Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 7 - calhoun.k12.al.us

Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 7 - calhoun.k12.al.us

Bellringer Describe the different plants and animals in the salt water aquarium show in the picture. What requirements do the fish in the aquarium need to survive? What would happen if a fish from a local Alabama river was added to this salt water aquarium? WHY?

Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 7 Objectives: 1. Describe features of freshwater and marine ecosystems. 2. Describe threats to freshwater and marine ecosystems. Aquatic Ecosystems How many aquatic ecosystems can you

name? What are the differences between them? I. Freshwater Ecosystems Organisms are grouped by location and adaptations: Plankton float near the surface of the water Phytoplankton microscopic plants Zooplankton microscopic animals

Nekton free-swimming (fish, turtles, whales) Benthos bottom-dwellers (mussels, worms, barnacles) A. Lakes and Ponds Littoral zone nutrient-rich area near shore variety of plant and animal life

Benthic zone Bottom of a pond or lake Inhabited by decomposers, insect larvae, and clams Eutrophication more nutrients = more plants = more decomposers using oxygen = less oxygen for other organisms Can be caused by runoff of sewage, fertilizers, animal waste

B. Wetlands Marshes (Ex: The Everglades) Contain non-woody plants (reeds, rushes, cattails) Swamps (Ex: Louisiana swamps) Contain woody plants or water-loving trees Functions of Wetlands

Trap sediments, nutrients, and pollutants, keeping them from lakes, reservoirs, and oceans Buffer shorelines against erosion Protect against flooding Provide spawning grounds and habitats Recreational areas (fishing, birdwatching, hiking, canoeing, photography) Human Impact on Wetlands Were drained and filled for farming and

residential and commercial development Pollution C. Rivers Swift-moving Home to strong swimming fish and organisms with adaptations to cling to rocks Polluted by human sewage and garbage

runoff from the land Drained by industries #41 - Concept Map 1. Freshwater wetlands 2. Decomposers 3. Lakes 4. Phytoplankton 5. Littoral zone 6. Zooplankton

7. Freshwater ecosystems 8. Runoff 9. Eutrophication 10. Traps and filters pollutants 11. Benthic zone 12. Buffers shorelines II. Marine Ecosystems Mainly in coastal areas and the open ocean

A. Coastal Wetlands Coastal areas covered by salt water at least part of the time 1. Estuaries where fresh river water and salty ocean water mix

Constant source of fresh nutrients supplied by the river Nutrients fall to the bottom (nutrient trap) Provide harbors protected from open ocean site of major ports May be used as dumping sites for sewage, industrial waste, and agricultural runoff

Coastal Wetlands (cont.) 2. Salt marshes Develop in estuaries Found along the Gulf Coast Coastal Wetlands (cont.) 3. Mangrove swamps Found along the coast in tropical and subtropical zones Dominated by mangrove trees

Coastal Wetlands (cont.) 4. Rocky and sandy shores Rocky shores have more plants and animals (Why?) Barrier islands run parallel to the shore and protect the mainland and coastal wetlands.

Barrier Islands B. Coral Reefs Limestone ridges made of the skeletons of animals called coral polyps Found in shallow, tropical seas with clear, warm salt water and lots of light Disappearing coral reefs:

Damaged by oil spills, sewage, and runoff Overfishing Damaged by anchors, divers, shipwrecks C. Oceans Plankton on the ______; decomposers and filter feeders on the ________. Threats to the ocean: Pollution from land activities Overfishing

Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems: Nearly all food in the arctic ecosystem comes from the ocean; land is frozen, so plants dont grow well. Assignment Compare and contrast

1. Salt marshes (p.182) and freshwater marshes (p.176) 2. Mangrove swamps (p.182) and freshwater swamps (p.177)

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