Cell Structure and Function - Windward Community College
The Cell as the Fundamental Unit of Life: The Structure and Function of Cellular Organelles The cell is the smallest unit of life. All organisms are composed one
or more cells. New cells arise from previously existing cells. Basic Cell Structure Each cell has four common components: 1. Plasma membrane
2. Region containing DNA 3. Cytoplasm 4. Biochemical molecules & biochemical pathways Cells Two fundamental types:
Prokaryotic No Nucleus No organelles Small 100nm-5um Eukaryotic True Nucleus Membrane bound
organelles 10-100um Some are larger Classification Five kingdom system: Monera
Protista Plantae Fungi
Animalia Plantae Fungi Animalia
Six kingdom system: Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista
Three domain system: Eubacteria Archaebacteria E
U K A
R Y A Protista
Archaebacteria Chromista Eubacteria
Archezoa Eight kingdom system: Plantae Fungi
Animalia Three Lineages of Life: Domain Bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria
Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae
Fungi Prokaryotes: No true nucleus No membrane-bound organelles Cell Wall composed of peptidoglycan
Reproduce asexually by budding and fission Very small (1 - 10 m) Animalia Kingdom Archaebacteria Eubacteria
Archaebacteria Protista Plantae
Fungi Animalia Eukaria Prokaryotes:
No true nucleus No membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria or chloroplasts NO peptidoglycan in cell wall Reproduce asexually by budding and fission Very small (1 - 10 m) Extreme environments (high temperatures)
Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotes Eubacteria
Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi
Eukaryotes: True nucleus Membrane-bound organelles Cell size generally 10 - 100 m At least 4 lineages: Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
Animalia Eukaryotic Cells Typical Animal Cell
The Cytoplasm Plasma Membrane Fluid mosaic model: Working model of the membrane Protein molecules bobbing in phospholipid sea Proteins determine membranes specific
functions Structure of the Cell Membrane Phospholipids Most abundant lipid Polar/hydrophilic head(attracted to water) Pair of nonpolar/hydrophobic tails(repelled by water)
Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails Phospholipid bilayer:
Polar heads, outside & inside Nonpolar tails in the interior Cell Membranes Rough and Smooth ER
Golgi Apparatus Receives substances from ER, refines and packages them Lysosome Function Cytoskeleton
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