Atomic Structure - Chemistry

Atomic Structure - Chemistry

Atomic Structure 1. Defining the Atom 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom 3. Distinguishing Between Atoms Date: Honey Do List: Answer Bell-Ringer & write down new objectives HMWK: Read Ch.4 Section 1. Complete questions #1-5 on page 104 of text. Bell-Ringer What components make up an atom? How are atoms of one element different

from atoms of another element? 1. Defining the Atom What is an atom? Atom the smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction. Matter is composed of atoms WHAT IS MATTER? The Scale of an Atom How can we measure atoms? 1. Defining the Atom

Early Models of the Atom Democrituss Atomic Theory 1st to suggest the existence of atoms Believed atoms to be indivisible and Democritus (460 B.C. 370 Problems with theory indestructible. B.C.) Lacked experimental support; not based on the scientific method. Did not explain chemical behavior of atoms

1. Defining the Atom Early Models of the Atom John Dalton Used experimental methods to transform Democrituss ideas on the atom into a scientific theory. Daltons Atomic Theory Comprised of 4 KEY concepts illustrated on the following slides. 1. Defining the Atom Daltons Atomic Theory

1. All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. 1. Defining the Atom Daltons Atomic Theory 2. Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element. 1. Defining the Atom Daltons Atomic Theory 3. Atoms of different elements can physically

mix together or can chemically combine in simple whole-number ratios to form compounds. 1. Defining the Atom Daltons Atomic Theory 4. Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged. Atoms of one element are never changed into atoms of another element in a chemical reaction. 1. Defining the Atom

Sizing up the Atom A pure copper (Cu) penny Copper powder 1 copper particle = atom Indivisible Copper penny = 2.4 x 1022 atoms How small is an atom? TED tv worksheet WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? 1. The ancient Greek philosopher credited with suggesting all matter is made of indivisible atoms is

A. B. C. D. Plato. Aristotle. Democritus. Socrates. WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? 2. Dalton's atomic theory improved earlier atomic theory by A.

B. C. D. teaching that all matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms. theorizing that all atoms of the same element are identical. using experimental methods to establish a scientific theory. not relating atoms to chemical change. WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? 3. Individual atoms are observable with A.

B. C. D. the naked eye. a magnifying glass. a light microscope. a scanning tunneling microscope. November 3, 2014 The assignment for the next 2 days: History of the Atom Timeline Project Due Thursday, November 6, 2014 Period 1 : 2 groups of 4 Period 3: 4 groups of 4 Period 4: whole class works as 1 group

Period 7: 2 groups of 4 and 1 group of 3 Todays date: Nov. 10, 2014 Bell Ringer Study the picture: How could you determine what your hand looks like under the skin without dissecting it? 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Connecting to Your World Today, cathode-ray tubes are found in TVs,

computer monitors, and many other devices with electronic displays. 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Subatomic Particles Subatomic particles smaller, fundamental particles that make up the atom. Three kinds of subatomic particles are: 1. ELECTRONS 2. PROTONS

3. NEUTRONS Eddie the Electron is a busy lil guy that gets excited and likes to bond with the ladies. Too many negative experiences with the brunettes has him favoring the blondes. When ever down in the dumps, turn to Patty the Proton; she always has a positive attitude! Stay in for dinner or go out? Nonconfrontational Neil the Neutron insists on remaining neutral for all things with wife Patty. Happy wife, Think Write Pair Share Cathode Ray Tube

You are about to view a gas tube that is hooked up to a power source. Silently observe what I am doing. I want you to infer about what is occurring in this interactive. Take 2 minutes to think about and write down what you believe is happening. 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Electrons Eddie Electrons negatively charged subatomic

particles Discovered in 1897 by English physicist J.J. Thomson. Thomson performed experiments that involved passing electric current through gases at low pressure. The result was a glowing beam, or cathode ray, that traveled from the cathode to the anode. Plum-pudding model of the atom electrons were randomly distributed in a lump of positive charge, similar to raisins stuck in dough. 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom

Cathode Ray Tube Electrons travel - to + 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom A cathode ray is deflected by a magnet Inferring: If a cathode ray is attracted to a positively charged plate, what can you infer about the charge of the particles that make up 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom

A cathode ray is deflected by electrically charged plates. 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom How Negative is Eddie? Thomsons attempts: Measured the ratio of charge to the mass of an electron Found ratio to be constant U.S. Physicist Robert A. Millikan (1868 1953) How much charge is carried by an electron?

