is an isotope? What is mass number? What are 2 ways an isotope is represented? Isotopes Isotopes: Atoms of the same element that have different amounts of Neutrons. This means some weigh more than others. Most elements have more than one isotope. Mass #: Protons + Neutrons of an isotope Has to be a whole numbers.

Isotopes cont How are Isotopes represented? In 2 ways: Hyphen Notation C-12 12 C 6 Nuclear Symbol C-13 13

6 C C-14 C 14 6 Isotopes Calculating Average Atomic Mass Mass # vs Average Atomic Mass http://mmschemistryclass.weebly.com/chapter-3-and-4-arrangement-o

f-electrons-in-atoms.html Average Atomic Mass: The weighted average of all the isotopes for an element Formula: (%of isotope x atomic mass) + (%of isotope x atomic mass) + (%of isotope x atomic mass) .etc. 1. Naturally occurring europium (Eu) consists of two isotopes with a mass number of 151 and 153. Europium-151 has an abundance of 47.81% (atomic mass of 150.9197 amu) and Europium153 has an abundance of 52.19% (atomic mass of 152.9212. What is the atomic mass of europium? 2. Strontium consists of four isotopes Sr-84 with atomic masses of 84.012amu (abundance 0.50%), Sr-86 with 86.003amu (abundance of 9.9%), Sr-87 with 87.09amu (abundance of

7.0%), and Sr-88 with 88.012amu (abundance of 82.6%). Calculate the atomic mass of strontium . Bellringer problem A Student believed that she had discovered a new element and named it mythium. Analysis found that it contained two isotopes. The composition of one of the isotopes was 19.9% with an atomic mass 10.013 and the other was 80.1% with an atomic mass of 11.009. What is the average atomic mass, and do you think mythium was a new element? Isotopes/Avg Atomic Mass Quiz 1-9 Give the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons for the following Isotopes: 134

Cu-65 +2 1.P= 2.E= 3.N= 54 4.P= 5.E= 6.N= Xe Ba-140

7.P= 8.E= 9.N= 10. How are two isotopes of a particular element the same and how are they different? 11. Copper has two isotopes: Cu-63 (abundance = 69.2%, mass = 62.930 amu) and Cu-65 (abundance = 30.8%, mass = 64.928 amu). Calculate the (average) atomic mass of copper. 12. What is the difference in Mass # and Average Atomic Mass? Rewrite chart on your paper and fill in ALL the Question Marks with correct info Isotope name Magnesium- ? Magnesium- ?

? - ? Neon-22 . atomic # mass # # of protons # of neutrons ? ?

12 14 ? 10 ? ? 20 ? 12 ? ? ? ?

? # of electrons ? ? ? ? Nuclear Symbol 24 Mg 12

Honors Isotope/Avg Atomic Mass Quiz 1. Draw the following chart on your own paper and replace all the question marks. Symbol-Mass # Ne-20 % 90.48 Atomic Mass of Isotope 19.992 Ne- ? 0.27 20.993

Ne- ? 9.25 21.991 # protons # electrons # neutrons Nuclear Symbol Ne 20

? ? ? ? ? 11 ? ? ?

10 ? Ne 22 10 2. What is the Average atomic mass of the Neon Isotopes above? (Show Work) 3. How are two isotopes of a given element the same and how are they different? 4. Compare and Contrast Mass Number and Average Atomic Mass? Mole In chemistry it is not a cute animal that lives in the ground.

Chemistry definition of the Mole: the amount of atoms in 12 grams of Carbon-12 12 Grams of Carbon 6.02 x 1023 atoms of Carbon 602 200 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 6.02 x 10 23 Mole Amedeo Avogadro: discovered the mole Avogadros number = 6.02 x 1023=1 Mole How many is a mole? If every person living on Earth (6 billion people) worked to count out one mole

of oranges (or anything else), and if each person counted continually at a rate of one orange per second, it would take about 4 million years for all the oranges to be counted! If we had a mole of sand it would cover the earth 7 times over! If you had a mole of dollar bills, you could spend a million dollars every minute of your life and never spend it all! Answer 1-2 on the worksheet Quiz 1. How was the mole determined? 2. What has more atoms, a mole of Hydrogen or a mole of Zinc? 3. How could molar mass be used as a conversion factor?

