Blood - Honors anatomy and physiology

Blood - Honors anatomy and physiology

BLOOD The Cardiovascular System Blood

transports substances and maintains homeostasis in the body Hematophobia = fear of blood BLOOD AND BLOOD CELLS Blood

is a type of CONNECTIVE TISSUE It has two basic components: CELLS (rbc, wbc, platelets) = 45% Plasma (water, proteins, amino acids..etc) = 55%

Hematocrit - volume of blood cells in a sample, should be 45%. The remaining fluid is plasma

(55%). To determine the percentages, blood is placed in a centrifuge Three Types of Blood Cells Red blood cells (erythrocytes) White blood cells

(leukocytes) Platelets (thrombocytes) Biconcave discs 5 million per cubic millimeter

Lack nuclei HEMATOPOEISIS formation of blood cells (bone marrow) Liver & Spleen - phagocytosis EPO, OR ERYTHROPOIETIN (PRONOUNCED, AHRITH-RO-POY-TIN), IS A HORMONE PRODUCED BY THE LIVER AND KIDNEYS.

In the first part of a two-night interview broadcast, disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong admitted to Oprah Winfrey that he

took banned substances, including EPO, during all seven of his Tour de France victories. ERYTHROPOIETIN

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow. The resultant rise in red cells increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. 90% erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys

10% erythropoietin is produced by the liver Normal levels of erythropoietin range from 4 up to 24 mU/ml (milliunits per milliliter). MAIN FUNCTIONS OF RED BLOOD CELLS Transports

oxygen, picks up carbon dioxide HEMOGLOBIN molecule that combines with O2 IRON is critical to synthesize hemoglobin

OXYGEN LEVELS Oxyhemoglobin = plenty of oxygen; bright red Deoxyhemoglobin = low in O2, bluish red The blood on the left is oxygenated, the right is deoxygenated blood (from a vein)


Folic Acid Vitamin B12 Iron Too few RBC = anemia WHITE BLOOD CELLS (LEUKOCYTES)

General function is to protect the body against disease There are FIVE different kinds of WBCs Granulocytes (granular cytoplasm) Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils Agranulocytes (lacking granular cytoplasm)

Monocytes, Lymphocytes NEUTROPHIL (NUCLEUS HAS SEVERAL LOBES) Active phagocytes 60% of WBC

Present in the pus of wounds BASOPHIL Produces Heparin and Histamines Important in Inflammatory Reaction 1% WBC

EOSINOPHIL Mainly attack parasites 2% WBC MONOCYTE

Larger cell, horseshoe-shaped nucleus Become macrophages LYMPHOCYTES Nucleus is dark and takes up almost whole

cell; almost no cytoplasm seen Defense against invaders Yield Antibodies 30% WBC Left: Lymphoctye | Right: Neutrophil


PRODUCTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS The red bone marrow of essentially all bones produces RBCs from birth to about five years of age. Between the ages of 5 to 20, the long bones slowly lose their ability to produce RBCs. Above age 20, most RBCs are produced primarily in the marrow of the vertebrae, the


1) Kidneys respond to a lower than normal oxygen concentration in the blood by releasing the hormone erythropoietin. 2) Erythropoietin travels to the red bone marrow and stimulates an increase in the production of red blood cells (RBCs). 3) The red bone marrow manufactures RBCs

from stem cells that live inside the marrow. 4) RBCs squeeze through blood vessel membranes to enter the circulation. 5) The heart and lungs work to supply continuous movement and oxygenation of RBCs. 6) Damaged or old RBCs are destroyed primarily by the spleen

PLASMA PROTEINS Albumins blood pressure Globulins (alpha, beta, gamma) transport lipids and antibodies for immunity

Fibrinogen important for blood clotting MAJOR EVENT IN BLOOD CLOTTING = Fibrinogen converted to FIBRIN PLASMA The liquid portion of blood is 92% water Also contains nutrients, gases, vitamins (etc)

and plasma proteins This machine removes the plasma from the blood and returns the RBCs to the donor. HEMOSTASIS The process of stopping bleeding

Involves the coagulation and clotting of the blood to seal the site of damage THREE EVENTS IN HEMOSTASIS 1. Blood Vessel Spasm

Seratonin = vasoconstrictor 2. Platelet plug formation 3. Blood coagulation - conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin *Thrombin is an enzyme that causes the conversion


blood clot (abnormal) EMBOLUS when the clot moves to another place.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Comparison and Contrast Writing

    Comparison and Contrast Writing

    Establishing a basis for comparison The two things to be compared must have enough in common to justify the comparison. In making comparisons, you should move beyond the obvious (i.e., people and bees) When two things are very similar, it...
  • Jeremiah: The Weeping Prophet

    Jeremiah: The Weeping Prophet

    Jeremiah 38:7-9 7 But Ebed-Melek, a Cushite, an official in the royal palace, heard that they had put Jeremiah into the cistern.While the king was sitting in the Benjamin Gate, 8 Ebed-Melek went out of the palace and said to...
  • Climate Change and India Sumana Bhattacharya NATCOM PMC

    Climate Change and India Sumana Bhattacharya NATCOM PMC

    Canada United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . Central Energ├ętica do Rio Pardo Cogeneration Project (CERPA) Equipav Bagasse Cogeneration Project (EBCP) Moema Bagasse Cogeneration Project (MBCP) Caieiras landfill gas emission reduction. Bundled Wind power project in Jaisalmer (Rajasthan...
  • Changing financial environments: an assessment framework for ...

    Changing financial environments: an assessment framework for ...

    Our presenters. Graham Tuthill. Cisco Lead Security Instructor. Global Knowledge. I joined Global Knowledge as a Cisco trainer in February 1999. I have since progressed on to become a Lead technologist for a small team of Cisco trainers.
  • Narrowing a Topic for Research - Shelby County Schools

    Narrowing a Topic for Research - Shelby County Schools

    KWL Chart for Planning Research . KWL Sheet For Mrs _ Kessler.htm. Research Questions . Look at the "W" column of your chart. Take the things you want to know and make questions and of them. These questions need to...
  • Data Culture: What does it look like in your program?

    Data Culture: What does it look like in your program?

    The child specific IFSP is downloaded onto the database users device as an electronic, fillable PDF form . Then the IFSP is reviewed or updated as needed. Next the IFSP is uploaded into the database. Data checks are performed on...
  • Chapter 13

    Chapter 13

    Chapter 13 Memory and Aging Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Deficits in/for: Recall Recognition Verbal materials Visual materials Everyday memory Recency is relatively preserved (like amnesic syndrome) At late stages, recency also tends to decline Performance on earlier items is grossly impaired...
  • Surge Protection and Grounding Issues Presented to SCTE

    Surge Protection and Grounding Issues Presented to SCTE

    Surge Protection and Grounding Issues Presented to SCTE Chicago Chapter January 21, 2004 By: Nisar Chaudhry VP Electrical Engineering, CTO Introduction Transients caused by disturbances on the power lines and by lightning strikes have been analyzed thoroughly for twisted pair...