Calculated the mass of the electron: 1/1840 the mass of a hydrogen atom. Electron carries 1 unit of negative charge. 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Protons Protons positively charged subatomic particles. Discovered in 1886 by Eugen Goldstein. Observed a cathode-ray tube and found rays travelling in the opposite direction to the cathode

rays . Concluded that these rays were positively charged Relative mass of proton = 1 Supports that atoms are electrically neutral Patty 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Neutrons Neil

Neutrons subatomic particles with no charge but with a mass nearly equal to that of a proton. Discovered by English physicist James Chadwick in 1932 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Rutherfords Gold-Foil Experiment 1911, Ernest Rutherford Gold-Foil Experiment Used a narrow beam of alpha () particles directed at a thin sheet of gold foil. Prevailing theory: particles would pass easily through the gold foil with slight deflection

due to the positive charge spread throughout good atoms. Result: majority of particles passed straight through, others bounced off the gold foil at large angles, and some even bounced directly back to 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Rutherfords Gold-Foil Experiment 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Rutherfords Gold-Foil Experiment Alpha particles scatter from the gold foil.

2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Rutherfords Atomic THE NEW THEORY: Model AKA Nuclear Atom 1. All the positive charge and almost all the mass is concentrated in a small region called the nucleus Explained the great deflection of some of the alpha particles.

Nucleus the tiny central core of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons. 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom Rutherfords Atomic Model 2. The atom is mostly empty space Explained the lack of deflection of most of the alpha particles 3. Electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy almost all the volume of the atom. The nucleus is tiny compared with the atom

as a whole. 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? 1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a subatomic particle? A. proton B.

molecule C. electron D. neutron 2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION?

2. The nucleus of an atom consists of A. electrons only. B. protons only. C. protons and neutrons. D. electrons and neutrons.

2. Structure of the Nuclear Atom WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? 3. Most of the volume of the atom is occupied by the A. electrons. B. neutrons.

C. protons and neutrons. D. protons. Quiz Questions IN the Door 1. Review: What are three types of subatomic particles? 2. Explain: How does the Rutherford model describe the structure of atoms? 3. Review: What are the charges and relative

masses of the three main subatomic particles. 4. Review: What were the 4 main ideas of Daltons atomic theory? Bell-Ringer DATE: 11/11/2014 List all the varieties of apples that you can think of. Identify what is different about these apple varieties. 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms

Connecting to Your World Just as apples come in different varieties, a chemical element can come in different varieties called isotopes. 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms How can we tell elements apart? Recall: Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus.

Elements are different because they contain different numbers of protons . Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element. Specific to the identity of that element PEA Identify the necessary information in the table below. Name Symbol

Atomic Number Protons Electrons Helium 27 Be 19 Tin 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms

How to determine the number of neutrons. Mass number the total number of neutrons and protons in an atom. The number of neutrons in an atoms is the difference between the mass number and atomic number. Example: Lithium Symbo l Atomic Number Proton

s Electrons Mass number Neutrons 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Identify the necessary information in the table below. Name

Symbo Atomic l Numbe r Proton s Electro ns Neon Br 16 Lead

37 Ag 23 Mass Neutron number s 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Short hand Notation Short hand notation using mass number and atomic

number. Au is the chemical symbol for Gold. Short hand can also be written using the name and the mass Mass 12 gold-197 number Atomic number 6

C Chemical symbol 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Identify the necessary information in the table below. Short hand Atomic

Number Proton s Electro ns 10 6 31 Mass Neutron number s

3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Use your reference tables to express the composition of each atom in shorthand form. 5. Titanium-48 1. Nitrogen-14 2. Phosphorus-31 3. Iodine-127 4. Osmium-190

6. Yttrium-89 7. Tungsten-184 8. Palladium-106 Bell-Ringer DATE: 11/12/2014 Write the word neutron 30 times. I am collecting this. BINGO NUMBERS Question #1: 25

Question #2: 16 Question #3: 2 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Isotopes How do isotopes of an element differ? Isotopes - are atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Because isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons, they also have different mass numbers.

3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Isotopes of Neon Comparing and Contrasting: How are these isotopes different? How are they similar? Despite these differences, isotopes are chemically alike because they have identical numbers of protons and electrons. 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Practice Problem

Writing Chemical Symbols of Isotopes Diamonds are a naturally occurring form of elemental carbon. Two stable isotopes of carbon are carbon-12 and carbon-13. Write the symbol for each isotope using subscripts and superscripts to represent the mass number and the atomic number. 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms

Writing Chemical Symbols of Isotopes Diamonds 1. Analyze: Identify the relevant concepts. Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons Composition can be expressed by writing the shorthand form with the chemical symbol, the atomic number written as a subscript, and mass number as superscript. 2. Solve: Apply the concepts to this problem. Symbol for carbon is ___ The atomic number is ___ The mass number for each isotope is given by its name Carbon-12 is

and Carbon-13 is 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Practice Problem 1. Three isotopes of oxygen are oxygen-16, oxygen-17, and oxygen-18. Write the symbol for each, including the atomic number and mass number. Then identify the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons for each.Protons Name

