Blue Template - King's College London

Blue Template - King's College London

Metadata for Digitization and Preservation Introduction What is metadata and why it matters The key elements How metadata is created Where metadata is stored Metadata standards How much will it cost?

What is metadata? Metadata is data that facilitates the management, description, and preservation of a digital object or aggregation of digital objects. The creation of metadata is governed by a body of standards, best practices and schemas that, when appropriately applied, work together to facilitate the management,

description, and preservation of digital objects. What is metadata? Tony Gill ARTstor/CJH Metadata refers to structured descriptions, stored as computer data, that attempt to describe the essential properties of other discrete computer data objects. Big picture definition: the sum total of what can be said about any

information object at any level of aggregation What is metadata for? World Wide Web consortium say metadata is: to provide a means to discover that the data set exists and how it might be obtained or accessed to document the content, quality, and

features of a data set, indicating its fitness for use. Therefore we need to think: content, context and structure Why Does Metadata Matter? Doing research on the Web is like using a library assembled piecemeal by packrats and vandalized nightly. R. Ebert, Internet Life Finding the needle in the haystack

Managing thousands of identical looking needles Finding visual materials without viewing them Expanding use Preserving content and context Key Elements Administrative Metadata used in managing and administering information resources Descriptive Metadata used to describe or identify

information resources Preservation Metadata related to the preservation management of information resources Structural Metadata used for control over complex digitized objects Technical Metadata related to how a system functions or metadata behave Use Metadata related to the level and type of use of information resources

Structure of metadata Collection Collection Work Item Work

Item Item Item Work Item

Item Item How metadata is created By software tools From resource content e.g. catalogues or databases From creation tool e.g. digital camera or file header

By human intervention Description by resource creator/owner Description by third party provider e.g. technical metadata Creating and maintaining good metadata is time consuming and high cost Where metadata is stored Embedded in the resource

XIF information with TIFF images viewable in Photoshop File headers or invisible copyright watermarking Linked to resource Created as record in database format Metadata Standards Dublin Core

DIG35 for technical metadata Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA) Visual Resources Association Core Categories

SEPIA working group Resource Description Framework (RDF) Encoded Archival Description (EAD) How much will it cost? How long is a piece of string? Depends upon the stop points There is no one-size-fits-all or one-cost framework

Depends upon the description already in place and how well the collection is currently indexed Inhouse measurement Balance skill, time, and automation Photographs descriptive metadata will not take <5 minutes per photograph and usually not >30 minutes Traditional Functions Traditionally we applied these functions to:

Paper based and microform based information resources Monographs, serials, photographs, etc. Access provided through local library services Including inter-library loan New Functions Apply these functions to:

Web documents, online serials, digital images, digital collections, web sites, digital audio and video, born digital material, etc. Access provided via the web and email Why are these digital objects different? Information explosion Multiple versions

Instant access Less physical control over collection Some are surrogates Increased user expectations Preservation is more complex Why do we need metadata to do these things? Provides the necessary tools to manage, preserve and provide access to information

in the digital environment Our jobs have not fundamentally changed; but our collections have and our users have About Metadata Sets Encoding standards/schema Metadata set = rules Encoding schema = representation

Metadata Sets AACR2 Dublin Core Visual Resources Association Metadata Object Descriptive Schema Text Encoding Initiative Encoded Archival Description Encoding Standards/Schema

HTML MARC Metadata Encoding Transmission Standards (METS) Resource Description Framework (RDF) XML Z39.50 Choosing Sets and Schema: Interoperability

Why is interoperability important? How is it achieved? Crosswalks/mapping Standardization Schema Controlled vocabulary Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Common elements harvested and made searchable from one interface

Very basic level of description, working to develop it to make it better Choosing an Encoding Schema The more digitized objects you have; the more complex they are; the more data sharing you do; the more important it will be to utilize an encoding schema XML is the most prevalent encoding schema

All metadata schema have XML based encoding schema already available Factors in Metadata Decisions for Digitization Projects Audience Workflow and Timelines Preservation Interoperability Number of and complexity of digitized

objects What Do You Want To Do? Digitize for access only? Descriptive Some administrative Digitize for preservation? Descriptive Administrative Technical

Eventually preservation What Materials Are You Digitizing? The more complex the material, the more complex your metadata Structural metadata becomes vital For example. Complex Digital Objects Original = 150 page book with 7 chapters

Digitization results in 4 versions of the same content 150 master TIFF images 150 JPEG access images 150 JPEG thumbnail images 7 ASCII text transcripts (one per chapter) Files to manage = 457 Complex Digital Objects and Structure

