Business Process Reengineering BPR Business Process Redesign BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 1 Definition of BPR The analysis and design of work flows and processes within and between organizations. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009
2 Aspect of BPR Revolutionizing the way they were doing business Radically redesigning or reengineering key business activities They apply the concept of process which is input-output activity not functional Exploiting IT to redesign the process. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 3 How BPR developed (factors)? 1- Competitiveness:
Revenue Cost = profit/loss 2- Information Technology: reduced the cost of coordination and across organizational boundaries 3- Strategic management concentrating on improving performance, BPR connects with the business turnaround\spin-off 4- Organizational rethinking: BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 4 Fundamentals of BPR 1- Transformation: BPR cause quantum leap in business performance. There spirit of revolution more than evolution.
Frequency One shot Scope Broad, cross-functional Participation Top-Down Risk and rewards High Type of change Structure, culture roles Role of IT Key enabler BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 5 Fundamentals of BPR
2- Process: A set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome. It is a collection of tasks that together create value for a customer Characteristics of BP: 1. They have internal and external customers 2. They cross organizational boundaries BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 6 Types of process 1. Core processes: Relate directly to external customers and central to business functions.
2. Support processes: They have internal customers and back-up of coreprocesses. They are more administrative, secondary activities 3- Management processes: by which plan, organize and control. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 7 Function versus process-based organisation New Product Development R&D Manufacturing
Sales Customer Order Fulfillment BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 8 Cross-Functionality of Processes Process: New product development process Test Process Equip Product Needs
Marketing Research Design Produ Design design start R&D BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 Manufacturing 9 BPR Means starting all over from scratch means asking this question: If I were re-creating this company today, given what I know and given current
technology, what would it look like? It is concerned with focusing, organizing and managing a company around its processes. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 10 How can companies identify their business process? One way is to give them names that express their beginning and end state. Therefore, it would be better to call: - Manufacturing as the procurement-to-shipment process, -Product development as the concept-toprototype process, - Sales as the prospect-to-order process,
-Order fulfillment as the order-to-payment process BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 11 How can companies identify the processes to reengineer? First, no company can reengineer all its process simultaneously. Second, companies typically use three criteria to help them make their choice: Dysfunction: which processes are in the deepest trouble? Importance: Which processes have the greatest impact on customers? Feasibility: Which processes are the most
susceptible/dispose to redesign? BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 12 Fundamentals of BPR 3- IT: Enablers of redesign business processes: shared database, networking allow integration and coordination. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 13 IT opportunities in BPR
Technology Economic scope Process Opportunities Computation Reduce costs of production Eliminating activities Communication Reduce costs of coordination Integrating tasks and
process would reduce time and space Infoware Monitoring processes and task analyzing information Reduce cost of information BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 14 Fundamentals of BPR
4- Business Change: BPR requires fundamental shift in the way the whole business thinks and works. Change in responsibility and authority distribution from vertical to horizontal lines, empowerment, semiautonomous work groups 5- Change management: knowledge of Organisational behavior BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 15 PBR Where is the Strategic sense in PBR? 1- Reduce cost
2- customer satisfaction 3- improve competitiveness 4- excellent capability advantages BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 16 Processing life insurance application The old way: Long, sequential process involving credit checking, quoting, rating, underwriting/insuring, Work spanned 5 departments & involved 19 people Turnaround/amount time: ranged
from 5 to 25 days BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 17 Processing life insurance application After reengineering: creation of Case managers: total responsibility for an application from receipt to policy issuing Use of expert systems as a support technology When need, assistance from a senior underwriter or physician Turnaround time: on average 2 to 5 days (for some cases less than 4 hours) Increased productivity / empowerment
BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 18 Embarking\applying on reengineering Persuade the people to embrace - or at least not to fight - the prospect of major change by developing the clearest messages on: 1- A Case for action: Here is where we are as a company and this is why we cannot stay here. 2- A Vision statement: This is what we as a company need to become BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009
19 Simple rules to BPR: Start with a clean sheet of paper Listen to your customer Enhance those things that bring value to the customer and change or eliminate those that do not Focus your commitment to radical change on the process BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 20 Organizational implications of
reengineering Work unit change: from functional departments to process teams Job change: from simple tasks to multidimensional work Roles change: from controlled employees to empowered workers Job preparation change: from training to education Managers change: from supervisors to coaches Org. structure change: from hierarchy to flat Values change: from protective to productive (employees work for their customers, not their bosses).
BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 21 Development methodology for BPR 12345678- Develop vision and objectives Identify process for redesign Understand and measure existing process Identify IT levels Pilot\ trial new process Develop supply solution Make new process operational On going continuous improvement BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009
22 Rethinking the Traditional Organization When looking beneath the surface at any company: You will find 3 different businesses: 1- Customer relationship management 2- Product innovation 3- Infrastructure One company three businesses Traditional org. believes the three bus. must be combined within a single company. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 23
Features of Each business Customer relationship management: The role is to find customer and build relationship with him. Cultural: customer comes first, aims economies of scope by gaining large share of customers wallet. Requires a variety of products. Product innovation: Conceive/consider of attractive of new products and services Cultural: Employee centered. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 24 Features of Each business
Infrastructure Management: The role is to build and manage facilities for high-volume. Cultural: Cost focused, it stresses on standardization and efficiency. It focuses on the operation. Managers should talk about processes rather than functions. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 25 If bundling them into single company The result: It forces management to compromise the performance of each process.
Example: Unbundling is making the newspaper business much less capital intensive. Example, banking industry BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 26 ?Why Reengineering sometimes fail Variety of reasons examples: 1- Failure to focus on parts important to customer. 2- Failure to integrate IT. 3- Underestimate the actions required by employees. Managers may assume that the change will
cause employees to shed their functional mind-sets and will forge them instantly into a team aiming to achieve common goals. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009 27 TQM It emphasizes the role of quality in meeting the needs of its customers. TQM stresses customer satisfaction , continuous improvement and to be the best in all functions. TQM focuses on incremental change and gradual improvement of processes. BPR Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra 2009
28 Comparison between TQM & BPR TQM BPR Change Incremental Quantum leap Focus Current Practice
Start again Frequency Continuous One shot Participation Bottom-up Top-down Risk & Rewards
Low & Moderate High Type of Change Work design Structure, culture roles Role of IT Incidental Key enabler
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