Short hand Neutrons Electrons Oxygen-16 Oxygen-17 Oxygen-18 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Practice Problem 2. Three isotopes of chromium are chromium- 50, chromium-52, and chromium-53. Write the symbol for each, including the atomic

number and mass number. Then identify the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons for each.Protons Name Short hand Neutrons Electrons Chromium50 Chromium52 Chromium53 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms

Atomic Mass How do you calculate the atomic mass of an element? It is useful to compare the relative masses of atoms to a standard reference isotope. Carbon-12 is the standard reference isotope. Cabon- 12 has a mass of exactly 12 atomic mass units. An atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom. Example: Helium-4 has a mass of 4.0026 amu: 1/3 the mass of a

carbon-12 atom Nickle-60 has a mass of 58.71 amu: 5 the mass of a carbon-12 atom 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Atomic Mass In nature, most elements occur as a mixture of two or more isotopes. Each isotope has a fixed mass & natural percent abundance. The atomic mass of an element is a

weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the element. 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Weighted Average Mass of a Chlorine Atom Evaluating: How does a weighted average differ from an arithmetic mean? Some Elements and Their Isotopes

3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Using Atomic Mass to Determine the Relative Abundance of Isotopes The atomic mass of copper is 63.546 amu. Which of coppers two isotopes is more abundant: copper-63 or copper-65? 1. Analyze: Identify the relevant concepts. Atomic mass of an element is a weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring element. Weighted average mass reflects both the

mass and the relative abundance of the isotopes as they occur in nature. 2. Solve: Apply the concepts to this problem. The atomic mass of 63.546 amu is closer to 63 then 65. Because the atomic mass is a weighted average of the isotopes, copper-63 must be more abundant than copper-65 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Practice Problems 1. Boron has two isotopes: boron-10 and boron-11. Which is more abundant, given that the atomic mass of boron is 10.81 amu?

2. There are three isotopes of silicon; they have mass numbers of 28, 29, and 30. The atomic mass of silicon is 28.086 amu. Comment on the relative abundance of these three isotopes. 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Atomic Mass How do you calculate the atomic mass of an element? To calculate the atomic mass of an element, multiply the mass of each isotope by its

natural abundance, expressed as a decimal, and then add the products. Example: carbon has two stable isotopes: Carbon-12, which has a natural abundance of 98.89%, and Carbon-13, which has a natural abundance of 1.11%. 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Calculating Atomic Mass Element X has two natural isotopes. The isotope with a mass of 10.012 amu (10X) has a relative abundance of 19.91%. The isotope

with a mass of 11.009 amu (11X) has a relative abundance of 80.09%. Calculate the atomic mass of this element. 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Practice Problems 1. The element copper has naturally occurring isotopes with mass numbers of 63 and 65. The relative abundance and atomic masses are 69.2% for mass = 62.93 amu, and 30.8% for mass = 64.93 amu. Calculate the average atomic mass of copper. 63.6

amu 2. Calculate the atomic mass of bromine. The two isotopes of bromine have atomic masses and relative abundance of 78.92 amu (50.69%) and 80.92 amu (49.31%). 79.91 amu 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms Practice Problems 3. Chlorine has two isotopes, chlorine-35

(atomic mass 34.97 amu, relative abundance 75.77%) and chlorine-37 (atomic mass 36.97 amu, relative abundance 24.23%). Calculate the atomic mass of chlorine. 35.45 amu 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms The Periodic Table A Preview Why is a periodic table useful? A periodic table is an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated

into groups based on a set of repeating properties. A periodic table allows you to easily compare the properties of one element (or a group of elements) to another element (or group of elements). 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms The Periodic Table 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms The Periodic Table

Period each horizontal row of the periodic table Within a given period, the properties of the elements vary as you move across it from element to element. There are 7 periods in the modern P.T. Group or Family each vertical column of the periodic table. Groups are identified by a number and a letter. Elements within a group have similar chemical and physical properties. 3. Distinguishing Among

Atoms A Period 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms A Group or Family 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? 1. Isotopes of an element have A.

the same mass number. B. different atomic numbers. C. the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. D. the same number of protons but different numbers of electrons.

3. Distinguishing Among Atoms WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? 1. How many neutrons are in sulfur-33? A. 16 neutrons B. 33 neutrons

C. 17 neutrons D. 32.06 neutrons 3. Distinguishing Among Atoms WERE YOU PAYING ATTENTION? 1. If sulfur contained 90.0% sulfur-32 and 10.0% sulfur-34, its atomic mass would be

A. 32.2 amu. B. 32.4 amu. C. 33.0 amu. D. 35.4 amu.

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