Cardiac cycle - Bath County Public Schools

Cardiac cycle - Bath County Public Schools

Heart Actions Cardiac Cycle: One complete heartbeat. The contraction of a heart chamber is called systole the relaxation of a chamber is called diastole. During ventricular systole, the aortic valve __________ During diastole,

the aortic valve _____________ Blood pressure cuffs measure the force of the blood in the vessels. During systole, this force is the greatest, on a blood pressure reading, this is the first, larger number. Diastole is the smaller number, when the ventricle relaxes.

Examples: 120/80 (Average) 105 /68 140 /90 The average (normal) blood pressure for an adult is 120/80. This number varies by person and it is best if

you know what is *normal* for you, so that you (or your doctor) recognize when something is not normal. We will be doing a lab where you will learn to use a this device and check your own

blood pressure. Blood Pressure Cuff = SPHYGMOMANOMETER Blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of arteries. During contraction of

the ventricle, pressure is very high (systole) Factors affecting blood pressure: (higher number is the systolic pressure) 1. 2.

3. 4. Cardiac Output Blood volume (5 liters for avg adult) Blood Viscosity Peripheral Resistance

Average is 120/80 The lub dub sound of the heart is actually the opening and closing of the valves A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 bpm (beats per minute)

Check out this page to hear different sounds of the heart (murmurs, stenosis..etc) Stethoscope - instrument to listen and measure heart sounds

ECG electrocardiogram a recording of the electrical events (changes) during a cardiac cycle ; this is the same thing as an EKG P Wave depolarization of the atria (atrial contraction systole) QRS Complex depolarization of

the ventricles (ventricular contraction, systole) T Wave Repolarization of the ventricles Analyze an ECG Tachycardia = fast heart rate Bradycardia = slow heart rate Arrhythmia = irregular

Identify each. Cardiac Conduction System S-A Node (pacemaker) Junctional Fibers A-V Node A-V Bundle

Perkinje Fibers Can you identify these parts? 1 Sinoatrial node (Pacemaker)

2 Atrioventricular node 3 Atrioventricular Bundle (Bundle of His) 4 Left & Right Bundle branches 5 (Purkinje Fibers)

View the heart animations at McGraw Hill to understand the Cardiac Cycle Regulation of Cardiac Cycle Heart rate is controlled by the cardiac center

within the medulla oblongata. Increases/Decreases as a response to changes in state (HOMEOSTASIS) Can your heart continue to beat even if your cerebrum is not functioning? Cardiac Output

Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate 13.4 BLOOD VESSELS Blood Vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries ARTERIES : strong elastic vessels which carry blood moving away from the heart. Smallest ones are arterioles which connect to capillaries. VEINS - Thinner, less muscular vessels carrying blood

toward the heart. Smallest ones are called venules which connect to capillaries. Contain valves. Capillaries: Penetrate nearly all tissues. Walls are composed of a single layer of squamous cells very thin. Critical function: allows exchange of materials (oxygen, nutrients) between blood and tissues.

Control of Blood Flow: Precapillary sphincters circular, valve-like muscle at arteriole-capillary junction Vasoconstriction narrowing of vessel Vasodilation expanding blood vessel

Sphincters open and close Blood flow through veins not very efficient. Slow, weak, the following helps blood return to heart 1. Contraction of the diaphragm.

2. Pumping action of the skeletal muscles. 3. Valves in the veins. Blood Clots can occur if blood does not flow properly through the veins - can occur if a person does not move enough Varicose veins occur when blood pools in the veins.

Major Blood Vessels Aorta - Ascending Aorta, Aortic Arch, Descending Aorta, Abdominal Aorta. The aorta is the largest artery. (leaves left ventricle) Pulmonary Trunk splits into left and right, both lead to the lungs (leaves left ventricle) Pulmonary Veins return blood from the lungs to the heart

(connects to left atrium) Superior and Inferior Vena Cava return blood from the head and body to the heart (connects to right atrium) Branches of the Aorta Coronary Arteries - supply blood to the heart itself Brachiocephalic Artery branches into the

Right Subclavian ( supplies blood to the arms) Right Common Carotid (bicarotid) Left Common Carotid (to head) Left Subclavian Artery supplies blood to the left arms *Note that the vessels are not symmetrical. Aorta and Its Branches

Heart Malfunctions SADS = (Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes Sudden Adult Death Syndrome) Routine ECG Screening may help prevent deaths in young people or

Defibrillator common treatment for lifethreatening cardiac arrhythmia The device shocks the heart and allows it to re-establish its normal rhythm The device can also be used to start a heart that has stopped.

CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Disorders of the Circulatory System 1. Heart Murmurs A heart murmur is an unusual sound heard during a heartbeat Sometimes they sound like a whooshing or swishing noise. *may or may not be a valve problem

2. MVP - mitral valve prolapse, valve shifts out of place; this creates a clicking sound at the end of a contraction. 3. Mitral or aortic regurgitation: Regurgitation (backward

flow) of blood can occur with mitral valve prolapse or mitral valve or aortic stenosis. To counteract this back flow, the heart must work harder to force blood through the damaged valve. Over time, this can weaken and/or enlarge the heart and can lead to heart failure. This is also called a leaking valve.

Valve Replacement Surgery -replaced with biological tissue or with mechanical valves See video of an aortic valve replacement (13 minutes) Protip - speed up video Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

During a TAVR procedure, a very small incision is made in the groin to access the femoral artery or the chest (transapical approach). The cardiologist uses catheters and wires to place the balloon-expandable valve across the old diseased native valve, with the heart still beating. Crimped to the balloon device is the collapsed replacement valve. The surgeon then deploys the new valve within the diseased valve by expanding the balloon together with the new valve. He then secures it into place inside the old valve, displacing the old valve out of the way. In addition, the new valve starts to work as a normal valve should as soon as the balloon is deflated. Most of the time, the patients feel immediately better

4. Myocardial Infarction (MI) - an obstruction to the coronary artery, commonly called a heart attack Treatment can involve a bypass graft to restore blood flow to the heart. Double or

Quadruple refers to how many vessels have been bypassed. 5. Atherosclerosis deposits of fatty materials such as cholesterol form a plaque in the arteries which reduces blood flow. Also called

arteriosclerosis. Treatment: Angioplasty, where a catheter is inserted into the artery and a balloon is used to stretch the walls open, a stent may be placed Video Showing a Stent and Angioplasty 6. Hypertension high blood pressure, the force within the arteries is too high. A sphygmomanometer can be used to diagnose hypertension 7. An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like

bulge in the wall of a blood vessel 8. Stroke - blood flow to the brain is cut off Hemorrhagic Stroke - caused by an aneurysm, blood vessel breaks or leaks Ischemic Stroke Blood vessel is

blocked 9. Aortic Stenosis - valve or aorta is narrowed, limiting blood flow. 10. Ventricular or

Atrial Septal Defect - a hole exists between the two sides of the heart (septum)

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