AP REVIEW Todays Class Announcements: MANDATORY AP ASSEMBLY NEXT WEEK DURING CONFERENCE PERIOD IN THE AUDITORIUM: Monday, April 20 Freshmen & Sophomores: 7:45 8:30 am Juniors & Seniors: 8:45 9:15 am Not that you would know it, but TUSD Stats is current (except for 13-14 Exam) If you missed the exam on Units 13-14, please schedule a makeup ASAP Connections Assignment: Friday, April 24 AP Info & Review Schedule Units 1-2 Review Final Exam Info
Part 1: Thursday, April 30 Part 2: Friday, May 1 Cheat sheets ARE allowed. 1 piece of 8.5x11 paper, but only one side of the paper this time Nothing that unfolds or somehow gives you more space. You dont have to make a cheat sheet. AP Psychology Exam Info Monday, May 4 (afternoon session) bring photo ID, pens/pencils, & DO NOT BE LATE 2 hour, 10 minute exam Part 1: Multiple choice 100 questions (A-E) 70 minutes ANSWER EVERY QUESTION! GUESS GUESS GUESS! 10 minute break Part 2: Free response 2 questions 50 minutes
ANSWER DIRECTLY! AP Psychology Exam Info 150 total possible points (100 multiple choice, 50 free response) Composite Score AP Grade (approx.) 96-150 5 74-95 4 55-73 3 36-54 2 0-35 1
Terms/Ideas psychology phrenology empiricism dualism tabula rasa structuralism Unit 1 Review Topics introspection functionalism Gestalt psychology perceptual units psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory unconscious behaviorism humanistic psychology cognitive psychology social psychology nature vs. nurture psychology vs. psychiatry Important People to Know John Locke
Rene Descartes Hippocrates Sir Frances Bacon Wilhelm Wundt William James Sigmund Freud Unit 2 Review Topics Terms/Ideas hypothesis theory operational definition population sample (random sampling) Descriptive research case study surveys naturalistic observation Correlational research correlation coefficient (r) direction and size of correlations limitations? Experimental research independent & dependent variables
experimental & control conditions confounds Terms/Ideas, cont. random assignment reliability validity (internal & external) demand characteristics placebo effect double-blind design Descriptive statistics measures of central tendency measures of variability Inferential statistics statistical significance meta-analysis informed consent debriefing Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) Unit 3 Review Topics Terms/Ideas
glial cells Neuron cell body/soma nucleus dendrites axon myelin sheath Nodes of Ranvier, Schwann cells terminal buttons/terminal branches resting potential action potential threshold (all or none law) synapse/synaptic cleft Neurotransmitters vescicles receptors reuptake (SSRIs) Terms/Ideas, cont. agonists & antagonists Nervous system central and peripheral Peripheral Skeletal and Autonomic
Autonomic Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Endocrine system hormones pituitary gland Mapping Brain Functions EEG CT scan PET scan MRI & fMRI Unit 3 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Hindbrain medulla pons reticular formation cerebellum Midbrain thalamus Forebrain limbic system hippocampus hypothalamus amygdala
Terms/Ideas, cont. Forebrain, cont. cerebral cortex frontal lobe parietal lobe temporal lobe occipital lobe corpus callosum anterior cingulate plasticity Important People to Know Phineas Gage H.M. Unit 4 Review Topics Terms/Ideas sensation vs. perception bottom-up & top-down processing absolute threshold just-noticeable difference (JND) Webers Law priming signal detection theory
sensory adaptation transduction Visual Sensation & Perception amplitude & frequency of light waves parts of the eye theories of color vision trichromatic theory opponent-process theory (afterimages) feature detector neurons Terms/Ideas, cont. Visual Sensation & Perception, cont. cues to depth perception (monocular vs. binocular) motion perception stroboscopic effect phi phenomenon change blindness Stroop task Auditory Sensation & Perception amplitude & frequency of sound waves parts of the ear pitch theories (place theory, frequency theory) cocktail party effect gate-control theory of pain synesthesia
Unit 5 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Sleep, cont. consciousness (normal/waking vs. sleep disorders altered states) insomnia Sleep narcolepsy (hypocretin) circadian rhythm (roles of sleep apnea hypothalamus, pineal gland, night terrors melatonin) Hypnosis stages of sleep absorption brain wave activity applications of hypnosis Why do we sleep? Psychoactive drugs Why do we dream? addiction, tolerance, & withdrawal Freud (manifest vs. latent content) 3 classes: activation-synthesis theory
depressants memory consolidation stimulants hallucinogens Near-death experiences Unit 6 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Law of Effect 4 aspects: shaping unconditioned stimulus (US) conditioned stimulus (CS) positive & negative reinforcement unconditioned response (UR) 4 schedules of partial reinforcement: conditioned response (CR) fixed ratio acquisition variable ratio extinction fixed interval reacquisition variable interval
