APA STYLE: AN INTRODUCTION Presented by the ULM Library Reference Department Session Overview What is APA style? General Guidelines The Basics Parts of a Paper
Citations Resources Q & A Time What Is APA Style? a set of rules intended to encourage and maintain clear, concise writing provides guidelines for formatting papers used to create citations for resources primarily used by the social sciences, but other sciences use it as well (like nursing,
for example) What Is APA Style, Continued Like any style format, it is intended to establish and maintain consistency and quality in research It also supports scholarly communication by facilitating documentation, i.e., it demonstrates a common way of citing sources so other scholars can consult the resources you used
So You Will Use It To Format your paper, including Margins Spacing Font selection and size Headers
Guide the style of your paper, including Voice Word choice Removing bias General Guidelines 1-inch margins on all sides Coles Mrs. ENG 3024 class: YOU WILL USE SINGLE SPACING. Double-spaced 10-12 point font Times New Roman or a similar font
i.e., something very plain and professional Examples: Arial, Century Gothic, or Garamond Page headers Running header Includes page numbers and authors name
The Basics 3rd person voice is the preferred way to write: The researcher found If the paper is co-authored, you can use we: We found in the course Avoid the passive voice; use the active voice
Use language that is professional; avoid poetic or flowery language Be as concise as possible The Basics, Continued Word choice is very important; the OWL at Purdue highlights the following points: Use terms like "participants" or "respondents" (rather
than "subjects") to indicate how individuals were involved in your research Use terms like "children" or "community members" to provide more detail about who was participating in the study Use phrases like "The evidence suggests ..." or "Our study indicates ..." rather than referring to "proof" or "proves" because no single study can prove a theory or hypothesis The Basics, Continued
Avoiding bias is important in APA style; word choice is one means of avoiding bias in ones paper Bias, in this case, is used to refer mainly to various elements within a population The three main areas in which this is an issue are: Disability Race & Ethnicity Sexuality
The Basics, Continued Avoid gendered pronouns; the OWL at Purdue recommends: Rephrase the sentence Use plural nouns or plural pronouns - this way you can use "they" or "their" Replace the pronoun with an article - instead of
"his," use "the" Drop the pronoun - many sentences sound fine if you just omit the troublesome "his" from the sentence Replace the pronoun with a noun such as "person," "individual," "child," "researcher," etc. The Basics, Continued Find alternative descriptors, and avoid using labels Use adjectives that are genuinely descriptive; consider the parameters of
your study Example: instead of saying amnesiacs say amnesic patients or people diagnosed with amnesia The Basics, Continued APA addresses headings within papers in the following way: This image was taken from the OWL at Purdue website. The Basics, Continued
Seriation that is, lists are permitted in APA style You can use numbered listing; in the case of this kind of listing, items should have ending punctuation Bulleted lists where hierarchy is not important should also have ending punctuation
Seriation within sentences should use letters: (a) point one, (b) point two, The Basics, Continued Literature review type papers contain: Title page Introduction
List of references Experimental/report type papers typically contain:
title page abstract introduction method results discussion references appendixes (if necessary) tables and/or figures (if necessary) Parts of a Paper There are four (4) major sections to a report-style APA paper 1. 2.
3. 4. Title page Abstract (should include keywords) Main Body References Part 1: Title Page The Title Page should contain Running head + page number Title
Author Author affiliation Running Head Created using Insert Header Is the title of your paper
Left-aligned On Title page, will include the words Running header On subsequent pages, will only include the title Title Information
The title part of the page should be located in the upper half of the page, in upper and lower case letters Ideally the title should be no more than 12 words long and contain no abbreviations; it can take up two lines The title should be double-spaced as well It should look like this
This image was taken from the OWL at Purdue website. Part 2: Abstract (+ keywords) The abstract will start on a new page Center the word Abstract Do not indent the paragraph Should be between 150-250 words Is meant to be a concise summary of
the contents of the main body Below the abstract, indented, you may include a keywords section; italicize Keyword, insert a colon, and list the keywords It should look like this This image was taken from the OWL at Purdue website. Part 3: Main Body This is the tough part the research part. The part *you* generate
Remember: there are 2 types of papers in APA A literature review Experimental/report A report is going to be much more indepth and will include a literature review Main Body, Continued The main body will include a running header on all
pages; page numbers should be in the upper right-handed corner The first page will contain the title again, centered, but not bolded, underlined, or italicized Level 1 headings should be left flush and bolded In-text citations (also called parenthetical citations) will usually contain the authors name and the date of publication (more on that in a
minute) It should look like this This image was taken from the OWL at Purdue website. In-text Citations These are used to cite resources within the text Every in-text citation will have a
corresponding citation in the References section If you quote something directly from a text, then the citation will include author name, date of publication, and page number (sometimes) In-text Citations, Continued If you paraphrase something, the intext citation will only contain the authors name and the date of publication
If you use the authors name in the course of the sentence, that name will not appear in the in-text citation In-text Citations, Continued Direct quotation, author named in sentence According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). In-text Citations, Continued Direct quotation, author not named in sentence According to some researchers, "Students
often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (Jones, 1998, p. 199). In-text Citations, Continued Long (40+ words) quotations should be set apart (that is, not within the text, like a block quotation) Omit quotation marks
Indent five spaces from margin Maintain double spacing Same rules apply for in-text citation, EXCEPT that the quotation will end with its punctuation, then followed by the citation BLAH In-text Citations, Continued Long direct quotation Jones's (1998) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199) In-text Citations, Continued Even if youre paraphrasing something, youll still need to identify the original source In-text citations work for paraphrasing, too
The in-text citations will only include the authors name and date of publication; you can include page numbers at your discretion In-text Citations, Continued Paraphrasing in-text citations According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for firsttime learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998). Part 4: References
On the References page: center the title References at the top of the page Remember: if you have an in-text citation, you will have a corresponding bibliographic citation in your references References are double-spaced, too References, Continued
All lines following the first line of the citation will be indented a one half-inch from the margin (also known as a hanging indent) Italicize titles of long works, like books or journal titles Do not put quotation marks around the titles of short works, like essays or articles References, Continued
Author names are inverted; that is, last name first. APA does not require the spelling out of first names; initials are sufficient Regardless of how many authors a source has, all author names will be last name first If a source does not have an author, it will be alphabetized based on title
References, Continued Book Zimbardo, P.G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books. Essay/Chapter in a Book O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York: Springer.
References, Continued Article Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13. Article from a Database APA style does not require that a citation for an article in a database document that fact. You can cite an article you find in a database the same way youd cite a regular print article, as in the example above.
References, Continued Website Lowe, M. (2008). Megan Lowe @ ULM. Retrieved from http://www.ulm./edu/~lowe Unknown Author Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. References, Continued
This image was taken from the OWL at Purdue website. APA Style Resources The OWL at Purdue, APA Style Guide http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/ APA Style Site http://www.apastyle.org/
APA Reference Style Guide http://library.nmu.edu/guides/userguides/style_ap a.htm The Library has a copy of the manual at the Reserves Desk at Circulation on the first floor Question & Answer Time Thanks for your attendance! Remember, if you need research help, all you have to do is ask the librarians. You can
Visit the Reference Desk, Library 1st floor Email us at [email protected] Call us at (318) 342-1071
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