CE 445 Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse

CE 445 Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse

CE 445 Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Dr. Mohab Kamal Volume-Mass Relationships CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 2

Volume-Mass Relationships CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 3 CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 4

Solids Processing Flow Diagram CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 5 Solids Processing Flow Diagram CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal)

6 Preliminary Operations Grinding Sludge grinding is a process in which large and stringy material contained in sludge is cut or sheared into small particles to prevent clogging or wrapping around rotating equipment. Screening Because raw wastewater screens can allow significant quantities of solids to pass through, sludge screening is an alternative to grinding.

Screening is advantageous in that bad material is removed from the solids stream. CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 7 Preliminary Operations Degritting The most effective method of degritting sludge is through the application of centrifugal forces in a flowing system to achieve separation of the grit particles from the organic sludge.

Blending Sludge is generated in primary, secondary and advanced wastewater treatment processes. Primary sludge consists of settleable solids. Secondary sludge consists of biological solids and settleable solids. Sludge produced in the advanced wastewater may consist of biological and chemical solids. Sludge is blended to produce a uniform mixture to downstream operations and processes. Storage Storage should be provided to smooth out fluctuations in the rate of solids and biosolids production and to allow solids to accumulate during periods when subsequent processing facilities are not operating (night shifts, weekends, etc.)

CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 8 Thickening Thickening is a procedure used to increase the solid content of sludge by removing a portion of the liquid fraction. Thickening is generally accomplished by physical means, including co-settling, gravity settling, flotation, centrifugation, gravity belt, and rotary drum. Co-settling Thickening

Primary clarifiers are often used to thicken solids for downstream processing. Successful thickening of solids in primary clarifiers has been achieved by a combination of the following: Using one clarifier in a bank of clarifiers for co-settling thickening; dilute solids underflow from the other clarifiers is discharged to the thickening clarifier Maintaining the solids inventory for about 6 to 12 hr, and Providing for the addition of coagulating chemicals such as polymer and ferric chloride to condition the solids to enhance settling. CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal)

9 Thickening Gravity Thickening Gravity thickening is one of the most common methods used and is accomplished in a tank similar in design to a conventional sedimentation tank. CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 10

Thickening CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 11 Thickening Flotation Thickening In dissolved-air floatation, air is introduced into a solution that is being held at an elevated pressure. When the solution is depressurized, the dissolved air is related

as finely divided bubbles carrying the sludge to the top, where it is removed. Flotation thickening is used most efficiently for waste sludge from suspended growth biological treatment processes (activated sludge). Centrifugal Thickening Centrifuges are used both to thicken and to dewater sludge. Their application in thickening is limited normally to waste-activated sludge. Thickening by centrifugation involves the settling of sludge particles under the influence of centrifugal forces. Gravity-Belt Thickening The equipment developed for thickening consists of a gravity belt that moves over rollers driven by variable-speed drive unit. The water drains through the belt as the concentrating sludge is carried toward the discharge end of the thickener.

Rotary-Drum Thickening A rotary-drum thickening system consists of a conditioning system (including a polymer feed system) and rotating cylindrical screens. CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 12 Introduction to Stabilization Solids and bio-solids are stabilized to (1) reduce pathogens, (2) eliminate offensive odors, and (3) inhibit, reduce, or eliminate the potential for

decomposition. CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal) 13 Description of Stabilization Processes CE 445 Water Reclamation and Reuse (Dr. Mohab Kamal)

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