Astronomy

Astronomy

Astrono my Earth, Sun, Moon, Stars, Planets & Galaxies Astronomy=study of stars, planets, and space Several theories about how the Universe started:

Constant State Theory: the universe has always existed and just expands Oscillating Model Theory: the universe is always contracting and expanding Big Bang Theory: the universe began around 13.8 billion years ago from a single point and started expanding

Formation of the Solar System: Big Bang 1. Began 4.6 billion years ago as a nebula (floating cloud of gas, ice, dust) 2. Shockwave caused nebula to rotate, condense and flatten into disc shape 3. Gravity pulled particles into clumps of

matter and sun was born from fusion Historical Theories of Solar System Geocentric Model (Aristotle, Ptolemy) Earth is the center of the solar system, everything

revolves around Earth Historical Theories of Solar System Heliocentric Model (Copernicus, Galileo Galilei) The Sun is the center of

the solar system, everything revolves around Sun Earth -Not a perfect sphere, slightly squished into elliptical shaped due to rotation

-Earths movement and iron core give it a magnetic field magnetic north is always moving and not north pole Earth ROTATION: Earth spinning around its center axis

1 rotation= 24 hours (1day) REVOLUTION: Earths circular movement around the sun 1 revolution = 365 days (1year) Path around sun is called ORBIT

Earth Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees from perpendicular orbit Earth Night/Day are created by the Earths rotation

Earth Seasons are created due to the Earths tilt The tilt creates warmer or cold climate depending on if the location is closer or further from the sun at a certain time Seasons are always opposite in

northern and southern hemisphere Earth Solstice Days that earth is most tilted towards the sun Longest and shortest days of the year (first day of summer/

winter) Equinox Equator is directly under sun Days are the same length all over world (first day of spring/ fall) BrainBreak

Astronaut Chris Hadfield Moon Moon: any object that revolves around a planet, natural satellite

Mountains, craters, smooth regions, dark regions Moon 1 ROTATION: 27 days 1 REVOLUTION around earth = 27 days

counterclockwise Because the moon rotates and revolves at the same speed we always see the SAME face of the moon (DARK SIDE OF MOON) Moon

Phases: amount of sunlight reflected and position of moon vs. earth WAXING: growing in appearance WANING: shrinking in appearance LUNAR Cycle: about 30 days to complete all 8 phases 8 Moon Phases Activity Full Moon

Waxing Gibbous New Moon Waning Gibbous First Quarter Waning Crescent Waxing Crescent Third Quarter

Moon Moon Lunar Eclipse: earth is between moon and sun, moon glows red Solar Eclipse: moon is between earth and

sun, moon casts complete shadow on earth Moon Moons gravity pulls on Earth causing tides (rise or fall in ocean water levels)

Sun, Moon, Earth lined up creates Spring Tide which is larger tide Sun, Moon and Earth not lined up creates Neap Tides Sun Medium, main sequence, yellow dwarf star

(uncommon single star) Atmosphere (green) Convective Zone (yellow) Radiative Zone (orange) Core (red)

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