Ch. 19-Cattle and Cotton

Ch. 19-Cattle and Cotton

Ch. 19-Cattle and Cotton LESSONS Lesson 1-The Cattle Kingdom 1. False; Friars first began raising cattle herds in the 1730s. 2. False; Spanish rancheros built dams, dug wells, and collected water for their herds, in addition to getting

water from rivers and streams. 3. True 4. True 5. False; Cowboys were called vaqueros after the Spanish word vaca, meaning cow. 6. False; Anglo American settlers adopted traditions already established by Spanish rancheros. 7. False; Protective leg coverings were called chaps.

8. True 9. True 10. False; An increasing number of settlers arriving in the Republic of Texas led to an increase in ranching. Cattle Markets Expand: Cattle-Driving Routes- Shawnee Trail Cattle-Driving Destinations- Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Ohio,

Oklahoma, New Mexico, California, railroad towns How Ranchers Profited- Driving cattle cost about $1 per head. Ranchers could sell cattle for $40 to $60 per head. Problems Ranchers Had- Texas fever infected cattle. Farmers blocked

routes. Great Cattle Trails Major Trails- Chisholm Trail, Shawnee Trail, Western Trail, Goodnight-Loving Trail Name of Trail and Number of Cattle Driven- Trail: Chisholm, over 5 million from 1867 through 1884; Trail: Western, 3 to 5 million from 1876 through 1884

Cowboys and the Life on the Trail Trail crews needed about 12 workers to manage a herd of 2,000 cattle. Wranglers were ranch hands that cared for the crew members horses. Trail drives began in spring and ended in the fall. Cattle drives could last anywhere from a few weeks to several months. Cattle formed lines that were miles long with cowboys riding alongside the herd. Most cowboys were drovers, with

the least experienced riding at the rear of the herd. Cattle drives ended by the late 1880s for a few reasons. Texas fever caused states to quarantine Texas herds. In addition, cattle prices had fallen, and cattle drives became too expensive. Also, settlers installed fencing on their land, keeping cattle from grazing on the open range. Furthermore, drives were

unnecessary because cattle were being transported to other states by railroad. Life on the trail was often dangerous work for cowboys. Unlike in movies, cowboys seldom used their pistols on the trail. If a shot was fired, it could scare the cattle and start a stampede. Cowboys gathered stampeding cattle by turning the

leaders until the cattle formed a circle and slowed down. Lesson 2-The Big Ranches 1. The railroad enable Texas ranchers to ship cattle instead of driving them long distances. 2. Texas engineers worked to improve refrigeration methods during the Civil War because the only method for cooling was ice, which was no longer being shipped

to Texas from the North. 3. Meat was transported from Texas to places in the northeastern United States or Europe by refrigerated rail car or refrigerated ships using dry ice. 4. The railroad, refrigeration, and meatpacking industries were closely linked to the growth of Texas ranches. 5. The destruction of buffalo herds and the removal of Native Americans led to more open land from ranching throughout

Texas. 6. Molly and Charles Goodnight raised beef cattle and buffalo. 7. Some of the biggest ranches in Texas in the late 1800s included the King Ranch, Laureles Ranch, La Parra Ranch, JA Ranch, Matador Ranch, and XIT Ranch. Changes on the Open Range Mustangs: Tough, hardy breed or horses; Adapted well to dry conditions of Texas; Ideal for rounding up cattle;

Sold to settlers and the U.S. Army Sheep Farming: sheep raised for wool after the Civil War; Texas sheep industry benefited from railroads and wool warehouses; Sheep grazed on open range; Farmers and ranchers complained that sheep on open range trampled and overgrazed the land Barbed-wire Fencing: Made of short twisted wire attached to long wire; Several types

invented in the 1870s; Used to fence in pastureland; Kept cattle on each ranchers land; Fenced blocked access to water sources, so other cut fencing to gain access; Cutting a fence became a felony. Drift Fences: Cattle wandered off land during bad weather conditions; Ranchers installed barbedwire drift fences on the land to keep cattle from drifting during storms; Drift fences proved fatal;

Cattle blocked by fences were either trampled or starved to death; Practice of fencing in pastures changed herd management---ranchers pumped water to their land instead of bringing cattle to natural water sources. Minorities and Women in Ranching 1. South Texas had a large Mexican American

population. 2. Mexican Americans worked on sheep ranches as pastores and tasinques 3. African Americans worked in the ranching industry as cowboys and trail bosses. 4. William Bones Hooks was a skilled wrangler and horse trainer. 5. Robert J. Kleberg was a German American

rancher. 6. In addition to raising children, keeping the home, and maintaining a garden women participated in ranching with their husbands. 7. Elizabeth Johnson Williams learned about ranching by keeping business accounts for other ranchers. 8. Both Margaret Heffernan Borland and

Elizabeth Johnson Williams drove cattle up the Chisholm Trail. Lesson 3-Farming Thrives Farmers Settle the Frontier Farming in the Panhandle and West Texas: Dry Farming Methods: Rotating crops;

Planting a series of crops; Leaving a field fallow Growth of the Cotton Industry: Displacement of Native Americans--opened land to settlers; Barbed-wire Fencing---protected cotton fields from animals; Expansion of Railways---helped farmers ship cotton to market; Use of Telegraph---quick communication helped sales.

Farming Difficulties: Natural Disastersgrasshopper swarms, long droughts; Competition---cotton farming expanded in India and Egypt A New System of Farm Labor 1. False; Tenant farming became a major factor in Texas agriculture after the Civil War. 2. True

3. True 4. False; People of various ethnic and racial backgrounds worked a s tenant farmers including Europeans, Mexicans, and African Americans. 5. False; A barter economy worked well after the Civil War because money was limited, and people needed a way to obtain food and other

goods. 6. True 7. False; Because landowners charged high rents, many tenant farmers ended the year broke or in debt. 8. True

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