Can You Handle The Pressure? Moving things with pressure

Can You Handle The Pressure? Moving things with pressure

CAN YOU HANDLE THE PRESSURE? MOVING THINGS WITH PRESSURE What is Hydraulics? The science of transporting of liquids through pipes, especially as motive (motion) power. Nowadays we push fluid through piston and Pipes to help us do work. What is Pneumatics? The science of of transporting of gas/air through pipes, especially as motive (motion) power. Nowadays we push gas/air through piston and Pipes to help us do work. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM A Simple hydraulic system consisting of two pistons and an oil-filled pipe connecting them. FLUID PRESSURE FLUIDS: Materials that flow like liquids & gases PRESSURE ~ FORCE FLUID PRESSURE: Exerted in all directions equally CONFINED FLUIDS: Any fluid in a closed system. The fluids can move around within the system, but cannot leave or enter the system. EXAMPLES: Blood moving through the body, Air moving in a balloon Pascal discovered that the pressure put upon an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally in all directions without loss and acts with an equal intensity upon equal surfaces. Monica MonicaMoreno: Moreno: HANDS way to experience this is to fill and put two different sized syringes together and press one at a time. It is HANDSON ON=> =>AAgreat great way to experience this is to fill and put two different sized syringes together and press one at a time. It is easy to push the water from a small syringe into a larger one, but much harder the other way! (Thats because force equals pressure times easy to push the water from a small syringe into a larger one, but much harder the other way! (Thats because force equals pressure times

the area, F = P X A). Since the area of the big syringe is larger, the force is multiplied (the pressure of the water is the same between the the area, F = P X A). Since the area of the big syringe is larger, the force is multiplied (the pressure of the water is the same between the two syringes). Take out some syringes and try it! two syringes). Take out some syringes and try it! The larger syringe doesnt move much though, so while the force is stronger, the movement is less. The larger syringe doesnt move much though, so while the force is stronger, the movement is less. FLUID PRESSURE Cont The small syringe is easier to push, but it doesnt Make much movement in the other one! The force applied to the small piston produces a greater Force in a larger piston, but with less movement. Small force can Force on the fluid in a small cylinder (usually supplied by an air compressor) is greatly increased in the slave cylinder since the diameter is larger. The only drawback is that the distance the small cylinder must go is greater and movethe a car! slave cylinder moves only a short distance. Monica MonicaMoreno: Moreno: HANDS HANDSON ON=> =>take takeaasyringe, syringe,fill fillititwith withair, air,and andthen thencover coverthe theopen openend

endwith withyour yourfinger. finger. Show Show that the air can be compressed by pushing down on the plunger. Let the students do this, so that the air can be compressed by pushing down on the plunger. Let the students do this, sothat that they theysee seeititisisnot notsome somesort sortofoftrick. trick. Then Thenfill fillininthe thesyringe syringewith withwater. water. Again covering the end with your

finger, show that now you cannot Again covering the end with your finger, show that now you cannotcompress compressthe thewater waterwith withall allyour your might. Try very very hard to make sure they see your effort. Get students to replicate this. This might. Try very very hard to make sure they see your effort. Get students to replicate this. This also alsomakes makesfor foraagreat greatwhole wholeclass classexperiment experiment/ /activity. activity. Make Makesure sureyou youthink

thinkofofsome someinteresting interesting questions questionsand andthen thenget getthe thestudents studentstotoexperiment experiment/ /fool foolaround aroundwith withsyringes syringesfilled filledwith withair airand and water. water. Watch Watchout, out,because becausewhen whenI Idid didthis, this,lots lotsofofthe thetime, time,the thestudents studentsended endedup uphaving havingaawater water fight with the syringes not really a big

deal if contained to the classroom though) fight with the syringes - notwater really a big deal if contained to the classroom Hydraulics uses and pneumatics uses air. though) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS Gases - Very compressible - Gas particles are very spread out Liquids - Not compressible - Particles in a liquid are not as spread out as in a gas Monica MonicaMoreno: Moreno:QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS: IfIfyou fill in the syringe you fill in the syringewith with20mL

20mLof ofair, air,to towhat whatvolume volumecan canyou youcompress compressit? it? IfIfyou fill in the syringe with 20mL of water, to what volume can you compress you fill in the syringe with 20mL of water, to what volume can you compressit? it? What is the difference between compressing air and water? What is the difference between compressing air and Cannot water? push down on a liquid, Attach system. What happens Attachtwo twosyringes

syringeswith withsome sometubing tubingwith withair airin inthe theconfined confined system. What happenswhen when cannot compress the liquid. you press on the plunger? you press on the plunger? PNEUMATICS HYDRAULICS -Confined pressurized systems -Confined pressurized systems that use that use moving air or other moving liquids gases -Liquids are not very compressible, -Because gases can be there is not delay in the movement compressed, there is a delay in -Hydraulic Fluid: liquid inside system the movement, the force -Cylinder: Container holding liquid -Need for Compressor -Piston: Plunger moving inside cylinder -Pumps moves liquid in a specific direction (usually against gravity)

-Valves Controls the flow of direction (allows flow in one direction) EXAMPLES Hydraulics in Everyday Use! Robotic arms use hydraulics and small motors to make the same movements over and over. A scissor lift is used as a movable, elevating platform. Excavators can be fitted with a pneumatic jackhammer as well. The arrows show the direction of movement of the pistons. The straight movement of the piston results in curved movement of the arm. EXAMPLES CONT This simple parallel lifter lifts the platform horizontally. A scissor lift uses a hydraulic syringe in a different direction. By pushing the plunger, the syringe pushes sideways, this movement is transferred with a lever to an upward motion. A really simple lifter using one syringe and a platform attached with string. Simple excavator More Info: http://science.howstuffworks.com/hydraulic.htm

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