BIO 2110 -

BIO 2110 -

Dinoflagellate orders with toxic/harmful representatives O. Prorocentrales O. Dinophysiales O. Gymnodiniales K. Tangen

Prorocentrum O. Peridinales Protoceratium Dinophysis O. Noctilucales Noctiluca

Karenia O. Dinamoebiales Pfisteria Toxins in dinoflagellatesthat accumulate in mussels, fish, birds and mammals, and are toxic to humans (or mice)

Based on symptoms 1. PSP=Paralytic shellfish poisoning 2. DSP=Diarrheic shellfish poisoning 3. NSP=Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning 4. CFP=Ciguatera fish poisoning Based on chemistry 1. Saxitoxin group (PSP) 2. Okadaic acid group (DSP)

3. Pectenotoxin group 4. Yessotoxin group 5. Brevetoxin group (NSP) 6. Azaspiracid group (AZP) 7. Cyclic imine group PSP - Paralytic shellfish poisoning Acute symptoms: Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, tingling sensation, respiratory and muscular paralysis

Mechanisms: Na+ Ca2 channel blocker Duration: Days Incubation time: 5-30 min Poisoning: About 2500 reported cases before 1993, 1-14% death rate. Some lighter cases in Norway, no mortalities. DSP -Diarrheic shellfish poisoning

Incubation: 30 min-12h Acute symptoms: Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain), headache. Chronic: tumour promotion? Mechanisms: Phosphatase inhibitor Duration: Days Poisoning: Many thousands of cases in Europe,

Asia and Australia/New Zealand. Similar symptoms to bacterial infection. No mortalities. NSP- Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning Toxins may accumulate in clams and cause massive death of fish, birds, calms and may harm mammals. Aerosols occur. Symptomer: Similar to PSP symptoms

Mechanisms: Neurotoxic, Na+-channel activator (pner Na+-kanaler og depolariserer hvilepotensialet i nerveceller). Aerosol-exposure may cause respiratory problems Distribution: In the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and North Carolina. Detected in New Zealand. Ciguatera fish poisoning

Related to consumption of tropical and subtropical marine fish (e.g. barracuda, red snapper, grouper) from some coral reef areas Incubation: > 24h Symptoms: gastrointestinal symptoms, neurotoxic, reversal of hot and cold sensation Mechanism: Na+ and Ca2+ channel activators Poisoning: More than 50 000 persons estimated to be poisoned every year. 0.1-12% death rate, normally not deadly, cause long term ill effects

Tropical distribution, especially common in French Polynesia, increasingly common in and the Gulf Symptoms history of

of Mexico illness Acute phase: diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, weekness, low heart rate and blood pressure Post-acute phase: muscle pain, tired, headache, reversal of temperature sensation Chronic phase: Ataxia (balance), problems with focussing, anguish, depression, sensitivity to wine and acetic acid

Toxin production in dinoflagellates PSP (saxitoxins) paralytic toxins Alexandrium DSP (ocadaic acid) diarrhoetic toxins Dinophysis, Prorocentrum lima NSP (brevetoxins) neuro toxins Karenia brevis PTX pectenotoxins Dinophysis YTX yessotoxins Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum spirolids (cyclic imine) Alexandrium ostenfeldii AZP azaspiracid DSP symptomes

not Protoperidinium crassipes , small thecate ichthyotoxins Karenia, Karlodinium CFP ciguatera fish poisioning Gambierdiscus toxicus Orden Gymnodiniales naked Karenia mikimotoi (Miyake & Kominami ex Oda) Hansen & Moestrup syn. Gymnodinium mikimotoi syn. Gymnodinium nagasakiense

syn Gyrodinium cf. aureolum i europeiske farvann produce SEM-graph LM-graph ichthyotoxin s Karenia brevis

(Davis) G.Hansen & Moestrup Syn. Gymnodinium breve Syn. Ptychodiscus brevis Produce NSP-toxins Karlodinium veneficum Syn. Karlodinium micrum, Gymnodinium galathean

produce ichthyotoxins orden Prorocentrales Prorocentrum lima DSP toxin orden Dinophysiales Dinophysis

spp. Okadaic acid Pectenotoxins Venstre sulcuslist Dinophysis rotundata Dinophysis acuta Dinophysis diversity

Okadaic acid cause DSP Pectenotoxins do not cause DSP in humans Dinophysis-bloom, Southern coast of Norway Plate formulas Kofoidian system for plate numbering

Plate formulas Essential plates Practical application Plate formulas the number of plates of each type is genus specific Po, x - at apex apical plates touch apex a intercalar plates of epitheca precingular plates touch cingulum

c cingulum plates s sulcus plates epitheca hypotheca postcingular plates touch cingulum

p intercalar plates of hypotheca antapical plates at Alexandrium-arter Plate formula; Po, 4, 0a, 6, 6c, 9(10), 5,2 Order Peridiniales

Alexandrium Plateformula Po, 4, 0a, 6, 6c, 9(10)s, 5, 2 Essential plates; 1 apical, 6 pre-cingular Alexandrium minutum

Alexandrium minutum PSP-toxins (saxitoxins) stained with calcofluor white, observed in fluorescence microscope Produce spirolids (cyclic imine group), no evidence for effects

Alexandrium tamarense PSP-toxines (Saxitoxins) Po, 4, 0a, 6, 6c, 9(10), 5,2 Po, 3, 3a, 6, 6c, 7s, 6, 2 Lingulodinium polyedrum (Stein)

Dodge Syn. Gonyaulax polyedra Po, 3, 3a, 6, 6c, 7s, 6, 2 cyste hvilespore YTX-toxins (yessotoxin) (do not cause DSP in humans)

cyst SEM-graphs E. Beckstrm LM.graph B. Dale UiO Plate formula Protoceratium; Po, 3, 0a, 6, 6c, 6s, 6, 2 Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparde & Lachmann) Btschli

Syn. Gonyaulax grindleyi YTX-toxins (yessotoxin) (do not cause DSP in humans) Large and very reticulated plates Protoperidinium crassipes (Kofoid) Balech syn Peridinium crassipes Kofoid

Not the causative organism New small thecate that is in the process of being formally described has been shown to produce AZP AZP (azaspirazid) symptoms similar to DSP

orden Noctilucales Toxic? Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) Kofoid & Swezy Acumulates ammonium and may harm fish cellevakuole med stort ammoniuminnh

old gir flyteevne Noctiluca scintillans orden Dinamoebales Genus with toxic species Pfiesteria Steidinger & Burkholder Pfiesteria piscicida

Steidinger & Burkholder Pfiesteria shumwayae Glasgow & Burkholder Both species known from sediments in Norway (brackish water, Sandvikselva, Oslofjorden) Pfiesteria

piscicida toxic flesh eating Peduncle for feeding Plate sutures after staining with calcofluor white with Fluorescence microscopy

Plateformula P. piscicida Po, cp, X, 4, 1a, 5, 6c, 4s, 5, 2 triangul r P. shumwayae Po, cp, X, 6, 1a, 5, 6c, 4s, 5,

rektangulr 2 Pfiesteria piscicida Pfiesteria shumwayae etter HAB 2003 foresltt livssyklus hos P. piscicida

planozygote zoospore TOX A zoospore TOX B hypnozygote

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