Which images belong in which chapter? Which digital version is which? Where is chapter 3 in each version? There is technical metadata for each digital version AND each digital file. How do we relate the correct metadata to the correct version/file? Digitization and Metadata Descriptive metadata for access and

administration Technical metadata for preservation Structural metadata for control over complex digitized objects Preservation metadata for management within a digital archive Descriptive Metadata Information users will have to gain access to the digitized material

Should facilitate access to the original source material whenever possible Access via a web interface search engine User friendly Standardized Well written Common Descriptive Metadata Sets for Digitization Projects

Visual Resources Association Metadata Object Descriptive Schema Encoded Archival Description Text Encoding Initiative Dublin Core MARC Choosing a Set Should we use MARC? Integrated into existing work

Rules for creation already exist Less technical infrastructure necessary Complex more training Time consuming Should we use something else? Collaborating? Interoperability concerns? Staff expertise Size of project Exhibit and web access

Choosing a Schema Can we use both? MARC for collection level Metadata for item level MARC for all Crosswalked to web accessible database Database for all Crosswalked to MARC

Implementation What informational elements do you need? List them, making sure to think through web design, audience and access issues What descriptive schema schema will you use? MARC Dublin Core VRA MODS

Implementation Build database or implement content management system for metadata storage Map the fields to the schema you have chosen Document the mapping Create Style Guide for your project Staff creates the metadata manually according to Style Manual and established work processes

Metadata is reviewed for quality Implementation Metadata is stored and made web accessible XML (if supported) Back-ups, master metadata record, and/or web access Dublin Core

Title Creator Subject /Keywords Description Publisher Contributor Date Audience Resource Type

Format Resource Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights Management Characteristics of the Dublin Core All elements optional

All elements repeatable All elements displayable in any order Extensible (a starting place for richer description) International Extensibility Refining mechanism for elements improve sharpness of description with qualifiers

Means for extending element set complementary packages of other types of metadata (administrative, rights management, discipline-specific, etc) Technical Metadata Information file that facilitates management and preservation of the file Technical information about: Master file (TIFF)

Scanning specifications (resolution, bit depth, etc) Derivative Storage compression NISO Metadata Purpose: To define a standard set of metadata elements for digital images Facilitate interoperability

Support long term management of and continuing access to digital images Tagged Image File Format Background and Metadata TIFF is a specification for a file format Spec includes a directory or header section which consists of several metadata fields

A TIFF can consist of several images Directory/Header information is unique for each image Encoding: METS Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard Product of Making of America project Digital Library Federation Initiative Provides an XML schema for encoding

metadata necessary for: management of digital library objects exchange of those objects (OAIS) Brings all the metadata together Encoding: METS Five Sections of a METS document Descriptive Administrative File Group

Structural Map Behavior Preservation Metadata If you are digitizing with preservation in mind, ALL metadata is preservation oriented Metadata must be of the highest quality that is possible Incorporate the creation and management

of metadata into your project at the planning stage Preservation Metadata Designed to facilitate the process of preservation and management in a digital repository Generally implemented at the time a digital resource is moved to a digital archive Several schemas under development for

particular operating environments and/or programs Preservation Metadata Sets CEDARS Consortium of University Research Libraries, Exemplars in Digital Archives project NLA -- National Library of Australia

NEDLIB Networked European Deposit Library OCLC Digital Archive Preservation Metadata Inference that there is a core of metadata necessary for preservation regardless of

the preservation strategy More work needs to be done to identify the particular elements necessary for particular preservation strategies Metadata Wrap up New tools for new resources Metadata schema = rules Encoding schema = mark up and storage

Descriptive Metadata Use an established metadata schema Create a project style guide to facilitate standardized, high quality creation Store in content management software or database to provide web access Document the database design and map fields to DC (or other schema) within the documentation Encode and back up using XML, if technically feasible

Technical and Structural Use TIFF Document scanning software used as TIFF has many different flavors Use as much of the NISO draft standard as possible watch for implementation developments, or Use descriptive schema to collect technical

information Structural metadata ( METS) to manage numerous, complex digital objects, or Documented file naming and structures Planning Plan for the costs associated with good metadata Creation and research Technical resources (staff, hardware, software, backups)

Get a team of appropriate people together Identify goals, elements, and research appropriate schema and encoding Style Guide for descriptive metadata Create the highest quality, most thorough metadata possible in your situation Document mappings Some Conclusions Metadata is a work in progress at both the

community level and the project level Use standards Technical metadata will be easier to implement in time Structural metadata is vital for large projects with complex digital object Preservation metadata isnt standardized yet

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