Articulations and Movement

Articulations and Movement

Chapter 09 Lecture * 8-1 JOINT DAY 8-2 Articulations or Joints Articulation or Joint

Place where two bones come together Freely movable to limited to no apparent movement Structure correlated with movement Named According to bones or parts united at joint According to only one of articulating bones By Latin equivalent of common name 8-3

Classes of Joints Structural: Based on major connective tissue type that binds bones Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial Functional: Based on degree of motion Synarthrosis: Nonmovable Amphiarthrosis: Slightly movable Diarthrosis: Freely movable

8-4 Fibrous Joints Characteristics United by fibrous connective tissue Have no joint cavity Move little or none Types Sutures

Syndesmoses Gomphoses 8-5 Syndesmoses Bones farther apart than suture and joined by ligaments Some movement may occur

8-6 Gomphoses Specialized joints Pegs that fit into sockets Inflammations Gingivitis Periodontal disease

8-7 Cartilaginous Joints Unite two bones by means of cartilage Types Synchondroses Joined by hyaline Little or no movement Symphyses

Fibrocartilage uniting two bones 8-8 Synchondroses 8-9 Synovial Joints Allow considerable

movement Most joints that unite bone of appendicular skeleton Complex Articular cartilage and disks Joint cavity and capsule Synovial membrane and fluid Bursae Pockets of synovial fluid

Bursitis 8-10 Types of Synovial Joints

Plane or gliding Saddle Hinge Pivot Ball-and-socket Ellipsoid 8-11 Plane and Pivot Joints Plane or Gliding joints Monoaxial

Example:Articular processes between vertebrae Pivot joints Monoaxial Example: Articulation between dens of axis and atlas 8-12

Saddle and Hinge Joints Saddle Joints Biaxial Example: Thumb Hinge Joints Monoaxial Example: elbow, knee 8-13

Ellipsoid and Ball-and-Socket Joints Ellipsoid Modified ball-andsocket Biaxial Example: Atlantooccipital joint Ball-and-socket Multiaxial Examples: shoulder and hip joints

8-14 Types of Movement Gliding Angular Flexion and Extension Hyperextension Plantar and Dorsiflexion Abduction and Adduction

Circular Rotation Pronation and Supination Circumduction 8-15 Flexion and Extension 8-16 Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion

8-17 Abduction and Adduction 8-18 Rotation and Pronation and Supination 8-19

Circumduction 8-20 Special Movements Unique to only one or two joints Types

Elevation and Depression Protraction and Retraction Opposition and Reposition Inversion and Eversion 8-21 Elevation and Depression

8-22 Protraction and Retraction 8-23 Excursion 8-24 Opposition and Reposition

8-25 Inversion and Eversion 8-26 Range of Motion Amount of mobility demonstrated at a given joint Types Active

Passive Influenced by

Shape of articular surfaces forming joint Amount and shape of cartilage covering surfaces Strength and location of ligaments and tendons Location of muscles associated with joint Amount of fluid in and around joint Amount of use/disuse of joint Amount of pain in and around joint 8-27 Temporomandibular Joint TMJ

Combination plane and ellipsoid joint TMJ Disorders Cause most chronic orofacial pain 8-28 Shoulder Joint 8-29

Elbow Joint 8-30 Hip Joint 8-31 Knee Joint

Modified hinge joint Menisi: Fibrocartilage articular disks Cruciate ligaments: ACL and PCL Collateral ligaments: Fibular and tibial 8-32

Knee Injuries and Disorders Football injuries Bursitis Chondromalacia Softening of cartilage Hemarthrosis: Acute Water on the knee

Slower accumulation 8-33 Ankle Joint Highly modified hinge joint Ligaments of arch Hold bones in proper relationship Transfer weight

8-34 Effects of Aging on Joints Tissue repair slows Production of synovial fluid declines

Ligaments and tendons become less flexible Decrease in ROM 8-35 Joint Disorders Arthritis Osteoarthritis: Wear and tear Rheumatoid: Caused by transient infection or autoimmune disease

Joint infections Lyme disease: Tick vector Gout Metabolic disorders of unknown cause (idiopathic) 8-36 JOINT DISEASES DISLOCATION: LUXATION BONES ARE

DISPLACED AS SURROUNDING STRUCTURES ARE TORN [LIGAMENTS, TENDONS &CAPSULES] SYMPTOMS: IMMOBILITY, PAIN, SWELLING & SHOCK SUBLUXATION: PARTIAL DISPLACEMENT OF BONES SPRAIN: TWISTING OF JOINT ESPECIALLY[ANKLE OR LOWER

BACK AREA INVOLVES NO DISLOCATION SURROUNDING STRUCTURES ARE DAMAGED SYMPTOMS: PAIN, SWELLING & LOSS OF MOBILITY IN SEVERE CASES STRAIN: MUSCLE IS OVERSTRETCHED[LESS SEVERE THAN SPRAIN]

RHEUMATISM: PAIN IN SUPPORTING STRUCTURES OF BODY. INCLUDES ARTHRITIS KANDEH 37 JOINT DISEASES CONTD. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE IN

WHICH THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ATTACKS THE LINING OF JOINTS & CARTILAGE OSTEOARTHRITIS NONINFLAMMATORY DISEASE OF MOVABLE JOINTS DUE TO AGING & WEAR AND TEAR. ARTICULAR CARTILAGE BREAKS DOWN AND BONE

ENDS ARE EXPOSED GOUTY ARTHRITIS: ACCUMULATION OF URIC ACID IN SOFT TISSUES OF JOINTS. DAMAGES ARTICULAR CARTILAGE LYME DISEASE: CAUSE BY BORRELIA burgdorferi (bacteria) which is transmitted by deer ticks. Stages: 1st. Rash,

flu-like symptoms. 2nd. Bells palsy. 3rd. Arthritis develops KANDEH 38

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