Center for world indigenous studies - NPAIHB

Center for world indigenous studies - NPAIHB

U N I TE D N AT I O N S DE C L ARATI ON O N T H E RI G H T S O F I N DI G E N O U S PE OP L E S Alyssa Macy, CWIS Fellow for International Policy Early days of the International Indigenous Peoples Movement Ratnaha Maori Spiritual Leader Chief Deskaheh Haudenosaunee (Cayuga) CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI

ES American Indian Struggle in the 1960s and 1970s Occupation of Alcatraz Island, 1969 Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972 Fishing Rights Struggles, 1960s 70s, Norma Frank arrested, Nisqually River, Washington, NWIFC photo. CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST

U DI ES Indigenous Delegates entering the UN 1977 CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) As a result of the meeting of 1977 and following meetings and lobbying, the UN SubCommission on the Protection of Minorities and the Elimination of Racism sanctioned a

study on situation of Indigenous peoples. Identified the difference between minority rights and Indigenous rights. That study, called the Cobo Report, recommended the creation of a working group on this issue. The Working Group on Indigenous Populations had its first meeting in 1982 and Indigenous representatives immediately asked the group to draft a declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples. CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES

UN General Assembly adopts the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, September 13, 2007 CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES No State opposition to the UN Declaration today I can announce that the United States is lending its support to this Declaration. The aspirations it

affirms including the respect for the institutions and rich cultures of Native peoples are ones we must always seek to fulfill. -- US President Barack Obama , December 16th 2010 More info; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/184099.pdf CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES

The Declaration is the Minimum Standard The rights recognized herein constitute the minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the indigenous peoples of the world. --Article 43 CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST

U DI ES Collective Rights Recognizing and reaffirming that indigenous individuals are entitled without discrimination to all human rights recognized in international law, and that indigenous peoples possess collective rights which are indispensable for their existence, well-being and integral development as peoples. --- Preamble Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U

DI ES Non-Discrimination & Equal Rights Reaffirming that indigenous peoples, in the exercise of their rights, should be free from discrimination of any kind preamble NVision Tour Iowa Nation, 2007 --- CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN

O US ST U DI ES International Right to Self-Determination Bearing in mind that nothing in this Declaration may be used to deny any peoples their right to self-determination, exercised in conformity with international law CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U

DI ES Article 3 Indigenous peoples have the right of selfdetermination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. Article 25 Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinctive spiritual relationship with their traditionally owned or otherwise occupied and used lands, territories, waters and coastal seas and other resources and to uphold their responsibilities to future generations in this regard. CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O

US ST U DI ES Article 26 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired. 2. Indigenous peoples have the right to own, use, develop and control the lands, territories and resources that they possess by reason of traditional ownership or other traditional occupation or use, as well as those which they have otherwise acquired. 3. States shall give legal recognition and protection to these lands, territories and resources. Such recognition shall be conducted with due respect to the customs, traditions and land tenure systems of the indigenous peoples concerned. CE NT ER FO R W O RL

D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES Article 12 Indigenous peoples have the right to manifest, practice, develop and teach their spiritual and religious traditions, customs and ceremonies; the right to maintain, protect, and have access in privacy to their religious and cultural sites Article 20 Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their political, economic and social systems or institutions, to be secure in the enjoyment of their own means of subsistence and development, and to engage freely in all their traditional and other economic activities. CE NT ER FO R

W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES Article 31 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and

flora 2. In conjunction with indigenous peoples, States shall take effective CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES Article 24 Photo: Northwest Indian Treatment Center Indigenous peoples have the right to their

traditional medicines and to maintain their health practices, including the conservation of their vital medicinal plants, animals and minerals. Indigenous individuals also have the right to access, without any discrimination, to all social and health services. CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U

DI ES Article 36: International Borders 1. Indigenous peoples, in particular those divided by international borders, have the right to maintain and develop contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with their own members as well as other peoples across borders. 2. States, in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take effective measures to facilitate the exercise and ensure CE NT ER FO R W

O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES Article 22 Violence Against Women and Children States shall take measures, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, to ensure that indigenous women and children enjoy the full protection and guarantees against all forms of violence and discrimination. CE NT

ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES Right to Participate in Decision-Making Article 18: Indigenous peoples have the right to participate in decision-making in matters which would affect their rights, through representatives chosen by themselves in accordance with their own procedures, as well as to maintain and develop their own Indigenous decision-making institutions. 2011 Administration for Families and Children Tribal Consultation Meeting

CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES Article 37 Recognition for the International Standing of Treaties 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the recognition, observance and enforcement of treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements concluded with States or their successors and to have States honour and respect such treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements.

2. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as diminishing or eliminating the rights of indigenous peoples contained in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements. CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES Recognizes the Treaty Relationship as a Basis for Partnership Considering also that treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements, and the relationship they represent, are the basis for a

strengthened partnership between indigenous peoples and States - Preamble, UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES AF F I R M S T H E RI G H T T O F R E E , PR IO R AN D I N F O R M E D CO N S E N T I N M A N Y ARTI C L E S Article 10 - Indigenous peoples shall not be forcibly removed from their lands or territories. No relocation shall take place without the free, prior and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and after agreement

on just and fair compensation and, where possible, with the option of return. Article 11, para. 2 - States shall provide redress through effective mechanisms, which may include restitution, developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples, with respect to their cultural, intellectual, religious and spiritual property taken without their free, prior and informed consent or in violation of their laws, traditions and customs. Article 19- States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and implementing legislative or administrative measures that may affect them. Article 32, para 2 - States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free and informed consent prior to the approval of any project affecting their lands or territories and other resources, particularly in connection with the development, utilization or exploitation of their mineral, water or other resources. CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN

DI G EN O US ST U DI ES Declaration obligates all States and the United Nations System Article 42 - The United Nations, its bodies, including the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, and specialized agencies, including at the country level, and States shall promote respect for and full application of the provisions of this Declaration and follow up the effectiveness of this Declaration. CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI G

EN O US ST U DI ES Aspirational or Legally binding? While noting the position of the State party with regard to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (A/RES/61/295), the Committee finally recommends that the Declaration be used as a guide to interpret the State partys obligations under the Convention relating to indigenous peoples. Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, (CERD), Report of the United States, February 2008 CE NT ER FO R W O RL D IN DI

G EN O US ST U DI ES Declaration affirms Rights in Nation-to-Nation Treaties Health Education Land & Resources Right to Food & Subsistence Sovereignty, SelfDetermination and FPIC Language & Culture CE NT ER FO R W

O RL D IN DI G EN O US ST U DI ES QUESTIONS?

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