spontaneous recovery stimulus discrimination positive & negative punishment stimulus generalization Other types of learning besides biological preparedness conditioning taste aversion (Garcia & Koelling study) latent learning systematic desensitization insight learning social/observational learning (modeling) mirror neurons Unit 6 Review Topics Important People to Know Ivan Pavlov John Watson Edward Thorndike BF Skinner Wolfgang Kohler Albert Bandura Robert Rescorla Unit 7 Review Topics
Terms/Ideas Terms/Ideas, cont. Memory Memory, cont. 3 steps to forming a memory (encoding, storage, retrieval) retrograde & anterograde Atkinson & Shiffring (1968): 3 Stage Model amnesia of Memory long-term potentiation sensory memory short-term (working) flashbulb memories memory long-term memory memory interference rehearsal (proactive & retroactive) chunking repression levels/depth of processing primacy & recency effects mnemonic devices types of memories explicit vs. implicit episodic, semantic, procedural Unit 7 Review Topics
Terms/Ideas Thinking linguistic relativity (Whorf) algorithms vs. heuristics heuristics: availability, representativeness, anchor & adjust confirmation bias Language phonemes, morphemes grammar (syntax, semantics) Brocas aphasia, Wernickes aphasia Important People to Know Hermann Ebbinghaus Elizabeth Loftus Benjamin Whorf Noam Chomsky Unit 8 Review Topics Emotion
Terms/Ideas Motivation drive-reduction theory law of optimal arousal (aka. Yerkes-Dodson Law) Maslows hierarchy of needs basic emotions catharsis 3 important theories of emotion 1. James-Lange 2. Cannon-Bard 3. two-factor theory (Schacter & Singer) polygraph tests effects of stress self-actualization hunger (lateral & ventromedial hypothalamus) anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa evolutionary perspective on mating habits flow
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Important People to Know Abraham Maslow Paul Ekman Schacter & Singer Hans Selye Unit 9 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Physical/Prenatal Development zygote embryo fetus teratogens Cognitive Development schemas (assimilation & accomodation) Piagets stage model object permanence conservation egocentrism/theory of mind autism
Terms/Ideas, cont. Psychosocial Development attachment styles critical period/imprinting Baumrinds parenting styles Eriksons stage model Moral Development Kohlbergs stage model dementia/Alzheimers Disease Important People to Know Jean Piaget Harry Harlow Mary Ainsworth Konrad Lorenz Lawrence Kohlberg Erik Erikson Unit 10 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Psychoanalytic theory (aka. psychodynamic) the unconscious Ways to access the unconscious:
dreams (manifest vs. latent content) free association hypnosis projective tests id, superego, & ego Freuds stage model of psychosexual development Oedipus complex defense mechanisms: repression, displacement, projection, regression, reaction formation, sublimation Terms/Ideas, cont. Trait approach factor analysis five-factor theory of personality (the Big Five) learned helplessness Important People to Know Sigmund Freud
Anna O. Carl Jung Gordon Allport Alfred Adler Unit 11 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Intelligence general intelligence (g) emotional intelligence convergent vs. divergent thinking (creativity) crystallized vs. fluid intelligence Intelligence testing Intelligence quotient (IQ) famous IQ tests: Binet-Simon Stanford-Binet WAIS/WISC standardization reliability (test-retest; split-half) validity (criterion/predictive)
Terms/Ideas, cont. stereotype threat Important People to Know Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon Lewis Terman Charles Spearman Howard Gardner Robert Sternberg Unit 12 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) 5 axes of the DSM Anxiety Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Panic disorder (PD) Agoraphobia Phobias Social anxiety disorder (SAD) (aka. social phobia) Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Terms/Ideas, cont. Mood disorders Major depressive disorder (MDD) Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Bipolar disorder (BD) Schizophrenia delusions, hallucinations, language disruptions Personality disorders especially borderline (BPD) and antisocial (APD) Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Somatoform disorders Important People to Know David Rosenhan Unit 13 Review Topics
Important People to Know Sigmund Freud Carl Rogers Albert Ellis Unit 14 Review Topics Terms/Ideas Hindsight bias Fundamental attribution error Social roles (Stanford Prison Study) Cognitive dissonance Conformity Informational & normative social influence Obedience to authority Helping behavior Bystander effect, diffusion of responsibility Terror Management Theory Terms/Ideas, cont. Stereotypes, prejudice, & discrimination
Explicit vs. implicit attitudes (IAT) outgroup homogeneity, ingroup favoritism Persuasion Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) persuasion techniques: foot-in-the-door door-in-the-face Attraction & relationships mere exposure effect halo effect Sternbergs triangle theory Group processes social facilitation, social loafing, group polarization, groupthink Unit 14 Review Topics Important People to Know Phil Zimbardo Leon Festinger Solomon Asch Stanley Milgram Robert Sternberg
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