Molar Mass Molar Mass (Periodic Table)=Avg Atomic Mass Unit for molar mass is g/1 mole Fill in Chart 1 mole of carbon = 12.01 grams of carbon. We can write this as a fraction: 1mole C or 12.01 g C Answer #3-7 12.01 g C 1 mole C Application 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. How many moles are in 50.0 grams of Au? How many moles are in 25.0 grams of Ag? How many moles are in 39.6 grams of F? What is the mass of 4.5 moles of Carbon? What is the mass of 1.625 moles of Si? What is the mass of 5.81 moles of K? Answer #8-9 Moles and Grams Quiz 1. What is the mass of 4.30 mole of sodium? 2. What is the mass of 1.75 mole of Ca? 3. How many moles are there in 85.3 g of P?

4. Change 0.566 g of silver to moles. Avogadros number as a conversion Factor To go from Atoms of C to Moles of Carbon. I mole of C or 6.02 x 1023 atoms C 6.02 x 1023 atoms C 1 mole C ________________________________________ I mole or 6.02 x 1023 atoms Fill in Chart

6.02 x 1023 atoms 1 mole Application 1. 2. 3. 4. How many atoms are in 4.2 moles of Cu? How many atoms are in 6.5 moles of Zn? How many moles are in 1.5 x 1012 atoms H? How many moles are in 2.5 x 108 atoms Na? Answer #10-11 More Practice

1. How Many atoms in 0.30 mole of sulfur? 2. How many molecules are in 5.5 moles of silicon? 4. Change 34 moles of lithium to atoms. 5. You have 1.05 x 1023 atoms of Ca, how many moles of Ca do you have? 6. You have 5.14 x 1023 atoms of P, how many moles do you have? 7. Change 3.41particles of silver to moles of Silver. Bell Ringer 1. How many moles are contained in 4.5 x 1012 atoms of carbon? 2. How many atoms are found in 6.25 moles of copper?

Mole Island You can not go directly from atoms to grams and vice versa. To go from atoms to grams, first convert to moles, then grams. To go from grams to atoms, first convert grams to mole, then moles to atoms. Application 1. What is the mass of 4.3 x 1018 atoms of C? 2. What is the mass of 2.5 X 1012 atoms of Br? 3. How many atoms are contained in 265.0 grams of Ni? 4. How many atoms are contained in 25.5 grams of Fe? 5. What amount of moles are found in 6.71X1063 atoms of goop?

Gas at STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) Avogadros Law: 1 mole of any gas at STP will occupy 22.4 L of space STP is 273 K (0 Celsius) and 1atm of pressure. This can be used as a conversion factor 22.4L gas Or 1 mole gas 1 mole gas 22.4 L gas Practice 1. Suppose you have a balloon inflated to 2.00L at STP.How many moles of gas are there? - .0893 mol 2. What volume is occupied by 5.00 moles of any gas at STP? - 112 L

3. What volume will 0.75 moles of carbon CO2 occupy at STP conditions? -16.8L 4. What volume is occupied by 12.5 moles of nitrogen gas at STP? -280L 5. What volume is occupied by 100.0 grams of chlorine gas (Cl 2) at STP? -31.58L 6. How many liters will 48.6 grams of CO 2 occupy at 1 atm and 273K? -24.7 L Isotope Practice 1.Write the hyphen notation for the element that contains 18 protons and 22 neutrons. 2. Write the hyphen notation for the element that has a mass number of 76 and an

atomic number of 33. 3. Write the hyphen notation for the element that has 9 electrons and 10 neutrons. Gram/Atom Quiz 1. What is the mass of 4.5 x 1012 atoms of Au? 2. How many atoms are in a 500.0 g piece of carbon? 3. How many pieces of sushi are in 5.2 moles of sushi? Photoelectric Effect(Early 1900s) Photoelectric effect-Heated metal absorbs energy and causes electrons to get excited. Photon of energy-Particle of light that is carrying enough energy to excite an electron It takes a quantum of energy to excite an electron

Photon Quantum of energy Woohoo!! Fact Find Carousel Goal: Everyone should have a complete chart by the end of the time allotted. 5 min: In your pairs read over the 5 scientist info sheets. Underline info that you feel is important. 5 min: Go online and look up a model of what each scientist thought the atom looked like. 1 min/scientist: In your groups go around to each Scientist and write one important piece of info about that scientists discovery. Pictures are very helpful as

well. (10-12 min total) 1 min/scientist: Work with your partner to complete the questions on each sheet-use info from wall as needed. Fact Find Groups 25 min: Together as a group read and answer the questions from your scientist. Go online and look up a model of your scientists discovery 20 min: Separate from your expert groups into mixed groups and teach your peers. Goal: Everyone should have a complete chart by the end of the time allotted today and be able to identify the history of the development of the atomic model.

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